Environmental Toxicology

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles.


The international scientific journal Environmental Toxicology publishes in the areas of toxicity and toxicology of environmental pollutants in air, dust, sediment, soil and water, and natural toxins in the environment.

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 - Atmospheric Chemistry.

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 - Environmental Science and Technology.



Environmental Toxicology - Abstracts



Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extraction of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana induced G0/G1 phase arrest via inhibition of cyclins D and E and induction of apoptosis through caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells

Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, belonging to the Vitaceae family and Vitis genus, and widely used as folk herbal medicine. It is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, hypertension, neuroprotection, jaundice, and arthritis. We used the wild-collected VTT and sterilized them to establish the plant tissue culture, and then took the leaves for DNA sequencing to determine its original base. We use methanol to extract VTT in four different solvents: 1-butanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. These four preliminary extracts were used to treat human prostate cancer DU145 cells in vitro. We use the flow cytometry to check the cell survival situation. Finally, we found the ethyl acetate layer roughing product (referred VTEA) in human prostate cancer apoptotic effects of cell line DU-145. In the present studies, we use the crude extract of VTT to examine whether or not it can induce apoptosis of DU145 cells in vitro. Viability assays for extracts of VTT treatment showed that it had dose-dependent effect on human prostate cancer DU145 cells. We also found that the extract of VTT induces time-dependent mitochondrial and intrinsic-dependent apoptosis pathways. The in vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated by cell cycle analysis and the determination of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in DU145 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that extracts of VTT induced a significant increase in the number of cells in G0/G1 phase. The extract of VTT induced chromatin changes and apoptosis of DU145 cells also were confirmed by DAPI and PI staining that were measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Finally, the expression of relevant proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. These results promoted us to further evaluate apoptosis associated proteins and elucidate the possible signal pathway in DU-145 cells after treated with the extract of VTT.
Datum: 22.09.2017


Cover Image

The cover image, by Cong Yue et al., is based on the Research Article Protective effects of folic acid on PM2.5-induced cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos by targeting AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways, DOI: 10.1002/tox.22448.
Datum: 08.09.2017


ISSUE INFORMATION - TOC


Datum: 08.09.2017


The role S-nitrosylation in manganese-induced autophagy dysregulation in SH-SY5Y cells

Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce nitrosative stress. The dysregulation of autophagy has implicated in nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity alterations. However, the mechanism of Mn-induced autophagic dysregulation is unclear. The protein of Bcl-2 was considered as a key role that could participate to the autophagy signaling regulation. To further explore whether S-nitrosylation of Bcl-2 involved in Mn-induced autophagy dysregulation, we treated human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells with Mn and pretreated cells with 1400 W, a selective iNOS inhibitor. After cells were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there were significant increases in production of NO, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity, the mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS. Interestingly, autophagy was activated after cells were treated with Mn for 0–12 h; while the degradation process of autophagy-lysosome pathway was blocked after cells were treated with Mn for 24 h. Moreover, S-nitrosylated JNK and Bcl-2 also increased and phospho-JNK and phospho-Bcl-2 reduced in Mn-treated cells. Then, the affinity between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 increased significantly in Mn-treated cells. We used the 1400 W to neutralize Mn-induced nitrosative stress. The results showed that S-nitrosylated JNK and Bcl-2 reduced while their phosphorylation were recovered to some extent. The findings revealed that NO-mediated S-nitrosylation of Bcl-2 directly affected the interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 leading to autophagy inhibition.
Datum: 30.08.2017


Cellular apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats attenuated by anthocyanins via activation of IGFI-R/PI3K/Akt survival signaling

Anthocyanins are known cyto-protective agents against various stress conditions. In this study cardio-protective effect of anthocyanins from black rice against diabetic mellitus (DM) was evaluated using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rat model. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were administered with STZ (55 mg kg−1, IP) to induce DM; rats in the treatment group received 250 mg oral anthocyanin/kg/day during the 4-week treatment period. DM and the control rats received normal saline through oral gavage. The results reveal that STZ-induced DM elevates myocardial apoptosis and associated proapoptotic proteins but down-regulates the proteins of IGF1R mediated survival signaling mechanism. Furthermore, the functional parameters such as the ejection-fraction and fraction-shortening in the DM rat hearts declined considerably. However, the rats treated with anthocyanins significantly reduced apoptosis and the associated proapoptotic proteins and further increased the survival signals to restore the cardiac functions in DM rats. Anthocyanin supplementation enhances cardiomyocyte survival and restores cardiac function.
Datum: 30.08.2017


The mechanisms for lung cancer risk of PM2.5: Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major component of air pollutions that are closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, the role of PM2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we performed acute (24 hours) and chronic (five passages) exposure models to investigate the carcinogenetic mechanisms of PM2.5 by targeting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. We found that both acute and chronic PM2.5 exposure enhanced cell migration and invasion, decreased mRNA expression of epithelial markers and increased mRNA expression of mesenchymal markers. Chronic PM2.5 exposure further induced notable EMT morphology and CSC properties, indicating the developing process of cell malignant behaviors from acute to chronic PM2.5 exposure. CSC properties induced by chronic PM2.5 exposure characterized with increased cell-surface markers (CD44, ABCG2), self-renewal genes (SOX2 and OCT4), side population cells and neoplastic capacity. Furthermore, the levels of three stemness-associated microRNAs, Let-7a, miR-16 and miR-34a, were found to be significantly downregulated by chronic PM2.5 exposure, with microarray data analysis from TCGA database showing their lower expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues than that in the adjacent normal lung tissues. These data revealed that the induction of EMT and CSC properties were involved in the lung cancer risk of PM2.5, and implicated CSC properties and related microRNAs as possible biomarkers for carcinogenicity prediction of PM2.5.
Datum: 28.08.2017


Reduced Nrf2 activation in PI3K phosphorylation-impaired vitiliginous keratinocytes increases susceptibility to ROS-generating chemical-induced apoptosis

Keratinocytes in affected epidermis of vitiligo patients are known to have impaired activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Based on critical roles of keratinocytes and oxidative stress in vitiligo development, this study examined whether keratinocytes with impaired PI3K activation were more vulnerable to apoptosis caused by oxidative stress from phenolic compounds, p-tert-butylphenol (4-TBP) and hydroquinone (HQ). Cell viability assay, FACS analysis, ELISA for TNF-α or IL-1a, ROS assay, Western blot analysis for Nrf2 expression, and confocal microscopy with anti-Nrf2 and phospho-PI3K antibodies were done on primary cultured normal human keratinocytes with or without PI3K knockdown in the presence or absence of chemical treatment or antioxidant. Immunofluorescence staining using anti-Nrf2, phospho-PI3K, TNF-ɑ, and IL-1ɑ antibodies, ROS assay using dihydroethidium, and TUNEL assay were performed on sets of depigmented and normally pigmented skin from vitiligo patients. Results showed that 4-TBP or HQ treatment increased apoptosis and the expression levels of TNF-ɑ, IL-1ɑ, and ROS in PI3K-knockdown keratinocytes which reduced Nrf2 nuclear translocation compared to control keratinocytes. These changes were significantly recovered by an antioxidant treatment. Depigmented epidermis of vitiligo patients also showed lower levels of Nrf2 and phospho-PI3K but higher levels of ROS, TNF-ɑ, IL-1ɑ, and ROS with more TUNEL-positive cells. Therefore, impaired PI3K activation in keratinocytes in depigmented epidermis of vitiligo patients are vulnerable to apoptosis caused by ROS-generating chemicals due to reduced Nrf2 activation.
Datum: 24.08.2017


Actein alleviates 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated cellular dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

The environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known to affect bone metabolism. We evaluated the protective effects of the triterpene glycoside actein from the herb black cohosh against TCDD-induced toxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. We found that TCDD significantly reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis and autophagy in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells (P < .05). In addition, TCDD treatment resulted in a significant increase in intracellular calcium concentration, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and cardiolipin peroxidation, whereas pretreatment with actein significantly mitigated these effects (P < .05). The effects of TCDD on extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), aryl hydrocarbon receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, and cytochrome P450 1A1 levels in MC3T3-E1 cells were significantly inhibited by actein. The levels of superoxide dismutase, ERK1, and nuclear factor kappa B mRNA were also effectively restored by pretreatment with actein. Furthermore, actein treatment resulted in a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen content, as well as in the expression of genes associated with osteoblastic differentiation (ALP, type I collagen, osteoprotegerin, bone sialoprotein, and osterix). This study demonstrates the underlying molecular mechanisms of cytoprotection exerted by actein against TCDD-induced oxidative stress and osteoblast damage.
Datum: 24.08.2017


Galangin suppresses H2O2-induced aging in human dermal fibroblasts

Human skin aging is a progressive process that includes intrinsic aging and extrinsic photodamage, both of which can cause an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in dermal fibrosis dysfunction and wrinkle formation. Galangin is a flavonoid that exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidative potential. Previous studies have reported that galangin has antioxidative activity against ROS-mediated stress. The aim of the present study is to determine the antiaging effects of galangin on dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. In this study, we established a hydrogen peroxide-induced inflammation and aging model using human HS68 dermal fibroblasts. Stimulation of fibroblasts with H2O2 is associated with skin aging and increased expression of inflammation-related proteins, along with downregulation of collagen I/III formation and expression of antioxidative proteins. Galangin effectively reduced NF-κB activation, the expression of inflammation-related proteins and cell aging. Galangin also reversed H2O2-activated cell senescence in HS68 cells. Our results reveal that galangin protects human dermal fibroblasts by inhibiting NF-κB activation, decreases the expression of inflammatory factors and upregulates IGF1R/Akt-related proteins, indicating that galangin may be a potential candidate for developing natural antiaging products that protect skin from damage caused by ROS.
Datum: 18.08.2017


Evaluation of cytotoxicity of propofol and its related mechanism in glioblastoma cells and astrocytes

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol), one of the extensively and commonly used anesthetic agents, has been shown to affect the biological behavior of various models. Previous researches have shown that propofol-induced cytotoxicity might cause anticancer effect in different cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of propofol on cytotoxicity is still elusive in human glioblastoma cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate effects of propofol on cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS production, and establish the relationship between oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in GBM 8401 human glioblastoma cells and DI TNC1 rat astrocytes. Propofol (20–30 μM) concentration-dependently induced cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and increased ROS production in GBM 8401 cells but not in DI TNC1 cells. In GBM 8401 cells, propofol induced G2/M phase cell arrest, which affected the CDK1, cyclin B1, p53, and p21 protein expression levels. Furthermore, propofol induced oxygen stresses by increasing O2− and H2O2 levels but treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) partially reversed propofol-regulated antioxidative enzyme levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Most significantly, propofol induced apoptotic effects by decreasing Bcl-2 but increasing Bax, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-3 levels, which were partially reversed by NAC. Moreover, the pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK also partially prevented propofol-induced apoptosis. Together, in GBM 8401 cells but not in DI TNC1 cells, propofol activated ROS-associated apoptosis that involved cell cycle arrest and caspase activation. These findings indicate that propofol not only can be an anesthetic agent which reduces pain but also has the potential to be used for the treatment of human glioblastoma.
Datum: 14.08.2017


Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract treatment attenuated preneoplastic lesions and oxidative stress in the livers of diethylnitrosamine-treated rats

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) possesses antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer potential. This study determined the protective role of aqueous extract from Nelumbo nucifera leaves (NLE) against N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular carcinogenesis in a sample of Sprague–Dawley rats. NLE was fed orally to rats in which hepatic carcinoma was induced with DEN for 12 weeks. Five groups of 12 rats each were used for the study: Group I (control group) rats received distilled water; Group II rats were induced with DEN; Group III rats were induced with DEN and cotreated with 0.5% NLE; Group IV rats were induced with DEN and cotreated with 1.0% NLE; and Group V rats were induced with DEN and cotreated with 2.0% NLE. Clinical chemistry, organ weight, inflammatory marker, protein expression, enzyme, and antioxidant analyses were conducted. NLE administration to rats resulted in significantly decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin, which is indicative of hepatocellular damage, compared with the control group. DEN-induced oxidative stress was inhibited by NLE and this inhibition was paralleled by decreased lipid peroxides and increased glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activity in liver tissues. The status of nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as reduced glutathione, was also found to be increased in NLE-administered rats. Furthermore, NLE decreased tumor size, hepatic Rac1, PKCα, and GSTπ expressions compared with the DEN-only group. Thus, supplementation of NLE reduced the adverse changes that occur because of liver cancer. These results prove that NLE protects against liver carcinogenesis induced because of treatment with DEN through blocking lipid peroxidation, hepatic cell damage, and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.
Datum: 14.08.2017


Ouabain impairs cell migration, and invasion and alters gene expression of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells

Ouabain, the specific Na+/K+-ATPase blocker, has biological activity including anti-proliferative and anti-metastasis effects in cancer cell. There is no study to show ouabain inhibiting cell migration and invasion in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Thus, we investigated the effect of ouabain on the cell migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Results indicated that ouabain significantly decreased the percentage of viable cells at 2.5-5.0 μM, thus, we selected 0.25-1.0 μM for inhibiting studies. Ouabain inhibited cell migration, invasion and the enzymatic activities of MMP-2, and also affected the expression of metastasis-associated protein in U-2 OS cells. The cDNA microarray assay indicated that CDH1, TGFBR3, SHC3 and MAP2K6 metastasis-related genes were increased, but CCND1, JUN, CDKN1A, TGFB1, 2 and 3, SMAD4, MMP13, MMP2 and FN1 genes were decreased. These findings provide more information regarding ouabain inhibited cell migration and invasion and associated gene expressions in U-2 OS cells after exposed to ouabain.
Datum: 10.08.2017


Diallyl trisulfide inhibits cell migration and invasion of human melanoma a375 cells via inhibiting integrin/facal adhesion kinase pathway

Melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin disease due to its propensity for metastasis. Studies have shown that integrin-mediated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signal pathway is implicated in cell proliferation, survival and metastasis of tumor cells. Our previous results indicated that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) provided its antimelanoma activity via inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore DATS mediated antimetastatic effect and the corresponding mechanism in human melanoma A375 cells. We found that DATS exhibited an inhibitory effect on the abilities of migration and invasion in A375 cells under noncytotoxic concentrations analyzed by wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion chamber system. DATS attenuated invasion of A375 cells with characteristic of decreased activities and protein expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9. Moreover, DATS exerted an inhibitory effect on cell adhesion of A375 cells, which is in correlation with the change in integrin signaling pathway. Results of Western blotting showed that DATS decreased the levels of several integrin subunits, including α4, α5, αv, β1, β3 and β4. Subsequently, DATS induced a strong decrease in total FAK, phosphorylated FAK Tyr-397,-576, −577, and disorganized F-actin stress fibers, resulting in a nonmigratory phenotype. These results suggest that the antimetastatic potential of DATS for human melanoma cells might be due to the disruption of integrin/FAK signaling pathway.
Datum: 25.07.2017


Tricetin suppresses human oral cancer cell migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

Tricetin is a flavonoid derivative and a potent anti-inflammatory and anticancer agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of tricetin on human oral cancer cell migration remains unclear. The cell migration and invasion abilities of three oral cancer cell lines (SCC-9, HSC-3, and OECM-1) were analyzed using Boyden chamber migration assays. Our results demonstrated that tricetin attenuates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced SCC-9, HSC-3, and OECM-1 cell invasiveness and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 enzyme activity. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and luciferase reporter assay revealed that tricetin downregulates the mRNA expression and promoter activity of MMP-9. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed that tricetin significantly reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38 levels but not those of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that tricetin suppresses MMP-9 enzymatic activity by downregulating the p38/JNK1/2 pathway and might be a beneficial chemopreventive agent.
Datum: 21.07.2017


β-mangostin suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion through inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activating the ERK and JNK pathways

β-mangostin is a dietary xanthone that has been reported to have the anticancer properties in some human cancer cell types. However, the antimetastatic effect and molecular mechanism of β-mangostin action in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unknown. In this study, we found that β-mangostin did not induce cytotoxicity in human HCC cells (SK-Hep-1, Huh-7 and HA22T/VGH cells). β-mangostin could inhibit migration and invasion of human HCC cells. Meanwhile, β-mangostin significantly decreased the protein activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 via increasing the activation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, MEK4 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, using specific inhibitor for ERK1/2 (PD98059) and JNK1/2 (JNKII) significantly restored the expression of MMP-2/-9 and invasion by β-mangostin treatment in Huh-7 cells. In addition, β-mangostin effectively restored the protein levels and transcription activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in siERK or siJNK-transfected Huh-7 cells, concomitantly with promotion on cell migration and invasion. Taken together, these findings are the first to demonstrate the antimetastatic activity of β-mangostin against human HCC cells, which may act as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC.
Datum: 19.07.2017


XIAP inhibitor embelin induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

Embelin is an active ingredient of traditional herbal remedies for cancer and other diseases. Recently, it has been suggested that autophagy may play an important role in cancer therapy. However, little data are available regarding the role of autophagy in oral cancers. Therefore, we conducted this study to examine whether Embelin modulates autophagy in Ca9-22. Our results showed that Embelin had anticancer activity against the Ca9-22 human tongue squamous cell, and we observed that autophagic vacuoles were formed by MDC and AO. We also analyzed Embelin-treated Ca9-22 cells for the presence of biochemical markers and found that it directly affected the conversion of LC3-II, the degradation of p62/SQSTM1, full-length cleavage formation of ATG5-ATG12 complex and Beline-1, and caspase activation. Rescue experiments using an autophagy inhibitor showed Embelin-induced cell death in Ca9-22, confirming that autophagy acts as a pro-death signal. Furthermore, Embelin exhibited anticancer activity against Ca9-22 via both autophagy and apoptosis. These findings suggest that Embelin may potentially contribute to oral cancer treatment and provide useful information for the development of a new therapeutic agent.
Datum: 19.07.2017


Protective effects of folic acid on PM2.5-induced cardiac developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos by targeting AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways

Our previous observations indicated that extractable organic matter (EOM) from PM2.5 induced malformations in the heart of zebrafish embryos by activating AhR and inhibiting canonical Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. As a nutritional factor, folic acid (FA) is reported to prevent cardiac defects during embryo development. Hence, we hypothesize that FA may prevent PM2.5-induced heart defects by interfering with AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our results showed that FA supplementation alleviated the EOM-induced heart defects in zebrafish embryos, and both AhR inhibitor CH223191 and Wnt activator CHIR99021 enhanced the protective efficiency of FA. Furthermore, FA supplementation attenuated the EOM-induced upregulation of AhR and its target genes including Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1, Ahrra, and Ahrrb. EROD assay confirmed that the EOM agonized Cyp1a1 activity was diminished by FA. The EOM-induced downregulation of β-catenin and its target genes including Nkx2.5, Axin2, Sox9b, and Cox2b were recovered or even overexpressed in embryos exposed to EOM plus FA. In conclusion, our study suggested that FA supplementation protected against PM2.5 cardiac development toxicity by targeting AhR and Wnt/β-catenin signal pathways.
Datum: 19.07.2017


Auramine O, an incense smoke ingredient, promotes lung cancer malignancy

Burning incense to worship deities is a popular religious ritual in large parts of Asia, and is a popular custom affecting more than 1.5 billion adherents. Due to incomplete combustion, burning incense has been well recognized to generate airborne hazards to human health. However, the correlation between burning incense and lung cancer in epidemiological studies remains controversy. Therefore, we speculated that some unknown materials in incense smoke are involved in the initiation or progression of lung cancer. Based on this hypothesis, we identified a major compound auramine O (AuO) from the water-soluble fraction of incense burned condensate using mass spectrometry. AuO is commonly used in incense manufacture as a colorant. Due to thermostable, AuO released from burned incenses becomes an unexpected air pollutant. AuO is classified as a Group 2B chemical by the International Agency of Research on Cancer (IARC), however, the damage of AuO to the respiratory system remains elusive. Our study revealed that AuO has no apparent effect on malignant transformation; but, it dramatically promotes lung cancer malignancy. AuO accumulates in the nucleus and induces the autophagy activity in lung tumor cells. AuO significantly enhances migration and invasive abilities and the in vitro and in vivo stemness features of lung tumor cells through activating the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1), and ALDH1A1 knockdown attenuates AuO-induced autophagy activity and blocks AuO-induced lung tumor malignancy. In conclusion, we found that AuO, an ingredient of incense smoke, significantly increases the metastatic abilities and stemness characters of lung tumor cells through the activation of ALDH1A1, which is known to be associated with poor outcome and progression of lung cancer. For public health, reducing or avoiding the use of AuO in incense is recommended.
Datum: 19.07.2017


Long term impact of the endocrine disruptor tributyltin on male fertility following a single acute exposure

Declining rate of human fertility is a growing concern, where lifestyle and environmental factors play an important role. We recently demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT), an omnipresent endocrine disruptor, affects testicular cells in vitro. In this study, male Wistar rats were gavaged a single dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg TBT-chloride (TBTC) (to mimic accidental exposure in vivo) and sacrificed on day 3 and day 7, respectively. TBT bioavailability was evaluated by estimating total tin content, and essential metal levels were analyzed along with redox molecules (ROS and GSH/GSSG) to understand the effect on physiological conditions. Blood-testicular barrier (BTB) disruption, levels of associated proteins and activity of proteolytic enzymes were evaluated to understand the effect on BTB. Histological analysis of tissue architecture and effect on protein expression of steroidogenic, stress and apoptotic markers were also evaluated. Widespread TBTC pollution can be an eventual threat to male fertility worldwide.
Datum: 14.07.2017


Biomarker responses and PAH ratios in fish inhabiting an estuarine urban waterway

Many cities worldwide are established adjacent to estuaries and their catchments resulting in estuarine contamination due to intense anthropogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate if fish living in an estuarine urban waterway were affected by contamination, via the measurement of a suite of biomarkers of fish health. Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) were sampled in a small urban embayment and a suite of biomarkers of fish health measured. These were condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), hepatic EROD activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) biliary metabolites, serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (s-SDH) and branchial enzymes cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. The biomarkers of exposure EROD activity, and pyrene- and B(a)P-type biliary metabolites confirmed current or recent exposure of the fish and that fish were metabolizing contaminants. Relative to a reference site, LSI was higher in fish collected in the urban inlet as was the metabolic enzyme LDH activity. CF, GSI, s-SDH, CCO, and naphthalene-type metabolites were at similar levels in the urban inlet relative to the reference site. PAH biliary metabolite ratios of high-molecular-weight to low-molecular-weight suggest that fish from the urban inlet were exposed to pyrogenic PAHs, likely from legacy contamination and road runoff entering the embayment. Similarly, the sediment PAH ratios and the freshness indices suggested legacy contamination of a pyrogenic source, likely originating from the adjacent historic gasworks site and a degree of contamination of petrogenic nature entering the inlet via storm water discharge. Biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed that black bream collected in the Claisebrook Cove inlet, Western Australia, are currently exposed to contamination and are experiencing metabolic perturbations not observed in fish collected at a nearby reference site.
Datum: 14.07.2017


Effects of ochratoxin A on ER stress, MAPK signaling pathway and autophagy of kidney and spleen in pigs

Ochratoxin A (OTA), a worldwide mycotoxin found in food and feeds, is a potent nephrotoxin and immunotoxin in animals and humans. This research was conducted to evaluate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, MAPK signaling pathway and autophagy were induced by OTA in kidney and spleen of pigs. Twenty-seven crossbred pigs randomly allocated to 3 groups were fed for 42 days ad libitum a basal diet without (Con group, 0.00 μg OTA/kg) and with supplementation of OTA at 400 (OTA-L group) and 800 μg/kg (OTA-H group). From each group, 6 pigs were randomly selected for blood collection on days 0, 21, and 42 and 3 pigs were randomly selected for tissue collection on day 42. The results showed that OTA at 400 and 800 μg/kg diets significantly increased OTA concentrations in serum and kidney and spleen induced the histopathological lesions of kidney and spleen, decreased TCR-stimulated T lymphocyte viabilities and IL-2 concentration, increased TNF-α concentration, and decreased T-AOC levels. OTA increased glucose regulated protein 78, p38, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and LC3 II and Atg5 protein expression in kidney and spleen of pigs. These results provide new insights into the relationship between OTA and ER stress, p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway and autophagy in pigs.
Datum: 12.07.2017


Antimetastatic effects of Rheum palmatum L. extract on oral cancer cells

Rheum palmatum L., a traditional Chinese medication, has been used for the treatment of various disorders. However, the detailed impacts and underlying mechanisms of R. palmatum L. extracts (RLEs) on human oral cancer cell metastasis are still unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that an RLE has antimetastatic effects on SCC-9 and SAS human oral cancer cells. Gelatin zymography, Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and luciferase assay were used to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in the antimetastatic effects on oral cancer cells. Our results revealed that the RLE (up to 20 μg/mL, without cytotoxicity) attenuated SCC-9 and SAS cell motility, invasiveness, and migration by reducing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 enzyme activities. Western blot analysis of the MAPK signaling pathway indicated that the RLE significantly decreased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels but not p38 and JNK levels. In conclusion, RLEs exhibit antimetastatic activity against oral cancer cells through the transcriptional repression of MMP-2 via the Erk1/2 signaling pathways. Thus, RLEs may be potentially useful as antimetastatic agents for oral cancer chemotherapy.
Datum: 05.07.2017


Freshwater toxicity testing using rehydrated Philodina sp. (Rotifera) as test animals

Rotifers have become widely used in aquatic toxicology as a rapid screening test for toxicity. The commercial availability of diapausing embryos (cysts) have facilitated their popularity because test animals can be obtained without having to master the details of culturing. Other rotifer species have life stages capable of surviving desiccation and also could be used in non-culture systems for toxicity assessment. In this article, we describe a system for toxicity testing in freshwater based on rehydrating desiccated bdelloid rotifers in the genus Philodina. These animals can remain in this anhydrobiotic state for more than one year and then rehydrate within hours to provide animals for toxicity tests. We describe three endpoints: a 1.5 h ingestion test, a 24 h mortality test, and a five day reproductive test. The latter test requires feeding and a method using a dried commercial product is explained. Using desiccated rotifers and dried food in toxicity tests make this system especially attractive because of its flexibility and low threshold of biological expertise required to execute the tests. The use of the Philodina toxicity test is illustrated with four metals: copper, lead, mercury and cadmium. Reproduction generally was the most sensitive endpoint, with EC50s of 0.33, 0.44, 0.60, and 0.12 mg/L, respectively. Ingestion was a close second with EC50s of 0.13, 1.64, 0.64, and 6.26 mg/L, respectively.
Datum: 05.07.2017


Molecular mechanisms of action of styrene toxicity in blood plasma and liver

Styrene is an aromatic colorless hydrocarbon available in liquid form and highly volatile. In its pure form, it gives a sweet smell. The primary source of exposure in the environment is from plastic materials, rubber industries, packaging materials, insulations, and fiber glass and carpet industry. Natural sources of styrene include: few metabolites in plants which are transferred through food chain. The current study was designed to evaluate styrene toxicity, including: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and protein carbonyl, oxidative stress, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen phosphorylase (GP), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activities, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ratio, and changes in gene expressions such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GLUD1), glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and glucokinase (GCK) in the rat liver tissue. For this purpose, styrene was dissolved in corn oil and was administered via gavage, at doses 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, mg/kg/day per mL and control (corn oil) to each rat with one day off in a week, for 42 days. Plasma SOD and protein carbonyl of plasma were significantly up-regulated in 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg/day styrene administrated groups (P < .001). In addition, styrene caused an increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the dose-dependent manners in liver tissue (P < .001). Furthermore, the ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) in styrene-treated groups were significantly decreased in liver tissue (P < .001) with increasing doses. In treated rats, styrene significantly increased G6Pase activity (P < .001) and down-regulated GP activity (P < .001) as compared to the control group. The PEPCK activity was significantly raised in a dose-dependent manner (P < .001). The ATP/ADP ratio of live cells was significantly raised by increasing the dose (P < .001). There was significantly an up-regulation of GLUD1 and GCK at 2000 mg/kg group (P < .01) and a down-regulation for GLUT2 at the same dose. While in the rest of group, GLUT2 showed up-regulation of relative fold change. By targeting genes such as GLUD1, GLUT2, and GCK, disruption of hepatic gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and insulin secretory functions are obvious. The present study illustrates that induction of oxidative stress followed by changes in G6Pase, GP, and PEPCK activities and the genes responsible for glucose metabolism are the mechanisms of styrene's action in the liver.
Datum: 05.07.2017


Nanosilver particles increase follicular atresia: Correlation with oxidative stress and aromatization

Present study was performed in order to update the possible mechanism(s), involving in nanosilver particles (NSPs)-induced detrimental impacts in ovarian tissue. For this purpose, 24 mature female rats were divided into control and 0.5, 1, 5 mg/kg NSPs-received groups (intraperitoneally, for 35 days). Follicular growth and atresia, ovarian total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents, serum estrogen (E2) level and macrophages infiltration were investigated. Moreover, ovarian angiogenesis, cellular mRNA damage and cytochrome aromatase CYP19 expression were analyzed. The NSPs enhanced follicular atresia diminished E2, reduced TAC and SOD level, elevated MDA content and up-regulated macrophages infiltration. Cellular mRNA damage, impaired angiogenesis and diminished CYP19 expression were revealed in NSPs-received groups. Therefore NSPs by down-regulating aromatization, reduce E2 synthesis which then it leads to impaired angiogenesis. The impaired angiogenesis in turn down-regulates ovarian antioxidant status, which partially enhances follicular atresia by triggering lipid peroxidation and mRNA damage.
Datum: 24.06.2017


Immunotoxic effects of thymus in mice following exposure to nanoparticulate TiO2

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been extensively used in industry, medicine, and daily life, and have shown potential toxic effects for animals or humans. We noted that the effects of TiO2 NPs on the immune system and its mechanism of action in animals or humans have not been elucidated. Thus, mice were exposed to the TiO2 NPs (0, 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg kg−1 body weight) for 9 consecutive months. Exposure to TiO2 NPs was accumulated in the thymus, leading to a decrease in body weight and increases in the weight of the thymus or thymus indices. In the blood, exposure to TiO2 NPs significantly decreased white blood cell, red blood cell, reticulocyte, haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration; and increased mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, platelets, and mean platelet volume. The reductions of lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, B cell, and natural killer cell, were observed in the TiO2 NP-treated mouse thymus. Appearance of starry-sky aspect of the cortex that is given by the body of macrophages, bleeding, severe hemolysis or congestion, fatty degeneration, and cell apoptosis or necrosis were observed in the thymus following TiO2 NPs exposure. Importantly, TiO2 NPs increased expression of nucleic factor-κB(NF-κB), IκB kinase1/2, interleukin-1β, interleukin −4, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted, cyclooxygenase 2, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, purinergic receptors-7, interferon-inducible protein 10, hypoxia inducible factor 1-α, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p-p38, and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein, respectively; whereas suppressed expression of IκB, peroxisome proliferater-activated receptor-γ, trefoil factor 1, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α, and prostaglandin E2 proteins in the thymus, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that TiO2 NPs exerts toxic effects on lymphoid organs and T cell and innate immune cell homeostasis in mice and that these immunotoxic potential effects may result from the activation of NF-κB-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway.
Datum: 24.06.2017


Effect of dioxin and 17β-estradiol on the expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene via an estrogen receptor dependent pathway in cellular and xenografted models

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 plays a major role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens to carcinogens via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Especially, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is known as an agonist of AhR. In estrogen responsive cancers, 17β-estradiol (E2) may influence on AhR dependent expression of CYP1 family via the interaction between estrogen receptor (ER) and AhR. In the present study, the effect of E2/ER on the expression of AhR and CYP1A1 genes was investigated for MCF-7 clonal variant (MCF-7 CV) breast cancer cells expressing ER. In reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis, mRNA expression level of AhR was not altered, but its protein expression level was increased by TCDD or E2. The transcriptional and translational levels of CYP1A1 appeared to be increased by TCDD or E2. The increased expression of AhR and CYP1A1 induced by E2 was restored to the control level by the co-treatment of ICI 182,780, indicating that E2 induced the protein expression levels of AhR and CYP1A1 like TCDD via an ER dependent pathway. In an in vivo xenograft mouse model transplanted with MCF-7 CV cells, the protein expression levels of AhR and CYP1A1 of tumor masses were also increased by E2 or TCDD. Taken together, these results indicate that E2 may promote AhR dependent expression of CYP1A1 via ER dependent pathway in MCF-7 CV cells expressing ER in the absence of TCDD, an agonist of AhR. The relevance of E2 and ER in CYP1A1 activation of estrogen responsive cancers may be targeted for developing more effective cancer treatments.
Datum: 15.06.2017


Retracted: Long-term copper toxicity in apple trees (Malus pumila Mill) and bioaccumulation in fruits

The following article from Environmental Toxicology, ‘Long-term Copper Toxicity in Apple Trees (Malus pumila Mill) and Bioaccumulation in Fruits’ by Bai-Ye Sun, Shi- Hong Kan, Yan-Zong Zhang, Jun Wu, Shi-Huai Deng, Chun-Sheng Liu and Gang Yang, published online on January 15, 2010 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com; DOI: 10.1002/tox.20565), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Dr. Paul Tchounwou, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed at the request of the authors due to overlap with ‘Copper Toxicity and Bioaccumulation in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica pekinensis Rupr.)’ by Zhi-Ting Xiong and Hai Wang, published in Environmental Toxicology, Volume 20, pages 188–194, 2005.
Datum: 15.01.2010






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