Amino Acids (Journal)

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles.


The international scientific journal Amino Acids publishes contributions from all fields of amino acid and protein research: analysis, separation, synthesis, biosynthesis, cross linking amino acids, racemization/enantiomers, modification of amino acids as phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, glycosylation and nonenzymatic glycosylation, new roles for amino acids in physiology and pathophysiology, biology, amino acid analogues and derivatives, polyamines, radiated amino acids, peptides, stable isotopes and isotopes of amino acids. Applications in medicine, food chemistry, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurochemistry, pharmacology, excitatory amino acids are just some of the topics covered.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. A magazine with similar content (amino acids) is:

 - Journal of Amino Acids (Hindawi).



Amino Acids (Journal) - Abstracts



Melatonin alters amino acid metabolism and inflammatory responses in colitis mice

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract. This study explored the hypothesis that melatonin has beneficial functions in the mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), with a specific focus on the expression of intestinal inflammatory cytokines and the serum levels of amino acids. The results revealed that mice with melatonin supplementation had a reduction in weight loss and disease index induced by DSS treatment. Melatonin stifled the expression of colonic IL-17 in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Melatonin also lowered the serum levels of Asp, Ser, Met, and Leu (p < 0.05), but increased those of Glu and Cys (p < 0.05). Thus, melatonin treatment is promising and may function as a potential adjuvant therapy to alleviate the clinical symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.


Datum: 01.12.2017


A review of the relationship between the gut microbiota and amino acid metabolism

Abstract

New evidence has emerged in recent years to suggest a strong link between the human gut microbiota, its metabolites, and various physiological aspects of hosts along with important pathophysiological dimensions of diseases. The research indicates that the gut microbiota can facilitate metabolite production in two ways: first, the resident species of the gut microbiota use the amino acids produced from food or the host as elements for protein synthesis, and second, conversion or fermentation are used to drive nutrient metabolism. Additionally, the gut microbiota can synthesize several nutritionally essential amino acids de novo, which is a potential regulatory factor in amino acid homeostasis. The primary objective of this review is to summarize the current literature relating to the ways in which microbial amino acids contribute to host amino acid homeostasis.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Human interstitial cellular model in therapeutics of heart valve calcification

Abstract

Calcific aortic valve disease is a common, severe heart condition that is currently with no proven, effective drug treatment and requires a surgical valve replacement or an entire heart explanation. Thus, developing novel, targeted therapeutic approaches becomes a major goal for cardiovascular disease research. To achieve this goal, isolated heart valve interstitial cells could be an advanced model to explore molecular mechanisms and measure drug efficacy. Based on this progress, molecular mechanisms that harbor components of  inflammation and fibrosis coupled with proteins, for example, BMP-2, TLRs, RANKL, Osteoprotegerin, have been proposed. Small molecules or antibodies targeting these proteins have shown promising efficacy for either reversing or slowing down calcification development in vitro. In this review, we summarize these potential therapeutics with some highlights of interstitial cellular models.


Datum: 01.12.2017


l -Glutamine and l -arginine protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection via intestinal innate immunity in mice

Abstract

Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells. ETEC colonized in mouse small intestine, including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and inhibited the mRNA expression of intestinal immune factors, such as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), cryptdin-related sequence 1C (CRS1C), and Reg3γ. We found that dietary Gln or Arg supplementation decreased bacterial colonization and promoted the activation of innate immunity (e.g., the mRNA expression of pIgR, CRS1C, and Reg3γ) in the intestine of ETEC-infected mice. Our results suggest that dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation may inhibit intestinal ETEC infection through intestinal innate immunity.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Alanyl-glutamine but not glycyl-glutamine improved the proliferation of enterocytes as glutamine substitution in vitro

Abstract

The synthetic dipeptides alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) are used as Gln substitution to provide energy source in the gastrointestinal tract due to their high solubility and stability. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Gln, Ala-Gln and Gly-Gln on mitochondrial respiration and protein turnover of enterocytes. Intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) were cultured for 2 days in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s-F12 Ham medium (DMEM-F12) containing 2.5 mM Gln, Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln. Results from 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation and flow cytometry analysis indicated that there were no differences in proliferation between free Gln and Ala-Gln-treated cells, whereas Gly-Gln treatment inhibited the cell growth compared with Gln treatment. Significantly lower mRNA expressions of Sp1 and PepT1 were also observed in Gly-Gln-treated cells than that of Ala-Gln treatment. Ala-Gln treatment increased the basal respiration and ATP production, compared with free Gln and Gly-Gln treatments. There were no differences in protein turnover between free Gln and Ala-Gln-treated cells, but Gly-Gln treatment reduced protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. Ala-Gln treatment stimulated mTOR activation whereas Gly-Gln decreased mTOR phosphorylation and increased the UB protein expression compared with free Gln treatment. These results indicate that Ala-Gln has the very similar functional profile to free Gln in porcine enterocytes in vitro and can be substituted Gln as energy and protein sources in the gastrointestinal tract.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Short-term supplementation of isocaloric meals with l -tryptophan affects pig growth

Abstract

l-Tryptophan (Trp) and some of its metabolites regulate the circadian rhythm in mammals. We aimed to investigate the effects of short-term supplementation of Trp in isocaloric meals on growth performance using the parameters of multiple blood biomarkers and free amino acids in growing pigs. A total of 32 Landrace × Yorkshire barrows with a mean body weight of 8.64 (±1.13) kg were randomly assigned to four groups and then fed with various concentrations of Trp diets daily. Our results showed that sequential supplementation of different concentrations of Trp in isocaloric meals decreased the feed:gain (F:G) ratio (P = 0.079) and plasma urea and albumin (P = 0.019), whereas the level of total protein did not. Among the essential and conditionally essential amino acids, the concentrations of histidine, isoleucine, proline, threonine, arginine, and valine in the plasma decreased (P < 0.05), whereas the concentrations of Trp, glycine, serine, and methionine increased (P < 0.01). In addition, concentrations of branched chain amino acids also significantly decreased (P = 0.004), while the rate of conversion of Trp to branched chain amino acids increased (P < 0.001). Taken together, we show that administration of a high concentration of Trp in breakfast with decreasing concentrations of Trp in lunch and dinner positively affected feed utilization and improved feed efficiency, at least in part, through the optimization of amino acid interconversions and nitrogen utilization.


Datum: 01.12.2017


The role of methionine on metabolism, oxidative stress, and diseases

Abstract

Methionine is an aliphatic, sulfur-containing, essential amino acid, and a precursor of succinyl-CoA, homocysteine, cysteine, creatine, and carnitine. Recent research has demonstrated that methionine can regulate metabolic processes, the innate immune system, and digestive functioning in mammals. It also intervenes in lipid metabolism, activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as methionine sulfoxide reductase A, and the biosynthesis of glutathione to counteract oxidative stress. In addition, methionine restriction prevents altered methionine/transmethylation metabolism, thereby decreasing DNA damage and carcinogenic processes and possibly preventing arterial, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on the role of methionine in metabolism, oxidative stress, and related diseases.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Zebrafish as a model to evaluate peptide-related cancer therapies

Abstract

Peptide-derived drug discovery has experienced a remarkable resurgence in the past decade since the failure of small-molecule modulators to effectively access the large binding surfaces of intracellular protein–protein interactions as well as “undruggable” residues of certain disease-driving proteins. However, the effectiveness of peptide-based cancer therapies is being questioned in light of declines in pharmaceutical R&D efficiency. As a model of whole organism, zebrafish provide a means to develop promising peptide and protein anticancer agents in an informative, cost-effective and time-efficient manner, which also allows for surveying mechanisms of drug action and optimization of drug delivery system. This review highlights the achievements and potential of zebrafish for modelling human cancer and for peptide-based drug discovery and development. Specific challenges, possible strategies and future prospects are also discussed.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Controlled release of BSA-linked cisplatin through a PepGel self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold

Abstract

Previously, it has been reported that a novel PepGel (h9e peptide) can be triggered into a solid physical hydrogel by the addition of selected ions and proteins for various biomedical applications. Moreover, PepGel displays shear-thinning and repeatedly reversible sol–gel transfer properties that enable it to be easily transferred via an injector. In this study, PepGel is proposed as a carrier for controlled releases of bovine serum albumin (BSA)-bound or -linked drugs. BSA-linked cisplatin (BSA–CP) is used as a model drug in this study and plays two roles: as a trigger of hydrogel and as a target drug for controlled release. Results of fluorescence instrument show that PepGel significantly quenches the fluorescence of Trp in the hydrophobic subdomain of BSA, indicating a strong interaction. Images of TEM and fluorescence confocal microscopy indicate that BSA–CP is dispersed in the PepGel fibers and at the same time enhances the fiber aggregation. Through UV instrument, it is found that PepGel can effectively inhibit the diffusion of BSA–CP even at concentrations below 0.3 wt% and that the rate of BSA–CP release could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of PepGel. Cell culture studies on the performance of the PepGel are carried out using HeLa cells, and the cell viability is observed to be consistent with the data of drug release. The results showed that PepGel nanofiber scaffolds could potentially be used as an effective carrier for controlled releases of BSA-bound or -linked drugs.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Amino acids are major energy substrates for tissues of hybrid striped bass and zebrafish

Abstract

Fish generally have much higher requirements for dietary protein than mammals, and this long-standing puzzle remains unsolved. The present study was conducted with zebrafish (omnivores) and hybrid striped bass (HSB, carnivores) to test the hypothesis that AAs are oxidized at a higher rate than carbohydrates (e.g., glucose) and fatty acids (e.g., palmitate) to provide ATP for their tissues. Liver, proximal intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle isolated from zebrafish and HSB were incubated at 28.5 °C (zebrafish) or 26 °C (HSB) for 2 h in oxygenated Krebs–Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4, with 5 mM d-glucose) containing 2 mM l-[U-14C]glutamine, l-[U-14C]glutamate, l-[U-14C]leucine, or l-[U-14C]palmitate, or a trace amount of d-[U-14C]glucose. In parallel experiments, tissues were incubated with a tracer and  a mixture of unlabeled substrates [glutamine, glutamate, leucine, and palmitate (2 mM each) plus 5 mM d-glucose]. 14CO2 was collected to calculate the rates of substrate oxidation. In the presence of glucose or a mixture of substrates, the rates of oxidation of glutamate and ATP production from this AA by the proximal intestine, liver, and kidney of HSB   were much higher than those for glucose and palmitate. This was also true for glutamate in the skeletal muscle and glutamine in the liver of both species, glutamine in the HSB kidney, and leucine in the zebrafish muscle, in the presence of a mixture of substrates. We conclude that glutamate plus glutamine plus leucine contribute to ~80% of ATP production in the liver, proximal intestine, kidney, and skeletal muscle of zebrafish and HSB. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that the major tissues of fish use AAs (mainly glutamate and glutamine) as primary energy sources instead of carbohydrates or lipids.


Datum: 01.12.2017


N -Acetylcysteine improves intestinal function in lipopolysaccharides-challenged piglets through multiple signaling pathways

Abstract

This study determined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could improve intestinal function through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two piglets (24-day-old) were randomly allocated to one of four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment and one piglet per replicate. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two diets (supplemented with 0 or 500 mg NAC/kg diet) and saline or LPS administration. On day 20 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and LPS + NAC groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (saline) or 100 μg LPS/kg BW. Blood samples were obtained at 3 h and intestinal mucosae were collected at 6 h post LPS or saline injection. The growth performance was not affected by dietary NAC. LPS induced intestinal dysfunction, as indicated by: (1) reductions in the small-intestinal glutathione concentrations and plasma d-xylose levels; (2) elevations in plasma diamine oxidase activity, mucosal MMP3 mRNA levels and caspase-3 protein abundance; (3) reduced the activities of the small-intestinal mucosal maltase, sucrase and lactase. The adverse effects of LPS on porcine intestinal function and redox status were mitigated by NAC supplementation through the activation of multiple signaling pathways involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR, EGFR, TLR4/NF-κB, AMPK, and type I IFN. Our findings provide novel mechanisms for beneficial effects of NAC in protecting the intestine from inflammation in animals.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Pig models on intestinal development and therapeutics

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize key attributes of the piglet model with which to study human intestinal development and intestinal health through probing into the etiology of several gastrointestinal diseases, thus providing a theoretical and hopefully practical, basis for further studies on mammalian nutrition, health, and disease, and therapeutics. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young piglets and humans, the piglet has been used as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Because of similarities in anatomy and physiology between pigs and mankind, more emphasises are put on how to use the piglet model for human organ transplantation research.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Metabolite signatures of doxorubicin induced toxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

Abstract

Drug-induced off-target cardiotoxicity, particularly following anti-cancer therapy, is a major concern in new drug discovery and development. To ensure patient safety and efficient pharmaceutical drug development, there is an urgent need to develop more predictive cell model systems and distinct toxicity signatures. In this study, we applied our previously proposed repeated exposure toxicity methodology and performed 1H NMR spectroscopy-based extracellular metabolic profiling in culture medium of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) exposed to doxorubicin (DOX), an anti-cancer agent. Single exposure to DOX did not show alteration in the basal level of extracellular metabolites while repeated exposure to DOX caused reduction in the utilization of pyruvate and acetate, and accumulation of formate compared to control culture medium. During drug washout, only pyruvate showed reversible effect and restored its utilization by hiPSC-CMs. On the other hand, formate and acetate showed irreversible effect in response to DOX exposure. DOX repeated exposure increased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture medium suggesting cytotoxicity events, while declined ATP levels in hiPSC-CMs. Our data suggests DOX perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in hiPSC-CMs. Pyruvate, acetate and formate can be used as metabolite signatures of DOX induced cardiotoxicity. Moreover, the hiPSC-CMs model system coupled with metabolomics technology offers a novel and powerful approach to strengthen cardiac safety assessment during new drug discovery and development.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Functions of pregnane X receptor in self-detoxification

Abstract

Pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a crucial regulator of nutrient metabolism and metabolic detoxification such as metabolic syndrome, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory responses, glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism, and endocrine homeostasis. Notably, much experimental and clinical evidence show that PXR senses xenobiotics and triggers the detoxification response to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, intestinal inflammatory diseases and liver fibrosis. In this review we summarize recent advances on remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility of PXR, and we emphasizes its role and potential implication as an effective modulator of self-detoxification in animals and humans.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Metabolism and distribution of pharmacological homoarginine in plasma and main organs of the anesthetized rat

Abstract

l-Homoarginine (hArg) and guanidinoacetate (GAA) are produced from l-arginine (Arg) by the catalytic action of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase methylates GAA on its non-guanidine N atom to produce creatine. Arg and hArg are converted by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to nitric oxide (NO). NO is oxidized to nitrite and nitrate which circulate in the blood and are excreted in the urine. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an NOS inhibitor, is widely accepted to be exclusively produced after asymmetric N G-methylation of Arg residues in proteins and their regular proteolysis. Low circulating and urinary hArg concentrations and high circulating concentrations of ADMA emerged as risk markers in the human renal and cardiovascular systems. While ADMA’s distribution and metabolism are thoroughly investigated, such studies on hArg are sparse. The aim of the present pilot study was to investigate the distribution of exogenous hArg in plasma, liver, kidney, lung, and heart in a rat model of takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). hArg hydrochloride solutions in physiological saline were injected intra-peritoneally at potentially pharmacological, non-toxic doses of 20, 220, or 440 mg/kg body weight. Vehicle (saline) served as control. As hArg has been reported to be a pro-oxidant, plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. hArg administration resulted in dose-dependent maximum plasma hArg concentrations and distribution in all investigated organs. hArg disappeared from plasma with an elimination half-life ranging between 20 and 40 min. hArg administration resulted in relatively small changes in the plasma and tissue content of Arg, GAA, ADMA, creatinine, and of the NO metabolites nitrite and nitrate. Remarkable changes were observed for tissue GAA, notably in the kidney. Plasma and tissue MDA concentration did not change upon hArg administration, suggesting that even high-dosed hArg is not an oxidant. The lowest hArg dose of 20 mg/kg bodyweight increased 25-fold the mean hArg maximum plasma concentration. This hArg dose seems to be useful as the upper limit in forthcoming studies on the putative cardioprotective effects of hArg in our rat model of TTC.


Datum: 01.12.2017


N -Acetylcysteine supplementation alleviates intestinal injury in piglets infected by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects the intestine of young pigs, but effective measures for prevention and treatment are lacking. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to reduce endotoxin-induced intestinal dysfunction. This study was conducted with the PEDV-infected neonatal piglet model to determine the effect of NAC supplementation on intestinal function. Thirty-two 7-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design consisting of two liquid diets (0 or 50 mg/kg BW NAC supplementation) and oral administration of 0 or 104.5 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) PEDV. On day 7 of the trial, half of the pigs (n = 8) in each dietary treatment received either sterile saline or PEDV (Yunnan province strain) solution at 104.5 TCID50 per pig. On day 10 of the trial, d-xylose (0.1 g/kg BW) was orally administrated to all pigs. One hour later, jugular vein blood samples were collected, and then all pigs were killed to obtain the small intestine. PEDV infection increased diarrhea incidence, while reducing ADG. PEDV infection also decreased plasma d-xylose concentration, small intestinal villus height, mucosal I-FABP and villin mRNA levels but increased mucosal MX1 and GCNT3 mRNA levels (P < 0.05). Dietary NAC supplementation ameliorated the PEDV-induced abnormal changes in all the measured variables. Moreover, NAC reduced oxidative stress, as indicated by decreases in plasma and mucosal H2O2 levels. Collectively, these novel results indicate that dietary supplementation with NAC alleviates intestinal mucosal damage and improves the absorptive function of the small intestine in PEDV-infected piglets.


Datum: 01.12.2017


The effect of aspartate supplementation on the microbial composition and innate immunity on mice

Abstract

The study was conducted to investigate the changes of intestinal microbiota composition and innate immunity with different dietary dosages of aspartate (Asp) supplementation. Thirty-six female ICR mice were divided randomly to four groups and thereafter fed the basal diets (controls) or those supplemented with additional 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% aspartate. After 2 week feeding, microbial composition in ileum and feces, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine, and innate immune factors in ileum were determined. The ratio of Firmicutes: Bacteroidetes in ileum and feces decreased in 0.5 and 1.0% Asp-supplemented groups, whereas this ratio increased in feces in 2.0% Asp-supplemented group. Meanwhile, the gene expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ in ileum decreased in 1.0% Asp-supplemented group; the gene expression in ileum of Muc2 decreased in 0.5 and 1.0% Asp-supplemented groups. Dietary supplementation with 2.0% Asp enhanced the expression of pIgR and Crp1 as compared to the other three groups. The results indicated that dietary 1.0% Asp supplementation lowers the ratio of Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes, which affects the innate immunity by decreasing the gene expression of IL-17, IFN-γ, and Muc2 in ileum.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Relevance of autophagy to fatty liver diseases and potential therapeutic applications

Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosome-mediated cellular degradation program. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is important to the maintenance of liver homeostasis. Autophagy involves recycling of cellular nutrients recycling as well as quality control of subcellular organelles. Autophagy deficiency in the liver causes various liver pathologies. Fatty liver disease (FLD) is characterized by the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes and the dysfunction in energy metabolism. Autophagy is negatively affected by the pathogenesis of FLD and the activation of autophagy could ameliorate steatosis, which suggests a potential therapeutic approach to FLD. In this review, we will discuss autophagy and its relevance to liver diseases, especially FLD. In addition, we will discuss recent findings on potential therapeutic applications of autophagy modulators for FLD.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Escherichia coli aggravates endoplasmic reticulum stress and triggers CHOP-dependent apoptosis in weaned pigs

Abstract

Intestinal cells can sense the presence of pathogens and trigger many important signaling pathways to maintain tissue homeostasis and normal function. Escherichia coli and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main pathogenic factors of intestinal disease in pigs. However, the roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and its mediated apoptosis in intestinal malfunction induced by E. coli or LPS remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether ERS could be activated by E. coli fed to piglets and whether the underlying mechanisms of this disease process could be exploited. Eighteen weaned pigs (21 days old) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (n = 9 per group). After pre-feeding for 1 week, the diets of the piglets in one group were supplemented with E. coli (W25 K, 109 cells kg−1 diet) for 7 days. At the end of the experiment, all piglets were slaughtered to collect jejunum and ileum samples. Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments were used to determine the expression levels and histological locations of ERS and its downstream signaling proteins. The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) was used as in vitro model to investigate the possible mechanism. The results showed that E. coli supplementation in the diet increased the GRP78 expression in the jejunum and ileum, especially in the jejunal epithelium and ileac germinal center, and elevated the expression levels of CHOP (in both the jejunum and ileum) and caspase-11 (in the ileum), indicating that ERS and CHOP–caspase-11 dependent apoptosis were activated in the porcine small intestine. Moreover, as demonstrated by in vitro experiments, the CHOP inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate alleviated the damage to IPEC-J2 cells induced by LPS derived from E. coli. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that ERS can be triggered in the small intestine by dietary supplementation with E. coli and that CHOP–caspase-11 dependent apoptosis may play a key role in maintaining normal homeostasis of the intestine in response to pathogenic factors.


Datum: 01.12.2017


Classification of G-protein coupled receptors based on a rich generation of convolutional neural network, N-gram transformation and multiple sequence alignments

Abstract

Sequence classification is crucial in predicting the function of newly discovered sequences. In recent years, the prediction of the incremental large-scale and diversity of sequences has heavily relied on the involvement of machine-learning algorithms. To improve prediction accuracy, these algorithms must confront the key challenge of extracting valuable features. In this work, we propose a feature-enhanced protein classification approach, considering the rich generation of multiple sequence alignment algorithms, N-gram probabilistic language model and the deep learning technique. The essence behind the proposed method is that if each group of sequences can be represented by one feature sequence, composed of homologous sites, there should be less loss when the sequence is rebuilt, when a more relevant sequence is added to the group. On the basis of this consideration, the prediction becomes whether a query sequence belonging to a group of sequences can be transferred to calculate the probability that the new feature sequence evolves from the original one. The proposed work focuses on the hierarchical classification of G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), which begins by extracting the feature sequences from the multiple sequence alignment results of the GPCRs sub-subfamilies. The N-gram model is then applied to construct the input vectors. Finally, these vectors are imported into a convolutional neural network to make a prediction. The experimental results elucidate that the proposed method provides significant performance improvements. The classification error rate of the proposed method is reduced by at least 4.67% (family level I) and 5.75% (family Level II), in comparison with the current state-of-the-art methods. The implementation program of the proposed work is freely available at: https://github.com/alanFchina/CNN.


Datum: 18.11.2017






Information about this site:

Last update: 27.01.2016

The author- or copyrights of the listed Internet pages are held by the respective authors or site operators, who are also responsible for the content of the presentations.

To see your page listed here: Send us an eMail! Condition: Subject-related content on chemistry, biochemistry and comparable academic disciplines!

Topic: Current, research, scientific, amino, acids, journal, chronological, list, recent, articles.








(C) 1996 - 2017 Internetchemistry










Current Chemistry Job Vacancies:

[more job vacancies]