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Biogeochemistry

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..




The international scientific journal Biogeochemistry publishes original papers and occasional reviews dealing with biotic controls on the chemistry of the environment, or with the geochemical control of the structure and function of ecosystems.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. General information about this topic see biogeochemistry.



Biogeochemistry - Abstracts



Amino acid δ 15 N indicates lack of N isotope fractionation during soil organic nitrogen decomposition

Abstract

The interpretation of natural abundance δ15N in soil profiles and across ecosystems is confounded by a lack of understanding of possible N isotope fractionation associated with soil organic nitrogen (SON) decomposition. We analyzed the δ15N of hydrolysable amino acids to test the extent of fractionation associated with the depolymerization of peptides to amino acids and the mineralization of amino acids to NH4+ (ammonification). Most amino acids are both synthesized and degraded by microbes, complicating interpretation of their δ15N. However, the “source” amino acids phenylalanine and hydroxyproline are degraded and recycled but not resynthesized. We therefore used their δ15N to isolate the effects of N isotope fractionation during SON depolymerization and ammonification. We used complementary field and laboratory approaches to evaluate the change in amino acid δ15N during decomposition. First, we measured amino acid δ15N changes with depth in the organic horizons of podzolic soils collected from the Newfoundland and Labrador Boreal Ecosystem Latitudinal Transect (NL-BELT), Canada. The δ15N of most amino acids increased with depth by 3–7‰, similar to the increase in bulk δ15N. However, the δ15N of the “source” amino acids did not change with depth, indicating lack of N isotope fractionation during their depolymerization and ammonification. Second, we assessed the change in amino acid δ15N following 400 days of laboratory incubation. This approach isolated the effect of decomposition on δ15N by eliminating plant N uptake and reducing leaching of N from the soil. Amino acid δ15N did not change during incubation despite extensive turnover of the amino acid pool, supporting our conclusion of a lack of N isotope fractionation during SON decomposition. Our results indicate the often-observed trend of increasing δ15N with soil depth likely results from the mycorrhizally-mediated transfer of 14N from depth to the surface and accumulation of 15N-enriched necromass of diverse soil microbes at depth, rather than as a direct result of SON decomposition.


Datum: 16.02.2018


In the path of the Hurricane: impact of Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee on watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry from North Carolina to Maine, USA

Abstract

Although many climate predictions suggest that the frequency and intensity of large storm events might increase in the coming decades, few studies document the full impact of such events along their path. Here, we synthesize information on the impact of Hurricane Irene (formed August 21 2011) and Tropical Storm Lee (formed August 30, 2011) on erosion and sediment transport, lake metabolism, riparian hydrology and biogeochemistry, and stream water quality, from North Carolina to Maine. In almost all cases, these storms generated unprecedented changes in water quality (concentrations, loads), from tenfold increases in DOC and 100-fold increases in POC in Maryland, to 100-fold increases in TSS concentrations in Pennsylvania. Overbank flooding and up to 200-year streamflow events were recorded in New York and Vermont. In many cases, particulate loads (e.g. POC, PP, TSS) occurring during Irene and Lee represented more than 30% of the annual load. The dominance of particulate exports over solutes during Irene and Lee is consistent with the mobilization of normally immobile sediment pools, and massive erosion as reported at many locations across the Northeastern US. Several studies reported long lasting (> 1 year) effects of Irene and Lee on cyanobacterial blooms, erosion, or stream suspended sediment concentrations. However, this review also highlighted the lack of a consistent strategy in terms of methods, and measured water quality parameters. This strongly hinders our ability to fully assess the large-scale impact of such events on our environment, and ultimately their impact on our economy and society.


Datum: 02.02.2018


Beyond clay: towards an improved set of variables for predicting soil organic matter content

Abstract

Improved quantification of the factors controlling soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization at continental to global scales is needed to inform projections of the largest actively cycling terrestrial carbon pool on Earth, and its response to environmental change. Biogeochemical models rely almost exclusively on clay content to modify rates of SOM turnover and fluxes of climate-active CO2 to the atmosphere. Emerging conceptual understanding, however, suggests other soil physicochemical properties may predict SOM stabilization better than clay content. We addressed this discrepancy by synthesizing data from over 5,500 soil profiles spanning continental scale environmental gradients. Here, we demonstrate that other physicochemical parameters are much stronger predictors of SOM content, with clay content having relatively little explanatory power. We show that exchangeable calcium strongly predicted SOM content in water-limited, alkaline soils, whereas with increasing moisture availability and acidity, iron- and aluminum-oxyhydroxides emerged as better predictors, demonstrating that the relative importance of SOM stabilization mechanisms scales with climate and acidity. These results highlight the urgent need to modify biogeochemical models to better reflect the role of soil physicochemical properties in SOM cycling.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Faster redox fluctuations can lead to higher iron reduction rates in humid forest soils

Abstract

Iron (Fe) minerals play an important role in carbon (C) and nutrient dynamics in redox fluctuating soils. We explored how the frequency of redox oscillations influence Fe reduction rates and C content in Puerto Rican soils. We hypothesized that iron reduction rates would be faster during short oscillation periods than in longer oscillation periods. Surface soils from an upland valley in a humid tropical forest were exposed to systematic redox oscillations over 49 days. The oxidation events were triggered by the introduction of air (21% O2), maintaining the time ratio under oxic or anoxic conditions at 1:6 (τoxanox). After pre-conditioning the soil to fluctuating redox conditions for 1 month, we imposed 280- and 70-h (or 11.67- and 2.5-day) redox oscillations, measuring FeII every few days. We found that by the end of the experiment, Fe reduction rates were higher in the short oscillation period (τox = 10 h, τanox = 60 h) than in the long oscillation period (τox = 40 h, τanox = 240 h). Carbon and nitrogen loss however was similar for both treatments. These results suggest the characteristics of redox fluctuations can alter rates of Fe reduction and potentially influence ecosystem processes that depend on iron behavior.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Growing season warming and winter freeze–thaw cycles reduce root nitrogen uptake capacity and increase soil solution nitrogen in a northern forest ecosystem

Abstract

Northern forest ecosystems are projected to experience warmer growing seasons and increased soil freeze–thaw cycles in winter over the next century. Past studies show that warmer soils in the growing season enhance nitrogen uptake by plants, while soil freezing in winter reduces plant uptake and ecosystem retention of nitrogen, yet the combined effects of these changes on plant root capacity to take up nitrogen are unknown. We conducted a 2-year (2014–2015) experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA to characterize the response of root damage, nitrogen uptake capacity, and soil solution nitrogen to growing season warming combined with soil freeze–thaw cycles in winter. Winter freeze–thaw cycles damaged roots, reduced nitrogen uptake capacity by 42%, and increased soil solution ammonium in the early growing season (May–June). During the peak growing season (July), root nitrogen uptake capacity was reduced 40% by warming alone and 49% by warming combined with freeze–thaw cycles. These results indicate the projected combination of colder soils in winter and warmer soils in the snow-free season will alter root function by reducing root nitrogen uptake capacity and lead to transient increases of nitrogen in soil solution during the early growing season, with the potential to alter root competition for soil nitrogen and seasonal patterns of soil nitrogen availability. We conclude that considering interactive effects of changes in climate during winter and the snow-free season is essential for accurate determination of the response of nitrogen cycling in the northern hardwood forest to climate change.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Methane fluxes from tree stems and soils along a habitat gradient

Abstract

Forests are major sources of terrestrial CH4 and CO2 fluxes but not all surfaces within forests have been measured and accounted for. Stem respiration is a well-known source of CO2, but more recently tree stems have been shown to be sources of CH4 in wetlands and upland habitats. A study transect was established along a natural moisture gradient, with one end anchored in a forested wetland, the other in an upland forest and a transitional zone at the midpoint. Stem and soil fluxes of CH4 and CO2 were measured using static chambers during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons, from May to October. Mean stem CH4 emissions were 68.8 ± 13.0 (mean ± standard error), 180.7 ± 55.2 and 567.9 ± 174.5 µg m−2 h−1 for the upland, transitional and wetland habitats, respectively. Mean soil methane fluxes in the upland, transitional and wetland were − 64.8 ± 6.2, 7.4 ± 25.0 and 190.0 ± 123.0 µg m−2 h−1, respectively. Measureable CH4 fluxes from tree stems were not always observed, but every individual tree in our experiment released measureable CH4 flux at some point during the study period. These results indicate that tree stems represent overlooked sources of CH4 in forested habitats and warrant investigation to further refine CH4 budgets and inventories.


Datum: 01.02.2018


High rates of methane oxidation in an Amazon floodplain lake

Abstract

Methane (CH4) oxidation may consume large amounts of dissolved CH4 in lakes and wetlands. Here, we estimated CH4 oxidation rates in an Amazonian floodplain lake during periods representative of the annual variations in water level, using incubations and measurements of δ13C-CH4. A large fraction of the CH4 produced was oxidized (from 34 to ~ 100%, average = 80%), with volumetric CH4 oxidation rates ranging from 1 to 132 mg C m−3 d−1. Heavier values of δ13C-CH4 in surface waters when compared to bottom waters and sediment bubbles corroborates the high CH4 oxidation rates observed. The depth-integrated oxidation rates were of the same magnitude as the calculate CH4 evasion to the atmosphere, which indicates that methane oxidation is an important sink of CH4 and is likely to be important in the many similar lakes encountered in the Amazon River basin.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Freeze-thaw cycles of Arctic thaw ponds remove colloidal metals and generate low-molecular-weight organic matter

Abstract

High-latitude boreal and arctic surface/inland waters contain sizeable reservoirs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and trace elements (TE), which are subject to seasonal freezing. Specifically, shallow ponds and lakes in the permafrost zone often freeze solid, which can lead to transformations in the colloidal and dissolved fractions of DOM and TE. Here, we present results from experimental freeze-thaw cycles using iron (Fe)- and DOM-rich water from thaw ponds situated in Stordalen and Storflaket palsa mires in northern Sweden. After ten cycles of freezing, 85% of Fe and 25% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were removed from solution in circumneutral fen water (pH 6.9) but a much smaller removal of Fe and DOC (< 7%) was found in acidic bog water (pH 3.6). This removal pattern was consistent with initial supersaturation of fen water with respect to Fe hydroxide and a lack of supersaturation with any secondary mineral phase in the bog water. There was a nearly two- to threefold increase in the low-molecular-weight (LMW) fraction of organic carbon (OC) and several TEs caused by the repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Future increases in the freeze-thaw frequency of surface waters with climate warming may remove up to 25% of DOC in circumneutral organic-rich waters. Furthermore, an increase of LMW OC may result in enhanced carbon dioxide losses from aquatic ecosystems since this fraction is potentially more susceptible to biodegradation.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Incorporation of shoot versus root-derived 13 C and 15 N into mineral-associated organic matter fractions: results of a soil slurry incubation with dual-labelled plant material

Abstract

Mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) is a key component of the global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, but the processes controlling its formation from plant litter are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that more MAOM will form from higher quality litters (e.g., those with lower C/N ratios and lower lignocellulose indices), than lower quality litters. Shoots and roots of the same non-woody plant can provide good examples of high and low quality litters, respectively, yet previous work tends to show a majority of soil organic matter is root-derived. We investigated the effect of litter quality on MAOM formation from shoots versus roots using a litter-soil slurry incubation of isotopically labeled (13C and 15N) shoots or roots of Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) with isolated silt or clay soil fractions. The slurry method minimized the influence of soil structure and maximized contact between plant material and soil. We tracked the contribution of shoot- and root-derived C and N to newly formed MAOM over 60 days. We found that shoots contributed more C and N to MAOM than roots. The formation of shoot-derived MAOM was also more efficient, meaning that less CO2 was respired per unit MAOM formed. We suggest that these results are driven by initial differences in litter chemistry between the shoot and root material, while results of studies showing a majority of soil organic matter is root-derived may be driven by alternate mechanisms, such as proximity of roots to mineral surfaces, greater contribution of roots to aggregate formation, and root exudation. Across all treatments, newly formed MAOM had a low C/N ratio compared to the parent plant material, which supports the idea that microbial processing of litter is a key pathway of MAOM formation.


Datum: 01.02.2018


Denitrification under lake ice

Abstract

Many lakes, ponds and reservoirs are subject to long and changing periods of ice cover. However, limited winter research has created key knowledge gaps. How does nitrogen cycling change under ice? And what does changing ice cover duration mean for water quality? Here we present the first measurements of denitrification rates under ice in temperate, polymictic waterbodies. Surprisingly, despite lower winter temperatures, winter and summer rates of denitrification did not differ. Experimental work suggests that denitrification rates are controlled hierarchically, first by nitrate concentrations, then by temperature. As a result, controls on nitrate inputs such as changing hydrology and nitrification, combined with physical controls on delivery of nitrate to sediments, may be more important to nitrate retention via denitrification than the duration of low temperature or ice cover. Nitrous oxide was typically supersaturated under-ice, suggesting an ice-out flux will occur, and this flux may be greatest in systems with elevated nitrate.


Datum: 01.02.2018


The Millennial model: in search of measurable pools and transformations for modeling soil carbon in the new century

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) can be defined by measurable chemical and physical pools, such as mineral-associated carbon, carbon physically entrapped in aggregates, dissolved carbon, and fragments of plant detritus. Yet, most soil models use conceptual rather than measurable SOC pools. What would the traditional pool-based soil model look like if it were built today, reflecting the latest understanding of biological, chemical, and physical transformations in soils? We propose a conceptual model—the Millennial model—that defines pools as measurable entities. First, we discuss relevant pool definitions conceptually and in terms of the measurements that can be used to quantify pool size, formation, and destabilization. Then, we develop a numerical model following the Millennial model conceptual framework to evaluate against the Century model, a widely-used standard for estimating SOC stocks across space and through time. The Millennial model predicts qualitatively similar changes in total SOC in response to single factor perturbations when compared to Century, but different responses to multiple factor perturbations. We review important conceptual and behavioral differences between the Millennial and Century modeling approaches, and the field and lab measurements needed to constrain parameter values. We propose the Millennial model as a simple but comprehensive framework to model SOC pools and guide measurements for further model development.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Denitrification in a meromictic lake and its relevance to nitrogen flows within a moderately impacted forested catchment

Abstract

We analysed the spatial and temporal variability of benthic nitrogen fluxes and denitrification rates in a sub-alpine meromictic lake (Lake Idro, Italy), and compared in-lake nitrogen retention and loss with the net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to the watershed. We hypothesized a low nitrogen retention and denitrification capacity due to meromixis. This results from nitrate supply from the epilimnion slowing down during stratification and oxygen deficiency inhibiting nitrification and promoting ammonium recycling and its accumulation. We also hypothesized a steep vertical gradient of sedimentary denitrification capacity, decreasing with depth and oxygen deficiency. These are important and understudied issues in inland waters, as climate change and direct anthropic pressures may increase the extent of meromixis. Nearshore sediments had high denitrification rates (87 mg m−2 day−1) and efficiency (~ 100%), while in the monimolimnion denitrification was negligible. The littoral zone, covering 10% of the lake surface, contributed ~50% of total denitrification, while the monimolimnion, which covered 70% of the sediment surface, contributed to < 13% of total denitrification. The persistent and expanding meromixis of Lake Idro is expected to further decrease its nitrogen removal capacity (31% of the incoming nitrogen load) compared to what has been measured in other temperate lakes. Values up to 60% are generally reported for other such lakes. Results of this study are relevant as the combination of anthropogenic pressures, climate change and meromixis may threaten the nitrogen processing capacity of lakes.


Datum: 01.01.2018


2017 Outstanding Reviewers


Datum: 01.01.2018


Calcium-mediated stabilisation of soil organic carbon

Abstract

Soils play an essential role in the global cycling of carbon and understanding the stabilisation mechanisms behind the preservation of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools is of globally recognised significance. Until recently, research into SOC stabilisation has predominantly focused on acidic soil environments and the interactions between SOC and aluminium (Al) or iron (Fe). The interactions between SOC and calcium (Ca) have typically received less attention, with fewer studies conducted in alkaline soils. Although it has widely been established that exchangeable Ca (CaExch) positively correlates with SOC concentration and its resistance to oxidation, the exact mechanisms behind this relationship remain largely unidentified. This synthesis paper critically assesses available evidence on the potential role of Ca in the stabilisation of SOC and identifies research topics that warrant further investigation. Contrary to the common view of the chemistry of base cations in soils, chemical modelling indicates that Ca2+ can readily exchange its hydration shell and create inner sphere complexes with organic functional groups. This review therefore argues that both inner- and outer-sphere bridging by Ca2+ can play an active role in the stabilisation of SOC. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) can influence occluded SOC stability through its role in the stabilisation of aggregates; however, it could also play an unaccounted role in the direct sorption and inclusion of SOC. Finally, this review highlights the importance of pH as a potential predictor of SOC stabilisation mechanisms mediated by Al- or Fe- to Ca, and their respective effects on SOC dynamics.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Threshold responses of soil organic carbon concentration and composition to multi-level nitrogen addition in a temperate needle-broadleaved forest

Abstract

Responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling and C budget in forest ecosystems to elevated nitrogen (N) deposition are divergent. Little is known about the N critical loads for the shift between gain and loss of SOC storage in the old-growth temperate forest of Northeast China. The objective of this study was to investigate the nonlinear responses of SOC concentration and composition to multiple rates of N addition, as well as the microbial mechanisms responsible for SOC alteration under N enrichment. Nine rates of urea addition (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 kg N ha−1 year−1) with 4 replicates for each treatment were conducted. Soil samples in the 0–10 cm mineral layer were taken after 3 years of N fertilization. Soil aggregate size distribution and SOC physical fractionation were performed to examine SOC dynamics. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) technique was used to measure the abundance and structure of microbial community. Three years of N addition led to significant increases in the concentrations of soil particulate organic C and aggregate-associated organic C fractions only. The responses of total N and each labile SOC fraction to the rates of N addition followed Gaussian equations, with the N critical loads being estimated to be between 80 and 100 kg N ha−1 year−1. The change in SOC concentration (ΔSOC) was positively correlated with the changes in aggregate associated OC (r2 > 0.80) and POC concentrations (r2 > 0.50). Significant correlations among the concentrations of labile SOC fractions, the percentages of soil aggregates, and the abundances of microbial PLFAs were observed, which implies a close linkage between microbial community structure and SOC accumulation and stability. Our results suggest that increase in soil moisture and shift of microbial community structure could control the critical N load for the switch between C accumulation and loss. The current N deposition rate (~ 11 kg N ha−1 year−1) to the northeast China’s forests is favorable for soil C accumulation over the short term.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Soil carbon stocks across tropical forests of Panama regulated by base cation effects on fine roots

Abstract

Tropical forests are the most carbon (C)-rich ecosystems on Earth, containing 25–40% of global terrestrial C stocks. While large-scale quantification of aboveground biomass in tropical forests has improved recently, soil C dynamics remain one of the largest sources of uncertainty in Earth system models, which inhibits our ability to predict future climate. Globally, soil texture and climate predict ≤ 30% of the variation in soil C stocks, so ecosystem models often predict soil C using measures of aboveground plant growth. However, this approach can underestimate tropical soil C stocks, and has proven inaccurate when compared with data for soil C in data-rich northern ecosystems. By quantifying soil organic C stocks to 1 m depth for 48 humid tropical forest plots across gradients of rainfall and soil fertility in Panama, we show that soil C does not correlate with common predictors used in models, such as plant biomass or litter production. Instead, a structural equation model including base cations, soil clay content, and rainfall as exogenous factors and root biomass as an endogenous factor predicted nearly 50% of the variation in tropical soil C stocks, indicating a strong indirect effect of base cation availability on tropical soil C storage. Including soil base cations in C cycle models, and thus emphasizing mechanistic links among nutrients, root biomass, and soil C stocks, will improve prediction of climate-soil feedbacks in tropical forests.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Multi-scale temporal variation of methane flux and its controls in a subtropical tidal salt marsh in eastern China

Abstract

CH4 emissions could vary with biotic and abiotic factors at different time scales. However, little is known about temporal dynamics of CH4 flux and its controls in coastal marshes. In this study, CH4 flux was continuously measured with the eddy covariance technique for 2 years in a subtropical salt marsh in eastern China. Wavelet analysis was applied to explore the multi-scale variations of CH4 flux and its controls. Additionally, partial wavelet coherence was used to disentangle confounding effects of measured variables. No consistent diurnal pattern was found in CH4 fluxes. However, the hot-moments of CH4 flux were observed after nighttime high tide on days near the spring tide. Periodic dynamics were also observed at multi-day, semilunar and seasonal scales. Tide height in summer had a negative effect on CH4 flux at the semilunar scale. Air temperature explained most variations in CH4 fluxes at the multi-day scale but CH4 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and GEP at the seasonal scale. Air temperature explained 48% and 56% of annual variations in CH4 fluxes in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In total, the salt marsh acted as a CH4 source (17.6 ± 3.0 g C–CH4 m−2 year−1), which was higher than most studies report for inland wetlands. Our results show that CH4 fluxes exhibit multiple periodicities and its controls vary with time scale; moreover, CH4 flux is strongly modified by tide. This study emphasizes the importance of ecosystem-specific measurements of CH4 fluxes, and more work is needed to estimate regional CH4 budgets.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Evidence for the role and fate of water-insoluble condensed tannins in the short-term reduction of carbon loss during litter decay

Abstract

Warmer temperatures associated with climate change have the potential to accelerate litter decay and subsequently release large amounts of carbon stored in soils. Condensed tannins are widespread secondary metabolites, which accumulate to high concentrations in many woody plants and play key roles in forest soil nutrient cycles. Future elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are predicted to reduce nitrogen content and increase tannin concentrations in plant tissues, thus reducing litter quality for microbial communities and slowing decomposition rates. How the distinct condensed tannin fractions (water-soluble, acetone:MeOH-soluble and solvent-insoluble) impact soil processes, has not been investigated. We tested the impact of condensed tannin and nitrogen concentrations on decay rates of poplar and Douglas-fir litter at sites spanning temperature and moisture gradients in coastal rainshadow forests in British Columbia, Canada. The three condensed tannin fractions were quantified using recent improvements on the butanol-HCl assay. Decay was assessed based on carbon remaining, while changes in litter chemistry were primarily observed using two methods for proximate chemical analyses. After 0.6 and 1 year of decay, more carbon remained in poplar litter with high, compared to low, condensed tannin concentrations. By contrast, more carbon remained in Douglas fir litter than poplar litter during this period, despite lower condensed tannin concentrations. Rapid early decay was especially attributed to loss of soluble compounds, including water-soluble condensed tannins. Water-insoluble condensed tannin fractions, which were transformed to acid-unhydrolyzable residues over time, were associated with reduced carbon loss in high condensed tannin litter.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Nutrient availability as major driver of phytoplankton-derived dissolved organic matter transformation in coastal environment

Abstract

Incubation experiments were performed to examine the processing of fresh autochthonous dissolved organic matter (DOM) produced by coastal plankton communities in spring and autumn. The major driver of observed DOM dynamics was the seasonally variable inorganic nutrient status and characteristics of the initial bulk DOM, whereas the characteristics of the phytoplankton community seemed to have a minor role. Net accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during the 18-days experiments was 3.4 and 9.2 µmol l−1 d−1 in P-limited spring and N-limited autumn, respectively. Bacterial bioassays revealed that the phytoplankton-derived DOC had surprisingly low proportions of biologically labile DOC, 12.6% (spring) and 17.5% (autumn). The optical characteristics of the DOM changed throughout the experiments, demonstrating continuous heterotrophic processing of the DOM pool. However, these temporal changes in optical characteristics of the DOM pool were not the same between seasons, indicating seasonally variable environmental drivers. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability is likely the main driver of these seasonal differences, affecting both phytoplankton extracellular release of DOM and its heterotrophic degradation by bacteria. These findings underline the complexity of the DOM production and consumption by the natural planktonic community, and show the importance of the prevailing environmental conditions regulating the DOM pathways.


Datum: 01.01.2018


Stable calcium isotope speciation and calcium oxalate production within beech tree ( Fagus sylvatica L.) organs

Abstract

In this study, we linked Ca speciation with isotope composition in plants. To do this, we performed leachate experiments to access the soluble Ca, structurally bound Ca and insoluble Ca (i.e., water and weak acid resistant) within beech tree organs (Fagus sylvatica L.). Ca isotopic measurements were combined with infrared spectroscopy and calcium oxalate biomineralization identification. The results from our study indicate that bark and leaves are the most enriched in monohydrated calcium oxalate crystals (whewellite), which are observable in parenchyma and sclerenchyma tissues, whereas roots and wood are enriched in structurally bound Ca. Our leaching experiments also show decreasing δ44/40Ca isotopic signatures in the order of soluble Ca > structurally bound Ca > insoluble Ca. This finding implies that because leaves degrade faster than wooden organs and because Ca linked to pectate decomposes faster than Ca linked to oxalate crystals, differential Ca isotopic signatures are expected to be observed during litter degradation.


Datum: 01.01.2018


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 04.01.2018.






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