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Journal of Biological Chemistry

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..

The international scientific Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC) publishes papers based on original research that are judged to make a novel and important contribution to understanding the molecular and cellular basis of biological processes.

The publisher is the ASBM. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (biological chemistry):

 - Biological Chemistry,

Journal of Biological Chemistry - Abstracts

Phosphorylation of human enhancer filamentation 1 (HEF1) stimulates interaction with Polo-like kinase 1 leading to HEF1 localization to focal adhesions [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Elevated expression of human enhancer filamentation 1 (HEF1; also known as NEDD9 or Cas-L) is an essential stimulus for the metastatic process of various solid tumors. This process requires HEF1 localization to focal adhesions (FAs). Although the association of HEF1 with FAs is considered to play a role in cancer cell migration, the mechanism targeting HEF1 to FAs remains unclear. Moreover, up-regulation of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) positively correlates with human cancer metastasis, yet how Plk1 deregulation promotes metastasis remains elusive. Here, we report that casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ) phosphorylates HEF1 at Ser-780 and Thr-804 and that these phosphorylation events promote a physical interaction between Plk1 and HEF1. We found that this interaction is critical for HEF1 translocation to FAs and for inducing migration of HeLa cells. Plk1-docking phosphoepitopes were mapped/confirmed in HEF1 by various methods, including X-ray crystallography, and mutated for functional analysis in HeLa cells. In summary, our results reveal the role of a phosphorylation-dependent HEF1–Plk1 complex in HEF1 translocation to FAs to induce cell migration. Our findings provide critical mechanistic insights into the HEF1–Plk1 complex–dependent localization of HEF1 to FAs underlying the metastatic process and may therefore contribute to the development of new cancer therapies.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/9e3TF_LbGfY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Molecular characterization of human anti-hinge antibodies derived from single-cell cloning of normal human B cells [Immunology]

Anti-hinge antibodies (AHAs) are an autoantibody subclass that, following proteolytic cleavage, recognize cryptic epitopes exposed in the hinge regions of immunoglobulins (Igs) and do not bind to the intact Ig counterpart. AHAs have been postulated to exacerbate chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, AHAs may protect against invasive microbial pathogens and cancer. However, despite more than 50 years of study, the origin and specific B cell compartments that express AHAs remain elusive. Recent research on serum AHAs suggests that they arise during an active immune response, in contrast to previous proposals that they derive from the preexisting immune repertoire in the absence of antigenic stimuli. We report here the isolation and characterization of AHAs from memory B cells, although anti-hinge–reactive B cells were also detected in the naive B cell compartment. IgG AHAs cloned from a single human donor exhibited restricted specificity for protease-cleaved F(ab′)2 fragments and did not bind the intact IgG counterpart. The cloned IgG-specific AHA-variable regions were mutated from germ line-derived sequences and displayed a high sequence variability, confirming that these AHAs underwent class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Consistent with previous studies of serum AHAs, several of these clones recognized a linear, peptide-like epitope, but one clone was unique in recognizing a conformational epitope. All cloned AHAs could restore immune effector functions to proteolytically generated F(ab′)2 fragments. Our results confirm that a diverse set of epitope-specific AHAs can be isolated from a single human donor.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/mkTYxW_Qdss" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Elevated sodium chloride drives type I interferon signaling in macrophages and increases antiviral resistance [Cell Biology]

Type I IFN production and signaling in macrophages play critical roles in innate immune responses. High salt (i.e. high concentrations of NaCl) has been proposed to be an important environmental factor that influences immune responses in multiple ways. However, it remains unknown whether high salt regulates type I IFN production and signaling in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that high salt promoted IFNβ production and its signaling in both human and mouse macrophages, and consequentially primed macrophages for strengthened immune sensing and signaling when challenged with viruses or viral nucleic acid analogues. Using both pharmacological inhibitors and RNA interference we showed that these effects of high salt on IFNβ signaling were mediated by the p38 MAPK/ATF2/AP1 signaling pathway. Consistently, high salt increased resistance to vesicle stomatitis virus (VSV) infection in vitro. In vivo data indicated that a high-salt diet protected mice from lethal VSV infection. Taken together, these results identify high salt as a crucial regulator of type I IFN production and signaling, shedding important new light on the regulation of innate immune responses.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/YORAIxf-RPU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Heterologous phosphorylation-induced formation of a stability lock permits regulation of inactive receptors by {beta}-arrestins [Signal Transduction]

β-Arrestins are key regulators and signal transducers of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The interaction between receptors and β-arrestins is generally believed to require both receptor activity and phosphorylation by GPCR kinases. In this study, we investigated whether β-arrestins are able to bind second messenger kinase–phosphorylated, but inactive receptors as well. Because heterologous phosphorylation is a common phenomenon among GPCRs, this mode of β-arrestin activation may represent a novel mechanism of signal transduction and receptor cross-talk. Here we demonstrate that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol myristate acetate, Gq/11-coupled GPCR, or epidermal growth factor receptor stimulation promotes β-arrestin2 recruitment to unliganded AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1R). We found that this interaction depends on the stability lock, a structure responsible for the sustained binding between GPCRs and β-arrestins, formed by phosphorylated serine–threonine clusters in the receptor's C terminus and two conserved phosphate-binding lysines in the β-arrestin2 N-domain. Using improved FlAsH-based serine-threonine clusters β-arrestin2 conformational biosensors, we also show that the stability lock not only stabilizes the receptor–β-arrestin interaction, but also governs the structural rearrangements within β-arrestins. Furthermore, we found that β-arrestin2 binds to PKC-phosphorylated AT1R in a distinct active conformation, which triggers MAPK recruitment and receptor internalization. Our results provide new insights into the activation of β-arrestins and reveal their novel role in receptor cross-talk.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/r-VdhPZVO3Q" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Structural features of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils revealed by Raman spectroscopy [Molecular Biophysics]

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with the formation of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils. Elucidating the role of these β-sheet-rich fibrils in disease progression is crucial; however, collecting detailed structural information on amyloids is inherently difficult because of their insoluble, non-crystalline, and polymorphic nature. Here, we show that Raman spectroscopy is a facile technique for characterizing structural features of α-synuclein fibrils. Combining Raman spectroscopy with aggregation kinetics and transmission electron microscopy, we examined the effects of pH and ionic strength as well as four PD–related mutations (A30P, E46K, G51D, and A53T) on α-synuclein fibrils. Raman spectral differences were observed in the amide-I, amide-III, and fingerprint regions, indicating that secondary structure and tertiary contacts are influenced by pH and to a lesser extent by NaCl. Faster aggregation times appear to facilitate unique fibril structure as determined by the highly reproducible amide-I band widths, linking aggregation propensity and fibril polymorphism. Importantly, Raman spectroscopy revealed molecular-level perturbations of fibril conformation by the PD–related mutations that are not apparent through transmission electron microscopy or limited proteolysis. The amide-III band was found to be particularly sensitive, with G51D exhibiting the most distinctive features, followed by A53T and E46K. Relating to a cellular environment, our data would suggest that fibril polymorphs can be formed in different cellular compartments and potentially result in distinct phenotypes. Our work sets a foundation toward future cellular Raman studies of amyloids.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/z8kcd6r9gHI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

A novel chemical inducer of Streptococcus quorum sensing acts by inhibiting the pheromone-degrading endopeptidase PepO [Gene Regulation]

Bacteria produce chemical signals (pheromones) to coordinate behaviors across a population in a process termed quorum sensing (QS). QS systems comprising peptide pheromones and their corresponding Rgg receptors are widespread among Firmicutes and may be useful targets for manipulating microbial behaviors, like suppressing virulence. The Rgg2/3 QS circuit of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes controls genes affecting resistance to host lysozyme in response to short hydrophobic pheromones (SHPs). Considering that artificial activation of a QS pathway may be as useful in the objective of manipulating bacteria as inhibiting it, we sought to identify small-molecule inducers of the Rgg2/3 QS system. We report the identification of a small molecule, P516-0475, that specifically induced expression of Rgg2/3-regulated genes in the presence of SHP pheromones at concentrations lower than typically required for QS induction. In searching for the mode of action of P516-0475, we discovered that an S. pyogenes mutant deficient in pepO, a neprilysin-like metalloendopeptidase that degrades SHP pheromones, was unresponsive to the compound. P516-0475 directly inhibited recombinant PepO in vitro as an uncompetitive inhibitor. We conclude that this compound induces QS by stabilizing SHP pheromones in culture. Our study indicates the usefulness of cell-based screens that modulate pathway activities to identify unanticipated therapeutic targets contributing to QS signaling.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/OhtOGp2o9JU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase promotes chemoresistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by abrogating gemcitabine-mediated DNA damage [Cell Biology]

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Gemcitabine, as a single agent or in combination therapy, remains the frontline chemotherapy despite its limited efficacy due to de novo or acquired chemoresistance. There is an acute need to decipher mechanisms underlying chemoresistance and identify new targets to improve patient outcomes. Here, we report a novel role for the ST6Gal-I sialyltransferase in gemcitabine resistance. Utilizing MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 PDAC cells, we found that knockdown (KD) of ST6Gal-I expression, as well as removal of surface α2–6 sialic acids by neuraminidase, enhances gemcitabine-mediated cell death assessed via clonogenic assays and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Additionally, KD of ST6Gal-I potentiates gemcitabine-induced DNA damage as measured by comet assays and quantification of γH2AX foci. ST6Gal-I KD also alters mRNA expression of key gemcitabine metabolic genes, RRM1, RRM2, hENT1, and DCK, leading to an increased gemcitabine sensitivity ratio, an indicator of gemcitabine toxicity. Gemcitabine-resistant MiaPaCa-2 cells display higher ST6Gal-I levels than treatment-naïve cells along with a reduced gemcitabine sensitivity ratio, suggesting that chronic chemotherapy selects for clonal variants with more abundant ST6Gal-I. Finally, we examined Suit2 PDAC cells and Suit2 derivatives with enhanced metastatic potential. Intriguingly, three metastatic and chemoresistant subclones, S2-CP9, S2-LM7AA, and S2-013, exhibit up-regulated ST6Gal-I relative to parental Suit2 cells. ST6Gal-I KD in S2-013 cells increases gemcitabine-mediated DNA damage, indicating that suppressing ST6Gal-I activity sensitizes inherently resistant cells to gemcitabine. Together, these findings place ST6Gal-I as a critical player in imparting gemcitabine resistance and as a potential target to restore PDAC chemoresponse.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/Nh8J8zuN8T0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Three mammalian tropomyosin isoforms have different regulatory effects on nonmuscle myosin-2B and filamentous {beta}-actin in vitro [Molecular Biophysics]

The metazoan actin cytoskeleton supports a wide range of contractile and transport processes. Recent studies have shown how the dynamic association with specific tropomyosin isoforms generates actin filament populations with distinct functional properties. However, critical details of the associated molecular interactions remain unclear. Here, we report the properties of actomyosin–tropomyosin complexes containing filamentous β-actin, nonmuscle myosin-2B (NM-2B) constructs, and either tropomyosin isoform Tpm1.8cy (b.–.b.d), Tpm1.12br (b.–.b.c), or Tpm3.1cy (b.–.a.d). Our results show the extent to which the association of filamentous β-actin with these different tropomyosin cofilaments affects the actin-mediated activation of NM-2B and the release of the ATP hydrolysis products ADP and phosphate from the active site. Phosphate release gates a transition from weak to strong F-actin–binding states. The release of ADP has the opposite effect. These changes in dominant rate-limiting steps have a direct effect on the duty ratio, the fraction of time that NM-2B spends in strongly F-actin–bound states during ATP turnover. The duty ratio is increased ∼3-fold in the presence of Tpm1.12 and 5-fold for both Tpm1.8 and Tpm3.1. The presence of Tpm1.12 extends the time required per ATP hydrolysis cycle 3.7-fold, whereas it is shortened by 27 and 63% in the presence of Tpm1.8 and Tpm3.1, respectively. The resulting Tpm isoform–specific changes in the frequency, duration, and efficiency of actomyosin interactions establish a molecular basis for the ability of these complexes to support cellular processes with widely divergent demands in regard to force production, capacity to move processively, and speed of movement.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/WxWypFhnBq0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Translation efficiency is maintained at elevated temperature in Escherichia coli [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]

Cellular protein levels are dictated by the balance between gene transcription, mRNA translation, and protein degradation, among other factors. Translation requires the interplay of several RNA hybridization processes, which are expected to be temperature-sensitive. We used ribosome profiling to monitor translation in Escherichia coli at 30 °C and to investigate how this changes after 10–20 min of heat shock at 42 °C. Translation efficiencies are robustly maintained after thermal heat shock and after mimicking the heat-shock response transcriptional program at 30 °C by overexpressing the heat shock σ factor encoded by the rpoH gene. We compared translation efficiency, the ratio of ribosome footprint reads to mRNA reads for each gene, to parameters derived from gene sequences. Genes with stable mRNA structures, non-optimal codon use, and those whose gene product is cotranslationally translocated into the inner membrane are generally less highly translated than other genes. Comparison with other published datasets suggests a role for translational elongation in coupling mRNA structures to translation initiation. Genome-wide calculations of the temperature dependence of mRNA structure predict that relatively few mRNAs show a melting transition between 30 and 42 °C, consistent with the observed lack of changes in translation efficiency. We developed a linear model with six parameters that can predict 38% of the variation in translation efficiency between genes, which may be useful in interpreting transcriptome data.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/umoItw-qEV0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Ligand-specific conformational transitions and intracellular transport are required for atypical chemokine receptor 3-mediated chemokine scavenging [Signal Transduction]

The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3 contributes to chemotaxis by binding, internalizing, and degrading the chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 to shape and terminate chemotactic gradients during development and immune responses. Although unable to trigger G protein activation, both ligands activate G protein–independent ACKR3 responses and prompt arrestin recruitment. This offers a model to specifically study ligand-specific receptor conformations leading to G protein–independent signaling and to functional parameters such as receptor transport and chemokine degradation. We here show chemokine specificity in arrestin recruitment, by different effects of single amino acid substitutions in ACKR3 on arrestin in response to CXCL12 or CXCL11. Chemokine specificity in receptor transport was also observed, as CXCL11 induced faster receptor internalization, slower recycling, and longer intracellular sojourn of ACKR3 than CXCL12. Internalization and recycling rates of the ACKR3 R1423.50A substitution in response to each chemokine were similar; however, ACKR3 R1423.50A degraded only CXCL12 and not CXCL11. This suggests that ligand-specific intracellular receptor transport is required for chemokine degradation. Remarkably, the failure of ACKR3 R1423.50A to degrade CXCL11 was not caused by the lack of arrestin recruitment; rather, arrestin was entirely dispensable for scavenging of either chemokine. This suggests the involvement of another, yet unidentified, ACKR3 effector in scavenging. In summary, our study correlates ACKR3 ligand-specific conformational transitions with chemokine-dependent receptor transport dynamics and points toward unexpected ligand specificity in the mechanisms of chemokine degradation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/bwMLRlh8YPA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

The dUTPase of white spot syndrome virus assembles its active sites in a noncanonical manner [Enzymology]

dUTPases are essential enzymes for maintaining genome integrity and have recently been shown to play moonlighting roles when containing extra sequences. Interestingly, the trimeric dUTPase of white spot syndrome virus (wDUT) harbors a sequence insert at the position preceding the C-terminal catalytic motif V (pre-V insert), rarely seen in other dUTPases. However, whether this extra sequence endows wDUT with additional properties is unknown. Herein, we present the crystal structures of wDUT in both ligand-free and ligand-bound forms. We observed that the pre-V insert in wDUT forms an unusual β-hairpin structure in the domain-swapping region and thereby facilitates a unique orientation of the adjacent C-terminal segment, positioning the catalytic motif V onto the active site of its own subunit instead of a third subunit. Consequently, wDUT employs two-subunit active sites, unlike the widely accepted paradigm that the active site of trimeric dUTPase is contributed by all three subunits. According to results from local structural comparisons, the active-site configuration of wDUT is similar to that of known dUTPases. However, we also found that residues in the second-shell region of the active site are reconfigured in wDUT as an adaption to its unique C-terminal orientation. We also show that deletion of the pre-V insert significantly reduces wDUT's enzymatic activity and thermal stability. We hypothesize that this rare structural arrangement confers additional functionality to wDUT. In conclusion, our study expands the structural diversity in the conserved dUTPase family and illustrates how sequence insertion and amino acid substitution drive protein evolution cooperatively.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/vW_oDUmmzAM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Structural characterization of the bacterial proteasome homolog BPH reveals a tetradecameric double-ring complex with unique inner cavity properties [Protein Structure and Folding]

Eukaryotic and archaeal proteasomes are paradigms for self-compartmentalizing proteases. To a large extent, their function requires interplay with hexameric ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) that act as substrate unfoldases. Bacteria have various types of self-compartmentalizing proteases; in addition to the proteasome itself, these include the proteasome homolog HslV, which functions together with the AAA+ HslU; the ClpP protease with its partner AAA+ ClpX; and Anbu, a recently characterized ancestral proteasome variant. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed a novel bacterial member of the proteasome family Betaproteobacteria proteasome homolog (BPH). Using cluster analysis, we here affirmed that BPH evolutionarily descends from HslV. Crystal structures of the Thiobacillus denitrificans and Cupriavidus metallidurans BPHs disclosed a homo-oligomeric double-ring architecture in which the active sites face the interior of the cylinder. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and electron microscopy averaging, we found that BPH forms tetradecamers in solution, unlike the dodecamers seen in HslV. Although the highly acidic inner surface of BPH was in striking contrast to the cavity characteristics of the proteasome and HslV, a classical proteasomal reaction mechanism could be inferred from the covalent binding of the proteasome-specific inhibitor epoxomicin to BPH. A ligand-bound structure implied that the elongated BPH inner pore loop may be involved in substrate recognition. The apparent lack of a partner unfoldase and other unique features, such as Ser replacing Thr as the catalytic residue in certain BPH subfamilies, suggest a proteolytic function for BPH distinct from those of known bacterial self-compartmentalizing proteases.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/A-Ew1yMACuE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Toll-like receptor 4-induced ryanodine receptor 2 oxidation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leakage promote cardiac contractile dysfunction in sepsis [Cell Biology]

Studies suggest the potential role of a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ leak in cardiac contractile dysfunction in sepsis. However, direct supporting evidence is lacking, and the mechanisms underlying this SR leak are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the changes in cardiac Ca2+ handling and contraction in LPS-treated rat cardiomyocytes and a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis produced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). LPS decreased the systolic Ca2+ transient and myocyte contraction as well as SR Ca2+ content. Meanwhile, LPS increased Ca2+ spark–mediated SR Ca2+ leak. Preventing the SR leak with ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker tetracaine restored SR load and increased myocyte contraction. Similar alterations in Ca2+ handling were observed in cardiomyocytes from CLP mice. Treatment with JTV-519, an anti-SR leak drug, restored Ca2+ handling and improved cardiac function. In the LPS-treated cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in RyR2 were increased, whereas the levels of the RyR2-associated FK506-binding protein 1B (FKBP12.6) were decreased. The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–specific inhibitor TAK-242 reduced the oxidative stress in LPS-treated cells, decreased the SR leak, and normalized Ca2+ handling and myocyte contraction. Consistently, TLR4 deletion significantly improved cardiac function and corrected abnormal Ca2+ handling in the CLP mice. This study provides evidence for the critical role of the SR Ca2+ leak in the development of septic cardiomyopathy and highlights the therapeutic potential of JTV-519 by preventing SR leak. Furthermore, it reveals that TLR4 activation-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and the resulting oxidative stress in RyR2 contribute to the SR Ca2+ leak.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/8ReCjIc6Ioo" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

A neutralizing antibody that blocks delivery of the enzymatic cargo of Clostridium difficile toxin TcdB into host cells [Microbiology]

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is mediated by the actions of two toxins, TcdA and TcdB. The toxins perturb host cell function through a multistep process of receptor binding, endocytosis, low pH–induced pore formation, and the translocation and delivery of an N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain that inactivates host GTPases. Infection studies with isogenic strains having defined toxin deletions have established TcdB as an important target for therapeutic development. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize TcdB function have been shown to protect against C. difficile infection in animal models and reduce recurrence in humans. Here, we report the mechanism of TcdB neutralization by PA41, a humanized monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing TcdB from a diverse array of C. difficile strains. Through a combination of structural, biochemical, and cell functional studies, involving X-ray crystallography and EM, we show that PA41 recognizes a single, highly conserved epitope on the TcdB glucosyltransferase domain and blocks productive translocation and delivery of the enzymatic cargo into the host cell. Our study reveals a unique mechanism of C. difficile toxin neutralization by a monoclonal antibody, which involves targeting a process that is conserved across the large clostridial glucosylating toxins. The PA41 antibody described here provides a valuable tool for dissecting the mechanism of toxin pore formation and translocation across the endosomal membrane.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/LAR9CXfEYnQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Blue light-excited LOV1 and LOV2 domains cooperatively regulate the kinase activity of full-length phototropin2 from Arabidopsis [Signal Transduction]

Phototropin2 (phot2) is a blue-light (BL) receptor that regulates BL-dependent activities for efficient photosynthesis in plants. phot2 comprises two BL-receiving light-oxygen-voltage–sensing domains (LOV1 and LOV2) and a kinase domain. BL-excited LOV2 is thought to be primarily responsible for the BL-dependent activation of the kinase. However, the molecular mechanisms by which small BL-induced conformational changes in the LOV2 domain are transmitted to the kinase remain unclear. Here, we used full-length wild-type and mutant phot2 proteins from Arabidopsis to study their molecular properties in the dark and under BL irradiation. Phosphorylation assays and absorption measurements indicated that the LOV1 domain assists the thermal relaxation of BL-excited LOV2 and vice versa. Using small-angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy, we observed that phot2 forms a dimer and has a rod shape with a maximum length of 188 Å and a radius of gyration of 44 Å. Under BL, phot2 displayed large conformational changes that bent the rod shape. By superimposing the crystal structures of the LOV1 dimer, LOV2, and a homology model of the kinase to the observed changes, we inferred that the BL-dependent change consisted of positional shifts of both LOV2 and the kinase relative to LOV1. Furthermore, phot2 mutants lacking the photocycle in LOV1 or LOV2 still exhibited conformational changes under BL, suggesting that LOV1 and LOV2 cooperatively contribute to the conformational changes that activate the kinase. These results suggest that BL-activated LOV1 contributes to the kinase activity of phot2. We discuss the possible intramolecular interactions and signaling mechanisms in phot2.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/02cPMS-7oDY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Efficient solid-phase synthesis of meningococcal capsular oligosaccharides enables simple and fast chemoenzymatic vaccine production [Microbiology]

Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and X are among the leading causes of bacterial meningitis in the African meningitis belt. Glycoconjugate vaccines, consisting of an antigenic carrier protein coupled to the capsular polysaccharide of the bacterial pathogen, are the most effective strategy for prevention of meningococcal disease. However, the distribution of effective glycoconjugate vaccines in this region is limited by the high cost of cultivating pathogens and purification of their capsular polysaccharides. Moreover, chemical approaches to synthesize oligosaccharide antigens have proven challenging. In the current study, we present a chemoenzymatic approach for generating tailored oligosaccharide fractions ready for activation and coupling to the carrier protein. In a first step, the elongation modes of recombinant capsular polymerases from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A (CsaB) and X (CsxA) were characterized. We observed that CsaB is a distributive enzyme, and CsxA is a processive enzyme. Sequence comparison of these two stealth family proteins revealed a C-terminal extension in CsxA, which conferred processivity because of the existence of a second product-binding site. Deletion of the C-terminal domain converted CsxA into a distributive enzyme, allowing facile control of product length by adjusting the ratio of donor to acceptor sugars. Solid-phase fixation of the engineered capsular polymerases enabled rapid production of capsular polysaccharides with high yield and purity. In summary, the tools developed here provide critical steps toward reducing the cost of conjugate vaccine production, which will increase access in regions with the greatest need. Our work also facilitates efforts to study the relationship between oligosaccharide size and antigenicity.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/1B7mypilPG0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Biogenesis of the bacterial cbb3 cytochrome c oxidase: Active subcomplexes support a sequential assembly model [Membrane Biology]

The cbb3 oxidase has a high affinity for oxygen and is required for growth of bacteria, including pathogens, in oxygen-limited environments. However, the assembly of this oxidase is poorly understood. Most cbb3 are composed of four subunits: the catalytic CcoN subunit, the two cytochrome c subunits (CcoO and CcoP) involved in electron transfer, and the small CcoQ subunit with an unclear function. Here, we address the role of these four subunits in cbb3 biogenesis in the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Analyses of membrane proteins from different mutants revealed the presence of active CcoNQO and CcoNO subcomplexes and also showed that the CcoP subunit is not essential for their assembly. However, CcoP was required for the oxygen reduction activity in the absence of CcoQ. We also found that CcoQ is dispensable for forming an active CcoNOP subcomplex in membranes. CcoNOP exhibited oxygen reductase activity, indicating that the cofactors (hemes b and copper for CcoN and cytochromes c for CcoO and CcoP) were present within the subunits. Finally, we discovered the presence of a CcoNQ subcomplex and showed that CcoN is the required anchor for the assembly of the full CcoNQOP complex. On the basis of these findings, we propose a sequential assembly model in which the CcoQ subunit is required for the early maturation step: CcoQ first associates with CcoN before the CcoNQ–CcoO interaction. CcoP associates to CcoNQO subcomplex in the late maturation step, and once the CcoNQOP complex is fully formed, CcoQ is released for degradation by the FtsH protease. This model could be conserved in other bacteria, including the pathogenic bacteria lacking the assembly factor CcoH as in R. gelatinosus.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/lYRccXcpjjQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Caveolin-1 regulates lipid droplet metabolism in endothelial cells via autocrine prostacyclin-stimulated, cAMP-mediated lipolysis [Lipids]

Lipid droplets (LD) are dynamic organelles involved in intracellular lipid metabolism in almost all eukaryotic cells, and LD-associated proteins tightly regulate their dynamics. One LD coat protein is caveolin-1 (Cav-1), an essential component for caveola assembly in highly differentiated cells, including adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells (EC). However, the role of Cav-1 in LD dynamics is unclear. Here we report that EC lacking Cav-1 exhibit impaired LD formation. The decreased LD formation is due to enhanced lipolysis and not caused by reduced triglyceride synthesis or fatty acid uptake. Mechanistically, the absence of Cav-1 increased cAMP/PKA signaling in EC, as indicated by elevated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and increased lipolysis. Unexpectedly, we also observed enhanced autocrine production of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2, also called prostacyclin) in Cav-1 KO EC, and this PGI2 increase appeared to stimulate cAMP/PKA pathways, contributing to the enhanced lipolysis in Cav-1 KO cells. Our results reveal an unanticipated role of Cav-1 in regulating lipolysis in non-adipose tissue, indicating that Cav-1 is required for LD metabolism in EC and that it regulates cAMP-dependent lipolysis in part via the autocrine production of PGI2.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/n1GlJBGRjUI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

The prototypical proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter YdgR from Escherichia coli facilitates chloramphenicol uptake into bacterial cells [Microbiology]

Chloramphenicol (Cam) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cam export from bacterial cells is one of the mechanisms by which pathogens resist Cam's antibacterial effects, and several different proteins are known to facilitate this process. However, to date no report exists on any specific transport protein that facilitates Cam uptake. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) YdgR from Escherichia coli is a prototypical member of the POT family, functioning in proton-coupled uptake of di- and tripeptides. By following bacterial growth and conducting LC-MS–based assays we show here that YdgR facilitates Cam uptake. Some YdgR variants displaying reduced peptide uptake also exhibited reduced Cam uptake, indicating that peptides and Cam bind YdgR at similar regions. Homology modeling of YdgR, Cam docking, and mutational studies suggested a binding mode that resembles that of Cam binding to the multidrug resistance transporter MdfA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Cam uptake into bacterial cells mediated by a specific transporter protein. Our findings suggest a specific bacterial transporter for drug uptake that might be targeted to promote greater antibiotic influx to increase cytoplasmic antibiotic concentration for enhanced cytotoxicity.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/k1jJqX7Mq9I" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

TMEM16A and TMEM16B channel proteins generate Ca2+-activated Cl- current and regulate melatonin secretion in rat pineal glands [Cell Biology]

Pinealocytes regulate circadian rhythm by synthesizing and secreting melatonin. These cells generate action potentials; however, the contribution of specific ion channels to melatonin secretion from pinealocytes remains unclear. In this study, the involvement and molecular identity of Ca2+-activated Cl− (ClCa) channels in the regulation of melatonin secretion were examined in rat pineal glands. Treatment with the ClCa channel blockers, niflumic acid or T16Ainh-A01, significantly reduced melatonin secretion in pineal glands. After pineal K+ currents were totally blocked under whole-cell patch clamp conditions, depolarization and subsequent repolarization induced a slowly activating outward current and a substantial inward tail current, respectively. Both of these current changes were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration and inhibited by niflumic acid and T16Ainh-A01. Quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunocytochemical analyses revealed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B were highly expressed in pineal glands. siRNA knockdown of TMEM16A and/or TMEM16B showed that both channels contribute to ClCa currents in pinealocytes. Conversely, co-expression of TMEM16A and TMEM16B channels or the expression of this tandem channel in HEK293 cells mimicked the electrophysiological characteristics of ClCa currents in pinealocytes. Moreover, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, FRET, and co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that TMEM16A and TMEM16B can form heteromeric channels, as well as homomeric channels. In conclusion, pineal ClCa channels are composed of TMEM16A and TMEM16B subunits, and these fluxes regulate melatonin secretion in pineal glands.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/knAsLHa2aUM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

The shaker-1 mouse myosin VIIa deafness mutation results in a severely reduced rate of the ATP hydrolysis step [Enzymology]

Mutations in the MYO7A gene, encoding the motor protein myosin VIIa, can cause Usher 1B, a deafness/blindness syndrome in humans, and the shaker-1 phenotype, characterized by deafness, head tossing, and circling behavior, in mice. Myosin VIIa is responsible for tension bearing and the transduction mechanism in the stereocilia and for melanosome transport in the retina, in line with the phenotypic outcomes observed in mice. However, the effect of the shaker-1 mutation, a R502P amino acid substitution, on the motor function is unclear. To explore this question, we determined the kinetic properties and the effect on the filopodial tip localization of the recombinant mouse myosin VIIa-5IQ-SAH R502P (myoVIIa-sh1) construct. Interestingly, although residue 502 is localized to a region thought to be involved in interacting with actin, the kinetic parameters for actin binding changed only slightly for the mutant construct. However, the rate constant for ATP hydrolysis (k+H + k−H) was reduced by ∼200-fold from 12 s−1 to 0.05 s−1, making the hydrolysis step the rate-limiting step of the ATPase cycle in the presence and absence of actin. Given that wild-type mouse myosin VIIa is a slow, high-duty ratio, monomeric motor, this altered hydrolysis rate would reduce activity to extremely low levels. Indeed, the translocation to the filopodial tips was hampered by the diminished motor function of a dimeric construct of the shaker-1 mutant. We conclude that the diminished motor activity of this mutant is most likely responsible for impaired hearing in the shaker-1 mice.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/AlXbotRBPz4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Cathepsin D regulates cathepsin B activation and disease severity predominantly in inflammatory cells during experimental pancreatitis [Enzymology]

Acute pancreatitis is a complex disorder involving both premature intracellular protease activation and inflammatory cell invasion. An initiating event is the intracellular activation of trypsinogen by cathepsin B (CTSB), which can be induced directly via G protein–coupled receptors on acinar cells or through inflammatory cells. Here, we studied CTSB regulation by another lysosomal hydrolase, cathepsin D (CTSD), using mice with a complete (CTSD−/−) or pancreas-specific conditional CTSD knockout (KO) (CTSDf/f/p48Cre/+). We induced acute pancreatitis by repeated caerulein injections and isolated acinar and bone marrow cells for ex vivo studies. Supramaximal caerulein stimulation induced subcellular redistribution of CTSD from the lysosomal to the zymogen-containing subcellular compartment of acinar cells and activation of CTSD, CTSB, and trypsinogen. Of note, the CTSD KO greatly reduced CTSB and trypsinogen activation in acinar cells, and CTSD directly activated CTSB but not trypsinogen in vitro. During pancreatitis in pancreas-specific CTSDf/f/p48Cre/+ animals, markers of severity were reduced only at 1 h, whereas in the complete KO, this effect also included the late disease phase (8 h), indicating an important effect of extra-acinar CTSD on course of the disease. CTSD−/− leukocytes exhibited reduced cytokine release after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, and CTSD KO also reduced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in acinar cells stimulated with the intestinal hormone cholecystokinin. In summary, CTSD is expressed in pancreatic acinar and inflammatory cells, undergoes subcellular redistribution and activation during experimental pancreatitis, and regulates disease severity by potently activating CTSB. Its impact is only minimal and transient in the early, acinar cell–dependent phase of pancreatitis and much greater in the later, inflammatory cell–dependent phase of the disease.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/I7jy5IE_69g" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Cohesin SA2 is a sequence-independent DNA-binding protein that recognizes DNA replication and repair intermediates [DNA and Chromosomes]

Proper chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis depend on cohesion between sister chromatids, mediated by the cohesin protein complex, which also plays crucial roles in diverse genome maintenance pathways. Current models attribute DNA binding by cohesin to entrapment of dsDNA by the cohesin ring subunits (SMC1, SMC3, and RAD21 in humans). However, the biophysical properties and activities of the fourth core cohesin subunit SA2 (STAG2) are largely unknown. Here, using single-molecule atomic force and fluorescence microscopy imaging as well as fluorescence anisotropy measurements, we established that SA2 binds to both dsDNA and ssDNA, albeit with a higher binding affinity for ssDNA. We observed that SA2 can switch between the 1D diffusing (search) mode on dsDNA and stable binding (recognition) mode at ssDNA gaps. Although SA2 does not specifically bind to centromeric or telomeric sequences, it does recognize DNA structures often associated with DNA replication and double-strand break repair, such as a double-stranded end, single-stranded overhang, flap, fork, and ssDNA gap. SA2 loss leads to a defect in homologous recombination–mediated DNA double-strand break repair. These results suggest that SA2 functions at intermediate DNA structures during DNA transactions in genome maintenance pathways. These findings have important implications for understanding the function of cohesin in these pathways.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/ewlEghb8vcE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Molecular mimicking of C-terminal phosphorylation tunes the surface dynamics of CaV1.2 calcium channels in hippocampal neurons [Neurobiology]

L-type voltage-gated CaV1.2 calcium channels (CaV1.2) are key regulators of neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and excitation-transcription coupling. Surface-exposed CaV1.2 distributes in clusters along the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. A permanent exchange between stably clustered and laterally diffusive extra-clustered channels maintains steady-state levels of CaV1.2 at dendritic signaling domains. A dynamic equilibrium between anchored and diffusive receptors is a common feature among ion channels and is crucial to modulate signaling transduction. Despite the importance of this fine regulatory system, the molecular mechanisms underlying the surface dynamics of CaV1.2 are completely unexplored. Here, we examined the dynamic states of CaV1.2 depending on phosphorylation on Ser-1700 and Ser-1928 at the channel C terminus. Phosphorylation at these sites is strongly involved in CaV1.2-mediated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling, long-term potentiation, and responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. We engineered CaV1.2 constructs mimicking phosphorylation at Ser-1700 and Ser-1928 and analyzed their behavior at the membrane by immunolabeling protocols, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, and single particle tracking. We found that the phosphomimetic S1928E variant increases the mobility of CaV1.2 without altering the steady-state maintenance of cluster in young neurons and favors channel stabilization later in differentiation. Instead, mimicking phosphorylation at Ser-1700 promoted the diffusive state of CaV1.2 irrespective of the differentiation stage. Together, these results reveal that phosphorylation could contribute to the establishment of channel anchoring mechanisms depending on the neuronal differentiation state. Finally, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which phosphorylation at the C terminus regulates calcium signaling by tuning the content of CaV1.2 at signaling complexes.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/YXB0tAW7Pj0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Epitope-focused immunogens against the CD4-binding site of HIV-1 envelope protein induce neutralizing antibodies against auto- and heterologous viruses [Immunology]

Recent discoveries of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) in HIV-1–infected individuals have led to the identification of several major “vulnerable sites” on the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. These sites have provided precise targets for HIV-1 vaccine development, but identifying and utilizing many of these targets remain technically challenging. Using a yeast surface display–based approach, we sought to identify epitope-focused antigenic domains (EADs) containing one of the “vulnerable sites,” the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), through screening and selection of a combinatorial antigen library of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein with the CD4bs bnAb VRC01. We isolated multiple EADs and found that their trimeric forms have biochemical and structural features that preferentially bind and activate B cells that express VRC01 in vitro. More importantly, these EADs could induce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies against genetically related autologous and heterologous subtype B viruses in guinea pigs. Our results demonstrate that an epitope-focused approach involving a screen of a combinatorial antigen library is feasible. The EADs identified here represent a promising collection of possible targets in the rational design of HIV-1 vaccines and lay the foundation for harnessing the specific antigenicity of CD4bs for protective immunogenicity in vivo.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/FdNAOaVFj00" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Oligomannosidic glycans at Asn-110 are essential for secretion of human diamine oxidase [Protein Structure and Folding]

N-Glycosylation plays a fundamental role in many biological processes. Human diamine oxidase (hDAO), required for histamine catabolism, has multiple N-glycosylation sites, but their roles, for example in DAO secretion, are unclear. We recently reported that the N-glycosylation sites Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 in recombinant hDAO (rhDAO) carry complex-type glycans, whereas Asn-110 carries only mammalian-atypical oligomannosidic glycans. Here, we show that Asn-110 in native hDAO from amniotic fluid and Caco-2 cells, DAO from porcine kidneys, and rhDAO produced in two different HEK293 cell lines is also consistently occupied by oligomannosidic glycans. Glycans at Asn-168 were predominantly sialylated with bi- to tetra-antennary branches, and Asn-538 and Asn-745 had similar complex-type glycans with some tissue- and cell line–specific variations. The related copper-containing amine oxidase human vascular adhesion protein-1 also exclusively displayed high-mannose glycosylation at Asn-137. X-ray structures revealed that the residues adjacent to Asn-110 and Asn-137 form a highly conserved hydrophobic cleft interacting with the core trisaccharide. Asn-110 replacement with Gln completely abrogated rhDAO secretion and caused retention in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations of Asn-168, Asn-538, and Asn-745 reduced rhDAO secretion by 13, 71, and 32%, respectively. Asn-538/745 double and Asn-168/538/745 triple substitutions reduced rhDAO secretion by 85 and 94%. Because of their locations in the DAO structure, Asn-538 and Asn-745 glycosylations might be important for efficient DAO dimer formation. These functional results are reflected in the high evolutionary conservation of all four glycosylation sites. Human DAO is abundant only in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and placenta, and glycosylation seems essential for reaching high enzyme expression levels in these tissues.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/NNchT32EmTE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

NMR-directed design of pre-TCR{beta} and pMHC molecules implies a distinct geometry for pre-TCR relative to {alpha}{beta}TCR recognition of pMHC [Protein Structure and Folding]

The pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) guides early thymocytes through maturation processes within the thymus via interaction with self-ligands displayed on thymic epithelial cells. The pre-TCR is a disulfide-linked heterodimer composed of an invariant pre-TCR α (pTα) subunit and a variable β subunit, the latter of which is incorporated into the mature TCR in subsequent developmental progression. This interaction of pre-TCR with peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) molecules has recently been shown to drive robust pre-TCR signaling and thymocyte maturation. Although the native sequences of β are properly folded and suitable for NMR studies in isolation, a tendency to self-associate rendered binding studies with physiological ligands difficult to interpret. Consequently, to structurally define this critical interaction, we have re-engineered the extracellular regions of β, designated as β-c1, for prokaryotic production to be used in NMR spectroscopy. Given the large size of the full extracellular domain of class I MHC molecules such as H-Kb, we produced a truncated form termed Kb-t harboring properties favorable for NMR measurements. This system has enabled robust measurement of a pre-TCR–pMHC interaction directly analogous to that of TCRαβ–pMHC. Binding surface analysis identified a contact surface comparable in size to that of the TCRαβ–pMHC but potentially with a rather distinct binding orientation. A tilting of the pre-TCRβ when bound to the pMHC ligand recognition surface versus the upright orientation of TCRαβ would alter the direction of force application between pre-TCR and TCR mechanosensors, impacting signal initiation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/7V3mcR2o-mI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018

Phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin protein ligase ITCH diminishes binding to its cognate E2 ubiquitin ligase [Immunology]

Heightened and extended inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of many disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, and inflammatory arthritis. Ubiquitin networks help dictate the strength and duration of inflammatory signaling. In innate immunity, the itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (ITCH)-A20 ubiquitin–editing complex inhibits receptor-interacting Ser/Thr kinase (RIPK) activation by removing Lys-63–linked polyubiquitinated chains from key proteins in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The complex then attaches polyubiquitinated chains to these proteins to target them for lysosomal or proteasomal destruction. ITCH is phosphorylated and thereby inhibited by inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ) to fine-tune the inflammatory response to the strength of the offending signal. However, the biochemical mechanism by which E3 ubiquitination is impaired by IKK-driven phosphorylation remains unclear. Here, we report that this phosphorylation impedes ITCH binding to its cognate E2 ubiquitin ligase, UbcH7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genetic knockout to mimic the ITCH-UbcH7–inhibited state, we further show that genetic UbcH7 deficiency phenocopies ITCH phosphorylation in regulating RIPK2 ubiquitination. We conclude that phosphorylation can disrupt the binding of an E3 ubiquitin ligase to an E2-conjugating enzyme, leading to prolonged inflammatory signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first report of E3 ubiquitin ligase phosphorylation inhibiting E3 ligase activity by impairing E2–E3 complex formation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/awoKcY63jRs" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 19.01.2018


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 04.01.2018.

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