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Environmental Toxicology

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..

The international scientific journal Environmental Toxicology publishes in the areas of toxicity and toxicology of environmental pollutants in air, dust, sediment, soil and water, and natural toxins in the environment.

The publisher is Wiley. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (environmental chemistry):

 - Atmospheric Chemistry.

 - Chemosphere.

 - Ecotoxicology.

 - Environmental Chemistry.

 - Environmental Chemistry Letters.

 - Environmental Monitoring.

 - Environmental Science and Technology.

Environmental Toxicology - Abstracts

Halloysite nanotubes-induced Al accumulation and oxidative damage in liver of mice after 30-day repeated oral administration

Halloysite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4·nH2O) nanotubes (HNTs) are natural clay materials and widely applied in many fields due to their natural hollow tubular structures. Many in vitro studies indicate that HNTs exhibit a high level of biocompatibility, however the in vivo toxicity of HNTs remains unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the hepatic toxicity of the purified HNTs in mice via oral route. The purified HNTs were orally administered to mice at 5, 50, and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW) every day for 30 days. Oral administration of HNTs stimulated the growth of the mice at the low dose (5 mg/kg BW) with no liver toxicity, but inhibited the growth of the mice at the middle (50 mg/kg BW) and high (300 mg/kg BW) doses. In addition, oral administration of HNTs at the high dose caused Al accumulation in the liver but had no marked effect on the Si content in the organ. The Al accumulation caused significant oxidative stress in the liver, which induced hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes. These findings demonstrated that Al accumulation-induced oxidative stress played an important role in the oral HNTs-caused liver injury.
Datum: 19.02.2018

Chronic lead exposure enhances the sympathoexcitatory response associated with P2X4 receptor in rat stellate ganglia

Chronic lead exposure causes peripheral sympathetic nerve stimulation, including increased blood pressure and heart rate. Purinergic receptors are involved in the sympathoexcitatory response induced by myocardial ischemia injury. However, whether P2X4 receptor participates in sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure and the possible mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the change of the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure via the P2X4 receptor in the stellate ganglion (SG). Rats were given lead acetate through drinking water freely at doses of 0 g/L (control group), 0.5 g/L (low lead group), and 2 g/L (high lead group) for 1 year. Our results demonstrated that lead exposure caused autonomic nervous dysfunction, including blood pressure and heart rate increased and heart rate variability (HRV) decreased. Western blotting results indicated that after lead exposure, the protein expression levels in the SG of P2X4 receptor, IL-1β and Cx43 were up-regulated, the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was activated. Real-time PCR results showed that the mRNA expression of P2X4 receptor in the SG was higher in lead exposure group than that in the control group. Double-labeled immunofluorescence results showed that P2X4 receptor was co-expressed with glutamine synthetase (GS), the marker of satellite glial cells (SGCs). These changes were positively correlated with the dose of lead exposure. The up-regulated expression of P2X4 receptor in SGCs of the SG maybe enhance the sympathoexcitatory response induced by chronic lead exposure.
Datum: 19.02.2018

Delphinidin induces apoptosis and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the ERK/p38 MAPK-signaling pathway in human osteosarcoma cell lines

Delphinidin is major anthocyanidin that is extracted from many pigmented fruits and vegetables. This substance has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer properties. In addition, delphinidin strongly suppresses the migration and invasion of various cancer cells during tumorigenesis. Although delphinidin has anti-cancer effects, little is known about its functional roles in osteosarcoma (OS). For these reasons, we have demonstrated the effects of delphinidin on OS cell lines. The effects of delphinidin on cell viability and growth of OS cells were assessed using the MTT assay and colony formation assays. Hoechst staining indicated that the delphinidin-treated OS cells were undergoing apoptosis. Flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and a western blot analysis also indicated evidence of apoptosis. Inhibition of cell migration and invasion was found to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), observed by using a wound healing assay, an invasion assay, and a western blot analysis. Furthermore, delphinidin treatment resulted in a profound reduction of phosphorylated forms of ERK and p38. These findings demonstrate that delphinidin treatment suppressed EMT through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in OS cell lines. Taken together, our results suggest that delphinidin strongly inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Delphinidin treatment also suppresses cell migration and prevents EMT via the MAPK-signaling pathway in OS cell lines. For these reasons, delphinidin has anti-cancer effects and can suppress metastasis in OS cell lines, and it might be worth using as an OS therapeutic agent.
Datum: 16.02.2018

Chronic exposure of mice to low doses of imazalil induces hepatotoxicity at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic levels

Imazalil (IMZ), which is a widely used fungicide, can accumulate in the body and threaten an animal's health. However, this fungicide has adverse effects on aquatic organisms and ultimately affects human health when it leaches into the environment. Our research tried to determine that if IMZ might cause liver damage and its potential to cause-related diseases. In this study, male adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg body weight IMZ in drinking water for 15 weeks. Then, we evaluated the liver damage at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome levels in mice after chronic IMZ exposure. We observed serious ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes in the IMZ-treated groups. And IMZ induced oxidative stress and caused the disorders of bile acid metabolism in mice. In addition, the transcriptome data showed that IMZ has substantial influence on several pathways, including metabolic pathways for drug metabolism, RNA transport, and bile secretion. We further confirmed that the mRNA expression of the key genes involved in oxidative stress and bile acid metabolism were changed of mice exposed to IMZ. Our data suggested that chronic IMZ exposure could induce hepatotoxicity in mice at the physiological, biochemical, and transcriptome levels.
Datum: 16.02.2018

A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation

Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation.
Datum: 15.02.2018

Lead exposure reduces sperm quality and DNA integrity in mice

Toxicity of lead on male reproductive functions has raised wide public concern as environmental lead contamination remains common worldwide. Conflicting and controversial data are available regarding effects of lead on male fertility. More importantly, our knowledge on effects of lead on sperm DNA integrity is significantly limited. Thus, further studies should focus on this issue. In the current study, adult male mice were exposed to a series of lead acetate concentrations in drinking water for six weeks. Following administration, lead levels in blood, testicles, and epididymis were measured, and potential changes in morphology of testis and epididymis due to lead exposure were identified. We also analyzed sperm parameters, including sperm density, viability, motility, and morphology, to evaluate quality of sperm collected from epididymis. Especially, hypothetical influence of lead on sperm DNA integrity was also evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, alkaline comet assay, and sperm chromatin structure assay. Lead exposure possibly exerted no effect on growth of mice because these animals acquired similar body weight gain during the experimental period. However, high lead concentrations (0.5% and 1%) in drinking water affected sperm motility and increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. In groups treated with 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% lead acetate, percentages of sperm cells showing DNA breaks and chromatin structure damage significantly increased. Altogether, lead exposure not only exhibits adverse effects on sperm physiological parameters, but also impairs DNA structure and integrity. These effects may lead to significant decline in male fertility.
Datum: 15.02.2018

Lupeol alters ER stress-signaling pathway by downregulating ABCG2 expression to induce Oxaliplatin-resistant LoVo colorectal cancer cell apoptosis

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and causes of cancer-related death. There are several first-line chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat CRC. Oxaliplatin (OXA) is an alkylating cytotoxic agent that is usually combined with other chemotherapeutic drugs to treat stage II and stage III CRC. However, cancer cells commonly acquire multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a major obstruction to cancer treatment. Recent studies have shown that natural components from traditional Chinese medicine or foods that have many biological functions may be new adjuvant therapies in clinical trials. We challenged LoVo CRC cell lines with OXA in a dose-dependent manner to create an OXA-resistant model. The expression of ABCG2 was significantly higher, and levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were lower than those Parental cells. However, Lupeol, which is found in fruits and vegetables, has been shown to have bioactive properties, including anti-tumor properties that are relevant to many diseases. In our study, Lupeol downregulated cell viability and activated cell apoptosis. Moreover, Lupeol decreased the expression of ABCG2 and activated ER stress to induce OXA-resistant cell death. Importantly, the anti-tumor effect of Lupeol in OXA-resistant cells was higher than that of LoVo Parental cells. In addition, we also confirmed our results with a xenograft animal model, and the tumor size significantly decreased after Lupeol injections. Our findings show that Lupeol served as a strong chemoresistant sensitizer and could be a new adjuvant therapy method for chemoresistant patients.
Datum: 13.02.2018


Datum: 10.02.2018

Proteomic analysis of ametryn toxicity in zebrafish embryos

Ametrym (AMT) is the most widely used herbicide and frequently detected in the aquatic environment. AMT also represent a potential health risk to aquatic organisms and animals, including humans. However, little data are available on their toxicity to zebrafish (Danio rerio). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological effects of AMT exposure on zebrafish embryos. In the acute toxicity test, 6 hpf embryos were exposed to various concentrations of AMT for 24 or 48 h. The results indicated that AMT induced malformation in larvae. To investigate the toxicological mechanism on the protein expression level. A proteomic approach was employed to investigate the proteome alterations of zebra fish embryos exposed to 20 mg/L AMT for 48 h. Among 2925 unique proteins identified, 298 differential proteins (> or <1.3-fold, P < 0.05) were detected in the treated embryos as compared to the corresponding proteins in the untreated embryos. Gene ontology analysis showed that these up-regulated proteins were most involved in glycolysis, lipid transport, protein polymerization, and nucleotide binding, and the down-regulated proteins were related to microtubule-based process, protein polymerization, oxygen transport. Moreover, KEGG pathway analysis indicated that tight junction, ribosome, and oxidative phosphorylation were inhibited in the treated embryos. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms of toxicity induced by AMT.
Datum: 10.02.2018

In silico binding of 4,4'-bisphenols predicts in vitro estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity

Bisphenols, anthropogenic pollutants, leach from consumer products and have potential to be ingested and are excreted in waste. The endocrine disrupting effects of highly manufactured bisphenols (BPA, BPS, and BPF) are known, however the activities of others are not. Here, the estrogenic and androgenic activities of a series of 4,4'-bisphenols that vary at the inter-connecting bisphenol bridge were determined (BPA, BPB, BPBP, BPC2, BPE, BPF, BPS, and BPZ) and compared to in silico binding to estrogen receptor-alpha and the androgen receptor. Bioassay results showed the order of estrogenicity (BPC2 (strongest) > BPBP > BPB > BPZ > BPE > BPF > BPA > BPS, r2 = 0.995) and anti-androgenicity (BPC2 (strongest) > BPE, BPB, BPA, BPF, and BPS, r2 = 0.996) correlated to nuclear receptor binding affinities. Like testosterone and the anti-androgen hydroxyflutamide, bisphenol fit in the ligand-binding domain through hydrogen-bonding at residues Thr877 and Asn705, but also interacted at either Cys784/Ser778 or Gln711 through the other phenol ring. This suggests the 4,4'-bisphenols, like hydroxyflutamide, are androgen receptor antagonists. Hydrogen-bond trends between ERα and the 4,4'-bisphenols were limited to residue Glu353, which interacted with the –OH of one phenol and the –OH of the A ring of 17β-estradiol; hydrogen-bonding varied at the –OH of ring D of 17β-estradiol and the second phenol –OH group. While both estrogen and androgen bioassays correlated to in silico results, conservation of hydrogen-bonding residues in the androgen receptor provides a convincing picture of direct antagonist binding by 4,4'-bisphenols.
Datum: 02.02.2018

Toxicity implications for early life stage Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to oxyfluorfen

We investigated the potential toxic effects of Oxyfluorfen (OXY), an herbicide used in agriculture, on the embryo-larval development of Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Embryos (1-day postfertilization) and larvae (2-day posthatch) were exposed to OXY (0.5-8 mg/L) for 96 h and evaluated for mortality and hatching on embryos, and the mortality and growth on larvae during depuration. It was observed that the embryo-mortality was inconsistently altered by OXY; only the 2 mg/L group showed significant reduction on embryo survivability. However, larval-mortality was concentration-dependent and OXY exposure induced scoliosis-like phenotypic features in the surviving larvae; the calculated LC50 was 5.238 mg/L. Our data further indicated that larval skeleton, both axial and appendicular, was the potential target site of OXY. Skeletal growth in larvae exposed to 2 mg/L was inhibited significantly until 1 week of depuration with regard to the linear lengths of neurocranium, Meckel's cartilage, caudal vertebrae (first 10) in the axial skeletons, and pectoral fin and urostyle in the appendicular skeletons. Moreover, the total protein content remained unaltered by OXY after 96 h exposure; while the RNA concentration was reduced significantly in larvae exposed to 2 mg/L. Expression analysis of several genes by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) showed significant upregulation of zic5, a zinc-finger type transcription regulator, at the transcription level. This study indicated that the scoliosis induced by OXY in Japanese medaka larvae was the result of stunted skeletal growth, probably because of deregulation of zinc-finger type transcription regulators, at the genomic level.
Datum: 31.01.2018

Antimetastatic potentials of salvianolic acid A on oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting MMP-2 and the c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

The metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most important causes of cancer-related deaths. Thus, various therapeutic strategies have been developed to prevent the metastasis of OSCC. Salvianolic acid A (SAA), a traditional Chinese medicine, has antithrombosis, antiplatelet, anti-inflammation, and antitumor activities. Here, we provide molecular evidence indicating that SAA exerts its antimetastatic effects by markedly inhibiting the invasion and migration of oral squamous SCC-9 and SCC-25 cells. SCC-9 and SCC-25 cells were treated with various concentrations of SAA to further investigate the precise involvement of SAA in cancer metastasis. The results of zymography, and Western blotting indicated that SAA treatment may decrease matrix metallopoteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. SAA also inhibited p-c-Raf, p-MEK1/2, and p-ERK1/2 protein expression. In addition, treating SCC-9 cells with U0126, a MEK-specific inhibitor, decreased MMP-2 expression and concomitantly inhibited cell migration. Our findings suggested that SAA inhibits the invasion and migration of OSCC by inhibiting the c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways that control MMP-2 expression. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the antimetastatic effect of SAA and are thus valuable for the development of treatment strategies for metastatic OSCC.
Datum: 31.01.2018

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) influences follicular development in mice between the weaning period and maturity by interfering with ovarian development factors and microRNAs

Although studies have shown that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) can disrupt ovarian function, few reports have focused on follicular development in mice between the weaning period and maturity, especially with respect to microRNA (miRNA) expression. In this study, 21-day-old ICR mice were administered DEHP at doses of 0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg/(kg d) for 6 weeks by gavage. After DEHP administration, a significant decrease in the expression of follicle development-related factors (including c-kit, kitl, gdf9, and atm) was observed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR), but no significant difference in the proteins encoded by these genes was observed by Western blot. Bisulfite sequencing suggested that the total methylation percentages of promoter regions of these genes were not notably altered after DEHP exposure. However, RT-PCR revealed a significantly increased expression of ovarian miRNAs (let-7b, miR-17-5p miR-181a, and miR-151), which inhibit follicular granulosa cell proliferation. Overall, this study showed that DEHP administration from weaning to maturity could suppress the mRNA expression of follicular development factors, and this effect was not achieved through changes in the methylation of DNA in CpG islands of development factors. In addition, DEHP was shown to induce miRNAs to inhibit the proliferation of follicular granulosa cells and the anti-apoptosis function of KITL and GDF9 while increasing bax/bcl2 expression to further promote the apoptosis of granulosa cells.
Datum: 31.01.2018

Fisetin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in human uveal melanoma cells

Fisetin, a diatery flavonoid, been reported that possess anticancer effects in various cancers. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antitumor effects of fisetin in cultured uveal melanoma cell lines and compared with normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. MTT assay was used for evaluating cytotoxic effects of fisetin. Flow cytometry study was used for the determination of apoptosis. JC-1 fluorescent reader was used to determine mitochondrial transmembrane potential changes. The results shown that fisetin dose-dependently decreased the cell viability of uveal melanoma cells but not influenced the cell viability of RPE cells. Apoptosis of uveal melanoma cells was induced by fisetin efficiently. Fisetin inhibited antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins and damaged the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. The levels of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, cytochrome c, and various caspase activities were increased by fisetin. In conclusion, fisetin induces apoptosis of uveal melanoma cells selectively and may be a promising agent to be explored for the treatment of uveal melanoma.
Datum: 31.01.2018

Adipose-derived stem cells decrease cardiomyocyte damage induced by porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxin through suppressing hypertrophy, apoptosis, fibrosis, and MAPK markers

Heart failure is one of the complications related to periodontal disease. In addition to drugs or herbal medicines, stem cell therapy shows potential in the treatment of cardiomyopathy. This study investigates if stem cells exhibit beneficial effects on cardiomyocyte damage induced by porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxin (Pg-LPS). From the experimental results we find that Pg-LPS reduce cardiomyocyte viability via the activation of apoptosis, hypertrophy, fibrosis and MAPK signaling. Pg-LPS damaged cardiomyocytes co-cultured with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) increases cardiomyocyte viability through suppressing the pathological markers described above. Further evidence implies that survival marker, IGF1, secreted from ADSC, may play an important role in the Pg-LPS induced protective effect on cardiomyocyte damage.
Datum: 31.01.2018

Evaluation of the UVB-screening capacity and restorative effects exerted by farnesol gel on UVB-caused sunburn

Farnesol, a natural 15-carbon organic compound, has various microbiological and cellular activities. It has been found to exert apoptosis-inducing effects against carcinoma cells as well as antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the current study, a series of formulations composed of various concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with the addition of hyaluronan (HA) and xanthan gum (XG) was designed to evaluate the UVB-screening and H2O2-eliminating effects of farnesol in normal fibroblasts. Farnesol at 0.005, 0.0075, and 0.01% exhibited significant capacity for H2O2 scavenging; at 0.0025%, it showed insignificant effects. Under 120-min UVB exposure, screening with plural gel composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, and 0.5% XG containing 1.5% or 2% HPMC retained normal fibroblast viability. After 60-min exposure to UVB, screening with plural gel composed of farnesol, HA, XG, and 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2% HPMC decreased the ratio of the G1 phase and increased ratio of the S phase in comparison with the accumulated cell cycle of the normal fibroblasts without screening. The gel with 2% HPMC displayed the strongest cell cycle-reversal ability. In vivo histopathological results showed that the prepared plural gels with 0.5% or 2% HPMC and farnesol, HA, and XG had greater antiphotoaging and reparative effects against UVB-induced changes and damage in the skin. In conclusion, the current in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the prepared plural composed of 0.0025% farnesol, 0.5% HA, 0.5% XG, and 2% HPMC possessed the greatest UVB-screening capacity and the strongest restorative effects on UVB-induced sunburned skin.
Datum: 30.01.2018

Toxicity and effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on Scaptotrigona bipunctata lepeletier, 1836 (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

The neonicotinoid thiamethoxam is widely used in different agricultural crops, and it has a spectrum of action against insects, affecting both pests and pollinators, such as bees. In this study, the effects of exposure to sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam on stingless bees Scaptotrigona bipunctata were evaluated. Foragers bees were exposed to the insecticide and subjected to genetic biochemical, histochemical, and morphological analyses after 24, 48, and 72 h of ingestion. Analysis of isoenzyme esterases revealed significant alterations in the relative activity of EST-4, a type II cholinesterase. Evaluation of the S. bipunctata brain revealed changes in the state of chromatin condensation according to the exposure time and concentration of neonicotinoid compared with the control. Morphological changes were observed in the midgut of this species at all concentrations and exposure times, which may interfere with various physiological processes of these insects. We can conclude that, although thiamethoxam at the concentrations evaluated did not cause high mortality, it induced concentration-dependent changes in bees by activating enzymes related with the protection for xenobiotic, internal morphology and probably these changes may lead to alterations in the activity of bees.
Datum: 26.01.2018

Mechanism underlying the effect of long-term exposure to low dose of pesticides on DNA integrity

Pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, are widely used in intensive agriculture. Recently, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure were found to be associated with many diseases. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effect of low-level exposure to a mixture of pesticides on DNA damage response (DDR) in relation to individual detoxifying variability. A residential population chronically exposed to pesticides was enrolled, biological/environmental pesticide levels; paroxonase 1 (PON-1) activity and 192 Q/R polymorphism and DDR were evaluated at three different periods of pesticide exposure. OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity was decreased in relation to pesticide exposure. The increase of DNA lesions and pesticide levels in the intensive pesticide-spraying period was independent on PON-1 activity. Next, human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells were used as a model for in vitro evaluation of the mechanistic effect of pesticides. Pesticides induced mitochondrial dysfunction leading to ROS formation. ROS from mitochondria induced DNA damage, which in turn induced OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity through 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) expression and activation. Even though OGG1 was overexpressed, an inhibition of its activity, associated with DNA lesion accumulation, was found at prolonged pesticide-exposure. A post-translational regulation of OGG1 by pesticide may be postulated. Taken together, long-term exposure to low-levels of pesticides affects DDR resulting in accumulation of DNA lesions that eventually may lead to cancer or neurological disorders.
Datum: 23.01.2018

Cantharidic acid induces apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 cells via c-Jun N-terminal kinase-regulated caspase-8/-9/-3 activation pathway

Cantharidin, a natural toxin from blister beetles, has shown potent anticancer activities on many solid tumor cells. Recently, cantharidin and its analogue, norcantharidin, were also shown to suppress nonsolid tumors such as chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and leukemic stem cells. However, there is no available information to address the effects of cantharidic acid (CAC), a hydrolysis product of cantharidin, on human AML cells. The present study showed that CAC, at a range of concentrations (0-20 μM), concentration-dependently inhibited cell proliferation in the HL-60 AML cell line. Western blot and flow cytometric assays demonstrated that CAC induced several features of apoptosis such as sub G1-phase cell increase, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, and significantly activated proapoptotic signaling including caspase-8, −9, and −3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in HL-60 AML cells. Moreover, treatment of HL-60 cells with CAC induced concentration- and time- dependent activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Only JNK-, but not p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor can reverse the CAC-induced activation of the caspase-8, −9, and −3. We concluded that CAC can induce apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells via a caspases-dependent pathway, and that the apoptosis-inducing effect of CAC can be regulated by JNK activation signaling.
Datum: 18.01.2018

Naringenin (4,5,7-trihydroxyflavanone) suppresses the development of precancerous lesions via controlling hyperproliferation and inflammation in the colon of Wistar rats

Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and one of the most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. Naringenin (4, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone) is one of the major flavone glycoside present in citrus fruits. Naringenin has long been used in Chinese's traditional medicine because of its exceptional pharmacological properties and non-toxic nature. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of Naringenin against 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH)-induced precancerous lesions, that is, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin depleted foci (MDF), and its role in regulating the oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperproliferation, in the colon of Wistar rats. Animals were divided into five groups. In groups 3-5, Naringenin was administered at the dose of 50 mg/kg b. wt. orally while in groups 2-4, DMH was administered subcutaneously in the groin at the dose of 20 mg/kg b. wt. once a week for first 5 weeks and animals were euthanized after 10 weeks. Administration of Naringenin ameliorated the development of DMH-induced lipid peroxidation, ROS formation, precancerous lesions (ACF and MDF) and it also reduced the infiltration of mast cells, suppressed the immunostaining of NF-κB-p65, COX-2, i-NOS PCNA and Ki 67 Naringenin treatment significantly attenuated the level of TNF-α and it also prevented the depletion of the mucous layer. Our findings suggest that Naringenin has strong chemopreventive potential against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis but further studies are warranted to elucidate the precise mechanism of action of Naringenin.
Datum: 18.01.2018

Hinokitiol ablates myofibroblast activation in precancerous oral submucous fibrosis by targeting Snail

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a precancerous condition with symptoms of limited mouth opening and areca nut chewing habit has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Hinokitiol, a natural tropolone derived from Chamacyparis taiwanensis, has been reported to improve oral lichen planus and inhibit various cancer cells. Here, we showed that hinokitiol reduced the myofibroblast activities in fBMFs and prevented the arecoline-induced transdifferentiation. Treatment of hinokitiol dose-dependently downregulated the myofibroblast markers as well as various EMT transcriptional factors. In particular, we identified that Snail was able to bind to the E-box in the α-SMA promoter. Our data suggested that exposure of fBMFs to hinokitiol mitigated the hallmarks of myofibroblasts, while overexpression of Snail eliminated the effect of hinokitiol. These findings revealed that the inhibitory effect of hinokitiol on myofibroblasts was mediated by repression of α-SMA via regulation of Snail and showed the anti-fibrotic potential of hinokitiol in the treatment of OSF.
Datum: 12.01.2018

Butyl paraben promotes apoptosis in human trophoblast cells through increased oxidative stress-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress

Butyl paraben (BP) has antimicrobial effects and is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is also absorbed into various tissues of the human body. It is known that BP is measurable in maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy, but the effects of BP on placental development, essential for maintaining normal pregnancy, are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BP on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness of human trophoblast cells, using an HTR8/SVneo cell line. BP inhibited cell proliferation and induced both apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, BP promoted the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased Ca2+ concentration in HTR8/SVneo cells, and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. BP also inhibited the activation of PI3K/AKT pathways including AKT, ribosomal protein S6, P70 S6 kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with LY294002 (an AKT inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) revealed that ERK1/2 activity is also involved in BP-mediated signal transduction in HTR8/SVneo cells. We therefore suggest that exposing human trophoblast cells to BP diminishes normal physiological activity, leading to apoptosis and problems with early placental development.
Datum: 10.01.2018

Osthole induces human nasopharyngeal cancer cells apoptosis through Fas–Fas ligand and mitochondrial pathway

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern China and Southeast Asia. The present study investigated the activity of osthole in suppressing NPC along with the underlying mechanism. Cell growth inhibition was measured using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected through 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to identify the signaling pathway. Osthole markedly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the NPC cell line. Western blotting results revealed the increased activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Osthole treatment significantly reduced the expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bax, Bak, BimL, BimS, and t-Bid. Osthole treatment also increased the expression of Fas, FADD, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, DcR2, RIP, and DR5. In addition, osthole treatment significantly increased the expression levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. These results suggested that osthole exerts cytotoxic effects on NPC cell lines mainly through apoptosis mediated by the Fas–Fas ligand and mitochondrial pathway. Osthole could be a potential anticancer agent for NPC.
Datum: 10.01.2018

Interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on expression of CYP1A and its potential regulators in Atlantic croaker liver

Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A. Croaker were exposed to hypoxia (1.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen), 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77, dose: 2 and 8 µg/g body weight), and Aroclor 1254 (a common PCB mixture, dose: 0.5 and 1 µg/g body weight), alone and in combination for 4 weeks. PCB 77 exposure markedly increased hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein expression, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, an indicator of CYP1A enzyme) activity and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression. PCB 77 treatment also increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a cytokine) mRNA levels and protein carbonyl (PC, an indicator of reactive oxygen species, ROS) contents. These marked PCB 77- and Aroclor 1254-induced increases in CYP1A mRNA levels and EROD activity were significantly attenuated by co-exposure to hypoxia, whereas the increases in hepatic eNOS protein and IL-1β mRNA expression, and PC contents were augmented by hypoxia co-exposure. The results suggest that biotransformation of organic xenobiotics by CYP1A is reduced in fish during co-exposure to hypoxia and is accompanied by alterations in eNOS, ROS, and IL-1β levels.
Datum: 08.01.2018

Genotoxicity, biochemical, and biodistribution studies of magnesium oxide nano and microparticles in albino wistar rats after 28-day repeated oral exposure

Increased utilization and exposure levels of Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles (NPs) to humans and environment may raise unexpected consequences. The goal of this study was to evaluate the toxicological implications of MgO NPs and MPs after 28 day repeated oral administration in Wistar rats with three different doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg). The MgO particles were characterised systematically in order to get more insights of the toxicological behaviour. MgO NPs induced significant DNA damage and aberrations in chromosomes. Moreover, hepatic enzymes released into the systemic circulation caused significant elevated levels of physiological enzymes in blood. NPs could interfere with proteins and enzymes and alter the redox balance in cell environment. Significant accumulation of Mg in all tissues and clearance via urine and faeces was noted in size dependent kinetics. Oral administration of MgO NPs altered the biochemical and genotoxic parameters in dose dependent and gender independent manner.
Datum: 28.12.2017

Roles of p21, p53, cyclin D1, CDK-4, estrogen receptor α in aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity in testicular tissue of mice

This study was done in order to investigate time-dependent effect of AFB1 on expression of genes involving in cell cycle check point machinery at G, S, and M phases. For this purpose, 24 mature male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into control and test groups. The animals in test group subdivided into three groups, which received the AFB1 at a daily dose of 20 µg/kg body weight, through intraperitoneal (i.p.) route, for 7, 14, and 21 days. The p21, p53, cyclin D1, CDK4, and ERα expressions at both mRNA and protein level were analyzed by using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Moreover, the tubular differentiation (TDI) and spermiogenesis (SPI) indices were analyzed. Finally, the testicular DNA fragmentation was assessed by using DNA Ladder test. Observations revealed that the AFB1 remarkably (P < .05) reduced cyclin D1, Cdk4, and ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Up-regulated p21 and p53 expression was revealed in AFB1-received animals, which developed time dependently. Histological examinations exhibited a significant reduction in TDI and SPI indices. Finally, the AFB1 resulted in severe DNA fragmentation. Our data showed that the AFB1 by down-regulating the cyclin D1, Cdk4, and ERα expression adversely affects cyclin D1/Cdk4 and cyclin D1/ERα interactions. Moreover, the AFB1-induced overexpression of p21 (as a kinase inhibitor), in turn results in cell cycle arrest via inhibiting the Cdk4 interaction with cyclin D1. Finally, the AFB1-induced DNA damage triggers the p53-dependent apoptosis pathway independent to p21 overexpression.
Datum: 23.12.2017

Effects of low-dose melamine exposure during pregnancy on maternal and fetal kidneys in rats

Despite the previous reports on melamine contamination in high concentrations some years ago, there were not many studies on low-level exposure in daily life, particularly in pregnancy. We investigated the effect of low-dose melamine on the kidneys of the pregnant rats and their developing embryos/fetuses during various gestational stages namely implantation, gastrulation, organogenesis, maturation and whole pregnancy. Our results showed that the repeated low level of melamine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg bw/d) during pregnancy did not cause obstruction of renal tubules although more precipitating crystals were found in the early gestational periods. Simple hyperplasia in the maternal tubules and pelvic epithelium were more prominent after exposed to melamine during the whole gestational period. Neonatal kidneys significantly suffered more from congestion in glomeruli and interstitium, dilated tubules and interstitial edema after melamine administration to the mother in the late and the whole gestational periods. A trend of advance of glomerular development in fetuses was also observed. We conclude that in utero exposure of low-level melamine could post a risk on the kidneys of the pregnant mother as well as the developing fetuses, which may further increase the possibility of other health problems later in life.
Datum: 19.12.2017

Antifibrotic effects of D-limonene (5(1-methyl-4-[1-methylethenyl]) cyclohexane) in CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats

This study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of D-Limonene—a component of volatile oils extracted from citrus plants. D-limonene is reported to have numerous therapeutic properties. CCl4-intduced model of liver fibrosis in Wistar rats is most widely used model to study chemopreventive studies. CCl4-intoxication significantly increased serum aminotransferases and total cholesterol these effects were prevented by cotreatment with D-Limonene. Also, CCl4-intoxication caused depletion of glutathione and other antioxidant enzymes while D-Limonene preserved them within normal values. Hydroxyproline and malondialdehyde content was increased markedly by CCl4 treatment while D-Limonene prevented these alterations. Levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, and α-SMA were also assessed; CCl4 increased the expression of α-SMA, NF-κB and other downstream inflammatory cascade while D-Limonene co-treatment inhibited them. Collectively these findings indicate that D-Limonene possesses potent antifibrotic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Datum: 18.12.2017

Bisphenol A is an exogenous toxin that promotes mitochondrial injury and death in tubular cells

Background Uremic toxins that accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) contribute to CKD complications, such as CKD progression. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin, structurally related with p-cresol, that accumulates in CKD. Our aim was to characterize the nephrotoxic potential of BPA. Specifically, we addressed BPA toxicity over energy-demanding proximal tubular cells. Methods Cell death and oxidative stress were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Functional assays tested ATP, intracellular Ca2+, mitochondrial function (tetramethylrhodamine methyl [TMRM]), oxygen consumption, Nrf2-binding, MitoSOX, and NADPH oxidase activity. Gene expression was assessed by qRT-PCR. Results Following acute exposure (24 hours), proximal tubular cell viability was decreased by BPA concentrations ≥50 μM while a seven-day exposure resulted in a progressive loss of cell viability at a nanomolar range. Within 24 hours, BPA promoted mitochondrial dysfunction leading to energy depletion and increased mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidative stress and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. An antioxidant response was observed manifested by nuclear Nrf2 translocation and increased expression of the Nrf2 target genes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO-1). Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that BPA causes mitochondrial injury, oxidative stress and apoptotic death in tubular cells. These results characterize BPA as an exogenous toxin that, similar to uremic toxins, may contribute to CKD progression.
Datum: 07.12.2017

Exposure to cadmium during gestation and lactation affects development and function of Leydig cells in male offspring

Toxic effects of maternal exposure to Cadmium (Cd) on Leydig cells of male offspring arises much concern recently, but its toxic effects on the development of Leydig cells and androgen synthesis have not been elucidated. In this study, female rats were exposed to Cd during gestation and lactation, and the development of Leydig cells in the first filial-generation (F1) male rats was investigated. The steroidogenic signaling pathway and biomarkers related to the development of Leydig cells were detected to disclose how maternal Cd-exposure caused reproductive damage. F1 male rats with maternal Cd-exposure gained a low relative weight of testis and declined levels of steroid hormones. Maternal Cd-exposure interrupted the development of Leydig cells with high expression of SRD5α and cell morphology of immature Leydig cells in adulthood, inhibited the activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/ protein kinase A signaling pathway and down-regulated the steroidogenic enzymes. These results would help to disclose the origin of male sexual dysfunction in the developmental stages of Leydig cells.
Datum: 07.12.2017

In vitro stimulatory effect of N-acetyl tryptophan-glucopyranoside against gamma radiation induced immunosuppression

Radiation-induced manifestations like free radical burst, oxidative damage and apoptosis leading to cell death. In present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucopyranoside (NATG) was assessed for its immune-radioprotective activities using J774A.1 cells. Clonogenic cell survival, cell cycle progression and cytokines i.e. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A expression were evaluated in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using clonogenic formation ability, flow cytometry and ELISA assay. Results indicated that 0.25μg/ml NATG exhibited maximum radioprotection against gamma-radiation (2Gy) without intervening in cell cycle progression. NATG pretreated (−2 h) plus irradiated cells showed significant elevation in IFN-γ (∼38.2%), IL-17A (∼53.7%) and IL-12 (∼58.8%) expression as compared to only irradiated cells. Conversely, significant decrease in TNF-α (∼21.6%), IL-10 (∼31.2%), IL-2 (∼23.7%) and IL-13 expression (∼17.8%) were observed in NATG pretreated plus irradiated cells as compared to irradiated cells. Conclusively, NATG pretreatment to irradiated J774A.1 cells, stimulate Th1 while diminish Th2 cytokines that contributes to radioprotection.
Datum: 04.12.2017

Dihydroxyacetone induces G2/M arrest and apoptotic cell death in A375P melanoma cells

The active ingredient in sunless tanning products (STPs) is a simple sugar, dihydroxyacetone (DHA). Several studies have demonstrated that DHA is absorbed within the viable layers of skin and not fully contained within the stratum corneum. Additionally, spray tanning and other aerosolized application methods have increased the risk of internal exposure through mucous membranes and inhalation. Beyond its presence in STPs, DHA also occurs as an endogenous by-product of fructose metabolism, and an excess of DHA in cells can induce advanced glycation end (AGE) products and oxidative stress. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous exposures to DHA may be harmful to cells, and it has already been demonstrated that exogenous exposure to DHA is cytotoxic in immortalized keratinocytes. Still, little is known about the exogenous DHA exposure effects on other skin components. In this study, we explore the effects of exogenous DHA exposure in a human melanoma cell line, A375P. Melanoma cells were sensitive to DHA and displayed a transient burst of reactive oxygen species within an hour of exposure. Cell cycle arrest at G2/M was observed within 24 h of exposure, and apoptosis, monitored by the cleavage of PARP-1 and Caspase-3, was detected within 72 h of exposure to DHA. Together, these demonstrate that exogenous exposure to DHA has cytotoxic effects in our selected cell model and indicates the need to further investigate the exogenous exposure effects of DHA in other relevant exposure models.
Datum: 29.11.2017

Norcantharidin induce apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma through caspase and mitochondrial pathway

While Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon in western countries, it is endemic in Southeast Asia and Southern China. Previous study of norcantharidin (NCTD), isolated from blister beetles, has proved its anticancer effect on various tumors. However, the effect of NCTD in NPC has never been studied. The purpose of this study is to inspect the suppression activity of NCTD on NPC, along with the underlying mechanism. NPC cell line NPC-BM was treated with NCTD. NCTD remarkably inhibited proliferation and induce apoptosis in NPC-BM cell. Activation of caspase-3, −8, −9 was observed through western blotting. The expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL was significantly reduced, but expression of proapoptotic protein Bak was increased after treatment of NCTD. The cytotoxic effect of NCTD on NPC-BM cell is mainly due to apoptosis, mediated by caspase and mitochondrial pathway. These results suggested that NCTD could be a potential anticancer agent for NPC.
Datum: 29.11.2017

Effect of the cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress on Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization

Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which is degraded mainly depending on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy pathways. However, little data reported the cross-talk between ER stress and autophagy on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. To explore the relationship between ER stress and autophagy, we used 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor), rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) in mice model of manganism. After 4 weeks of treatment with Mn, both ER stress and autophagy were activated. Exposed to Mn also resulted in α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage in the brain tissue of mice, which could be relieved by 4-PBA pretreatment. Moreover, when the ER stress was inhibited, the activation of autophagy was also inhibited. Rap pretreatment significantly activated autophagy and decreased α-Syn oligomers. However, 3-MA pretreatment inhibited autophagy resulting in increase of α-Syn oligomers, and compensatorily activated PERK signaling pathway. Our results also demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA aggravated neuronal cell damage. The findings clearly demonstrated that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress might play an important role in the α-Syn oligomerization and neurotoxicity by Mn.
Datum: 29.11.2017

Berberine impairs embryonic development in vitro and in vivo through oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic processes

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from several traditional Chinese herbal medicines, has been shown to suppress growth and induce apoptosis in some tumor cell lines. However, berberine has also been reported to attenuate H2O2-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis. The basis for these ambiguous effects of berberine—triggering or preventing apoptosis—has not been well characterized to date. In the current investigation, we examined whether berberine exerts cytotoxic effects on mouse embryos at the blastocyst stage and affects subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of blastocysts with berberine (2.5-10 μM) induced a significant increase in apoptosis and a corresponding decrease in trophectoderm cell number. Moreover, the implantation success rate of blastocysts pretreated with berberine was lower than that of their control counterparts. Pretreatment with berberine was also associated with increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. In an animal model, intravenous injection of berberine (2, 4, or 6 mg/kg body weight/d) for 4 days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst cells and early embryonic developmental injury. Berberine-induced injury of mouse blastocysts appeared to be attributable to oxidative stress-triggered intrinsic apoptotic signaling processes that impaired preimplantation and postimplantation embryonic development. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that berberine induces apoptosis and retards early preimplantation and postimplantation development of mouse embryos, both in vitro and in vivo.
Datum: 23.11.2017

4β-Hydroxywithanolide E selectively induces oxidative DNA damage for selective killing of oral cancer cells

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction had been previously reported in 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE)-induced selective killing of oral cancer cells, but the mechanism involving ROS and the DNA damage effect remain unclear. This study explores the role of ROS and oxidative DNA damage of 4βHWE in the selective killing of oral cancer cells. Changes in cell viability, morphology, ROS, DNA double strand break (DSB) signaling (γH2AX foci in immunofluorescence and DSB signaling in western blotting), and oxidative DNA damage (8-oxo-2′deoxyguanosine [8-oxodG]) were detected in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and/or normal (HGF-1) cells. 4βHWE decreased cell viability, changed cell morphology and induced ROS generation in oral cancer cells rather than oral normal cells, which were recovered by a free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). For immunofluorescence, 4βHWE also accumulated more of the DSB marker, γH2AX foci, in oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. For western blotting, DSB signaling proteins such as γH2AX and MRN complex (MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1) were overexpressed in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells in different concentrations and treatment time. In the formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycolyase (Fpg)-based comet assay and 8-oxodG-based flow cytometry, the 8-oxodG expressions were higher in 4βHWE-treated oral cancer cells than in oral normal cells. All the 4βHWE-induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage to oral cancer cells were recovered by NAC pretreatment. Taken together, the 4βHWE selectively induced DSB and oxidative DNA damage for the ROS-mediated selective killing of oral cancer cells.
Datum: 22.11.2017

Andrographolide inhibits hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and endothelin 1 expression through the heme oxygenase 1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways in EA.hy926 cells

Andrographolide is a potent anti-inflammatory agent found in Andrographis paniculata. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor with pro-inflammatory properties secreted in response to hypoxia. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP-5) is a dual-specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates threonine and tyrosine residues of MAPKs. We showed previously that hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and ET-1 secretion are dependent on p38 MAPK in EA.hy926 cells. Here, we investigate what role MKP-5 plays in andrographolide's inhibition of hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α and ET-1. Hypoxic conditions were created using the hypoxia-mimetic agent CoCl2. Andrographolide enhanced HO-1 and MKP-5 expression and cellular cGMP content in addition to inhibiting hypoxia-induced ROS generation. Concomitantly, the HO-1 byproduct CO and the cGMP analogue 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP) increased MKP-5 expression, and pretreatment with CO and 8-Br-cGMP inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression. Transfection of HO-1 siRNA or pretreatment with the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-9 or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a specific inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, reduced andrographolide-induced MKP-5 expression. Moreover, silencing MKP-5 or treatment with the phosphatase inhibitor vanadate abrogated andrographolide's suppressing hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation and HIF-1α expression. The inhibition of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and ET-1 expression by andrographolide is likely associated with HO-1/CO/cGMP/MKP-5 pathways, which is involved in inhibiting hypoxia-induced p38 MAPK activation.
Datum: 22.11.2017

Cantharidic acid induces apoptosis through the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma

Cantharidin analogs exhibit anticancer activities, including apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of cantharidic acid (CA), a cantharidin analog, on apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are unclear. Thus, in this study, we evaluated the anticancer activities of CA by investigating its ability to trigger apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 cells. Our data demonstrated that CA effectively inhibited the proliferation of SK-Hep-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CA effectively triggered cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Western blotting revealed that CA significantly activated proapoptotic signaling including caspase-3, −8, and −9 in SK-Hep-1 cells. Moreover, treatment of SK-Hep-1 cells with CA induced the activation of ERK, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Moreover, the inhibition of p38 by specific inhibitors abolished CA-induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, our results indicated that CA induces apoptosis in SK-Hep-1 cells through a p38-mediated apoptotic pathway and could be a new HCC therapeutic agent.
Datum: 21.11.2017

Does intranasal instillation TiO2 cause pulmonary tumorigenesis in male mice?

Datum: 21.10.2017

Pulmonary fibrosis of mice and its molecular mechanism following chronic inhaled exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles

Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano–TiO2) has been widely used in industry, medicine and daily life. However, assessment of nano–TiO2 toxicity on health is an important occupational safety issue. Numerous studies have demonstrated that nano-TiO2 can induced sustained pulmonary inflammation, but whether chronic exposure to nano–TiO2 results in pulmonary fibrosis is unclear. In this study, therefore, nano–TiO2 was administered to the male mice by nasal administration for six consecutive months, the inflammatory and/or fibrogenic responses induced by nano–TiO2 were investigated. The results showed that chronic inhaled nano–TiO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and firosis, increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic cytokines including nuclear factor-κB, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor–α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, macrophage inflammatory protein–2, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, transform growth factor –β1, osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase–1, −2, −3, and −9, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1, collagen, platelet derived growth factor, and connective tissue growth factor in mouse lung. Taken together, nano-TiO2-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis are closely associated with increased expression of inflammatory and/or fibrotic cytokines, an imbalanced production of MMPs and TIMP–1 that favors fibrosis in mice, implying that nano–TiO2 may lead to potential health effects.
Datum: 25.09.2017

Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits

The following article from Environmental Toxicology, ‘Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits’ by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with ‘Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)’ by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188–194, 2005.
Datum: 15.01.2010


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 04.01.2018.

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