Food Chemistry

Current research articles.


The scientific journal Food Chemistry publishes original research papers dealing with the advancement of the chemistry and biochemistry of foods or the analytical methods/approach used. All papers should focus on the novelty of the research carried out.

Topics include: Chemistry relating to major and minor components of food, their nutritional, physiological, sensory, flavour and microbiological aspects; bioactive constituents; effects of processing; chemistry of food additives, contaminants etc.

The publisher is the Elsevier. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

To search this web page for specific words type "Ctrl" + "F" on your keyboard (Command + "F" on a Mac). Then: type the word you are searching for in the window that pops up!

Additional research articles in the field of food chemistry, see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content:

 - Food & Function.

 - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.



Food Chemistry - Abstracts



Multi-class analysis for simultaneous determination of pesticides, mycotoxins, process-induced toxicants and packaging contaminants in tea

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Mathieu Cladière, Grégoire Delaporte, Even Le Roux, Valérie Camel

This study attempts at uniting the analysis of four different classes of contaminants for both liquid and solid tea samples. A total of 32 compounds, classified as pesticides, mycotoxins, process-induced toxicants or packaging contaminants, were carefully chosen for their diversity of structures and physicochemical properties. The proposed method combines a sample treatment strategy coming from metabolomics with liquid chromatography analysis using a silica bonded C18-pentafluorophenyl column coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. For tea brew, dilute and shoot method provides good quantification (70–120% recoveries and <20% RSD) for more than 80% of compounds. For tea leaves, strong matrix effects are observed, thus, matrix-matched calibration is required to reach good performances, i.e. 63% of compounds quantified and 81% detected at 10µg/kg. Finally, method performances were evaluated against existing regulations, and it appears that 69% of contaminants are quantified and 91% detected at levels lower than their respective European regulation limits.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Arsenic hyperaccumulation and speciation in the edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus)

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Simone Braeuer, Walter Goessler, Jan Kameník, Tereza Konvalinková, Anna Žigová, Jan Borovička

The edible ink stain bolete (Cyanoboletus pulverulentus) was found to hyperaccumulate arsenic. We analyzed 39 individual collections determined as C. pulverulentus, mostly from the Czech Republic. According to our results, concentrations of arsenic in C. pulverulentus fruit-bodies may reach 1300mgkg−1 dry weight. In most collections, data for total and bioavailable arsenic in underlying soils were collected but no significant correlation between the soil arsenic content and arsenic concentrations in the associated fruit-bodies was found. Within the fruit-bodies, we found the majority of arsenic accumulated in the hymenium. Besides occasional traces of methylarsonic acid (MA), the arsenic speciation in all mushroom samples consisted solely of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and no inorganic arsenic was detected. Because of the carcinogenic potential of DMA, C. pulverulentus should not be recommended as an edible mushroom and its consumption should be restricted.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses of curcumin and bovine serum albumin binding

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Eliara Acipreste Hudson, Hauster Maximiler Campos de Paula, Guilherme Max Dias Ferreira, Gabriel Max Dias Ferreira, Maria do Carmo Hespanhol, Luis Henrique Mendes da Silva, Ana Clarissa dos S. Pires

Bovine serum albumin (BSA)/curcumin binding and dye photodegradation stability were evaluated. BSA/curcumin complex showed 1:1 stoichiometry, but the thermodynamic binding parameters depended on the technique used and BSA conformation. The binding constant was of the order of 105 L·mol−1 by fluorescence and microcalorimetric, and 103 and 104 L·mol−1 by surface plasmon resonance (steady-state equilibrium and kinetic experiments, respectively). For native BSA/curcumin, fluorescence indicated an enthalpic and entropic driven process based on the standard enthalpy change (ΔH F =−8.67kJ·mol−1), while microcalorimetry showed an entropic driven binding process (ΔH cal =29.11kJ·mol−1). For the unfolded BSA/curcumin complex, it was found thatp ΔH F =−16.12kJ·mol−1 and ΔH cal =−42.63kJ·mol−1. BSA (mainly native) increased the curcumin photodegradation stability. This work proved the importance of using different techniques to characterize the protein-ligand binding.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Isolation and characterization of collagen extracted from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) skin

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Yuqing Tan, Sam K.C. Chang

Channel catfish skin is a by-product from catfish fillet production. Collagens were extracted from catfish skins by: (1) acid; (2) homogenization-aided; and (3) pepsin-aided extraction methods. Kinetic analysis of extraction was performed. SDS-PAGE was carried out for all collagens extracted under different conditions. Protein solubility, zeta potential, circular dichroism and gel strength of the collagen extracted by three methods were studied to determine optimal extraction conditions. Protein recovery rate from minced skins extracted with pH 2.4 HCl containing 23.6KU/g pepsin was the highest (64.19%). SDS-PAGE showed that collagens extracted with different methods had different proteins ratio patterns, even though the molecular mass of collagen subunits were similar, 123 and 113KDa for α1 and α2 chains, 226KDa for β chain and 338.5KDa for γ chain, respectively. Channel catfish skin collagens were typical type I collagens and could have applications in food, medical and cosmetic industries.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation and their effect on oxidative stability of sunflower oil

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Gabriela N. Mezza, Ana V. Borgarello, Nelson R. Grosso, Héctor Fernandez, María C. Pramparo, María F. Gayol

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of rosemary essential oil fractions obtained by molecular distillation (MD) and investigate their effect on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. MD fractions were prepared in a series of low-pressure stages where rosemary essential oil was the first feed. Subsequently, a distillate (D1) and residue (R1) were obtained and the residue fraction from the previous stage used as the feed for the next. The residue fractions had the largest capacity to capture free radicals, and the lowest peroxide values, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. The antioxidant activity of the fractions was due to oxygenated monoterpenes, specifically α-terpineol and cis-sabinene hydrate. Oxidative stability results showed the residues (R1 and R4) and butylated hydroxytoluene had greater antioxidant activity than either the distillate fractions or original rosemary essential oil. The residue fractions obtained by short path MD of rosemary essential oil could be used as a natural antioxidants by the food industry.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): K.S. VenuGopal, Chris Cherita, K.A. Anu-Appaiah

The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes.






Datum: 25.09.2017


In vitro digestion and physicochemical characteristics of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low pressure treatment

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Ying Ji

The digestibility and molecular structure of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low-pressure treatment (LPT) was investigated. Amino acid induced a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and decrease in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) after LPT. The reason is the formation of ester bond between the molecular chains of amino acid and starch. Low pressure treatment altered greatly the morphology of corn starch mixed with or without amino acid. After LPT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for starch-amino acid complex. An increase in size distribution was obvious after LPT and the size distribution curves provided from a new variety. We found that higher enthalpy and relative crystallinity of the starch-amino acid complex were associated with a higher SDS content. It can be inferred that LPT had a greater impact on the digestion and structural characterization of corn starch mixed with amino acids.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Hexafluoroisopropanol-induced salt-free catanionic surfactant coacervate extraction method for determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Jia Xu, Xiao Li, Cao Li, Jia Chen, Yuxiu Xiao

Coacervation and phase separation were first reported in salt-free catanionic surfactant aqueous systems based on lauric acid (LA) and dodecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (DTAOH), using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as a coacervate-inducing agent. The liquid–liquid two-phase separation occurs over a wide of LA/DTAOH molar ratios (78:22–0:100mol/mol) and total surfactant concentrations (5–200mmolL−1) upon adding a small amount of HFIP (<10%, v/v). HFIP-induced salt-free LA/DTAOH catanionic surfactant system has much wider two-phase region than HFIP-induced salt-containing sodium laurate/dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide system. A HFIP-induced LA/DTAOH coacervate extraction method was established and coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for determination of fluoroquinolones (rufloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin) in milk. Detection limits are from 0.3ngmL−1 to 1.4ngmL−1. Intra- and inter-day precisions (n=6) are in range of 4.5–8.3% and 5.8–10.7%, respectively. Recoveries are from 87.8% to 109.0%. The method, HFIP-induced salt-free coacervate extraction with HPLC-UV, is suitable for detecting trace fluoroquinolones in milk.

Graphical abstract

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Datum: 25.09.2017


Rapid and non-invasive detection and imaging of the hydrocolloid-injected prawns with low-field NMR and MRI

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Min Li, Bin Li, Weijia Zhang

Method development for monitoring economically motivated food adulteration is pivotal for preventing health problems caused by illegal food additives. In this work, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was applied for the detection and mapping of adulterated prawns injected with different hydrocolloids including gelatin, carrageenan, agar, amorophophallus konjac and xanthan gum. The characteristic T2 fitting curves were obtained which can be used to tell apart adulterated prawns from normal ones. Furthermore, the benefit from high quality LF-MRI images showed the major accumulation site of the hydrocolloids injected in prawn. The location of these injections was mainly confined to well resolved accumulation in brain region and three following subtle sites: back, tail and claws. Different hydrocolloids can be successfully distinguished in adulterated prawns with principal component analysis. Therefore, rapid, non-invasive and low-cost LF-NMR technique offers a powerful tool for the identification of hydrocolloids adulteration in real-time.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Effect of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea in reducing the formation of acrylamide during the bread baking process

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Zhengjie Fu, Michelle J.Y. Yoo, Weibiao Zhou, Lei Zhang, Yutao Chen, Jun Lu

This is the first study to investigate the extent of reduction in acrylamide formation during baking with the addition of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) extracted from green tea, and to determine whether EGCG influences the texture and colour attributes of bread, or interacts with other ingredients. EGCG powders were added to white bread formulations at the concentrations of 3.3, 6.6 and 9.9g·kg−1. The amount of acrylamide in the bread was analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EGCG addition significantly reduced the acrylamide formation by 37% compared to the control and decreased the moisture content of the bread by 6%. It did not affect its texture attribute, but increased the lightness and the yellowness and decreased the redness of bread crust (with contrasting results in crumb). It also decreased granule size and porosity. In conclusion, EGCG fortification is a feasible method to decrease acrylamide formation in baked bread.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Conducting polymer modified screen-printed carbon electrode coupled with magnetic solid phase microextraction for determination of caffeine

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Hayati Filik, Asiye Aslıhan Avan

In the current study, we introduce magnetic solid phase microextraction coupled with electrochemical detection of caffeine. A commercially available disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with poly Alizarin Red S are employed as electrochemical sensors in the detection stage. However, the suitability of magnetic solid phase microextraction for electroanalytical methods such as square wave voltammetry has not been declared. With our optimised conditions in hand, the system response was linearly proportional to the concentration of caffeine in the range of 0.5–20µM with a correlation coefficient of about 0.9987. The detection limit of the sensing system was found to be 0.05µM (a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). At the end of the study, the suitability of this new procedure for the analysis of energy drink, soft drink, and chocolate milk samples was demonstrated.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Impact of industrial hammer mill rotor speed on extraction efficiency and quality of extra virgin olive oil

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Juan J. Polari, David Garcí-Aguirre, Lucía Olmo-García, Alegría Carrasco-Pancorbo, Selina C. Wang

Crushing is a key step during olive oil extraction. Among commercial crushers, the hammer mill is the most widely used due to its robustness and high throughput. In the present work, the impact of hammer mill rotor speed on extraction yield and overall quality of super-high-density Arbosana olive oils were assessed in an industrial facility. Our results show that increasing the rotor speed from 2400rpm to 3600rpm led to a rise in oil yield of 1.2%, while conserving quality parameters. Sensory analysis showed more pungency with increased rotation speed, while others attributes were unaffected. Volatile compounds showed little variation with the differences in crusher speed; however, total phenols content, two relevant secoiridoids, and triterpenoids levels increased with rotor speed. Hammer mill rotor speed is a processing variable that can be tuned to increase the extraction efficiency and modulate the chemical composition of extra virgin olive oil.






Datum: 25.09.2017


l-Lysine and l-arginine inhibit myosin aggregation and interact with acidic amino acid residues of myosin: The role in increasing myosin solubility

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Shiyi Li, Yadong Zheng, Peng Xu, Xiaoxu Zhu, Cunliu Zhou

The objective of this paper is to investigate the potential affecting mechanisms of l-lysine (Lys)/l-arginine (Arg) on myosin solubility. The results showed that both Lys and Arg increased the solubility of myosin at the examined pH values. Additionally, both Lys and Arg decreased the hydrodynamic size of myosin but increased the hydration capacity (HC), the surface aromatic hydrophobicity of myosin, the surface tension of the myosin solution and the absolute transfer free energy (TFE) of the major amino acids that constitute myosin. The results indicate that the properties of Lys or Arg that result in an inhibition of myosin aggregation and an interaction with hydrophobic amino acid residues may play important roles in increasing the myosin solubility. The results are attractive to the meat industry.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Unit and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Ling Zhang, Guantian Li, Weirong Yao, Fan Zhu

Unit chain length distributions of amylopectin and its φ, β-limit dextrins, which reflect amylopectin internal structure from three maca starches, were determined by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection after debranching, and the samples were compared with maize starch. The amylopectins exhibited average chain lengths ranging from 16.72 to 17.16, with ranges of total internal chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of the maca amylopectins at 12.49 to 13.68, 11.24 to 11.89, and 4.27 to 4.48. The average chain length, external chain length, internal chain length, and total internal chain length were comparable in three maca amylopectins. Amylopectins of the three maca genotypes studied here presented no significant differences in their unit chain length profiles, but did show significant differences in their internal chain profiles. Additional genetic variations between different maca genotypes need to be studied to provide unit- and internal chain profiles of maca amylopectin.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Lutein-enriched emulsion-based delivery systems: Influence of emulsifiers and antioxidants on physical and chemical stability

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Fabienne Weigel, Jochen Weiss, Eric Andrew Decker, David Julian McClements

The impact of emulsifier type (quillaja saponin, Tween 80, whey protein and casein) and antioxidant type (EDTA, ascorbic acid, catechin, alpha tocopherol, ascorbic acid palmitate) on the physical and chemical stability of lutein-fortified emulsions was investigated. Quillaja saponin produced emulsions with the best overall stability to droplet aggregation, creaming, and colour fading during storage at 45°C for ten days. The impact of antioxidant type on the stability of lutein-fortified emulsions prepared using quillaja saponin was therefore investigated further. The extent of droplet aggregation and creaming was largely independent of antioxidant type. Surprisingly, most of the antioxidants promoted lutein degradation. Only ascorbic acid showed some ability to inhibit colour fading during storage, although EDTA had some inhibitory effects in the early stages of storage. This study suggests that lutein-enriched emulsions prepared using quillaja saponin as an emulsifier and ascorbic acid as an antioxidant may be the most suitable as delivery systems.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Measurement and characterization of external oil in the fried waxy maize starch granules using ATR-FTIR and XRD

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Long Chen, Yaoqi Tian, Binghua Sun, Canxin Cai, Rongrong Ma, Zhengyu Jin

Concerns regarding increased dietary oil uptake have prompted efforts to investigate the oil absorption and distribution in fried starchy foods. In the present study, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, together with a chloroform–methanol method, was used to analyze the external and internal oil contents in fried starchy samples. The micromorphology of fried starchy samples was further investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), polarized light microscope (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results indicated that large amounts of oil were absorbed in or within waxy maize starch, but the majority of oil was located near the surface layer of the starch granules. After defatting, the internal oil was thoroughly removed, while a small amount of external oil remained. As evidenced by the changes of the crystalline characteristics with the help of X-ray diffraction (XRD), the interaction between starch and lipids on the surface was confirmed to form V-type complex compounds during frying at high moisture.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Evaluation of sn-2 fatty acid composition in commercial infant formulas on the Chinese market: A comparative study based on fat source and stage

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Cong Sun, Wei Wei, Hang Su, Xiaoqiang Zou, Xingguo Wang

The sn-2 fatty acid composition of 180 commercial infant, follow-on and growing-up formulas with three fat sources (plant oil, cows’ milk and goats’ milk) was investigated and compared with mature human milk (MHM). Sn-2 fatty acids in formulas were mostly dependent on fat source and stage. Compared with MHM, all types of formulas contained lower levels of palmitic acid (PA), saturated fatty acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), and higher levels of oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) at the sn-2 position. Even some formulas were supplemented with 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, the proportions of relative PA at the sn-2 position in formulas were much lower than that in MHM. Moreover, formulas had higher proportions of relative OA, LA and LNA, and lower LC-PUFAs at the sn-2 position. This study indicated that there were significant differences in the positional distribution of fatty acids between formulas and MHM.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Lipid composition and emulsifying properties of Camelina sativa seed lecithin

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Henok D. Belayneh, Randy L. Wehling, Edgar Cahoon, Ozan N. Ciftci

There is no information on the chemical composition of camelina seed lecithin; therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and emulsifying properties of lecithin recovered from camelina seed oil by water (WDCL) and enzymatic degumming (EDCL) using phospholipase A1 (PLA1). The lecithin obtained by both WDLC and EDLC was rich in phosphatidylinositol (PI), and contents were 37.8 and 25.2wt%, respectively. Lecithin recovered by enzymatic degumming contained more lysophospholipids compared to water degumming. The saturated fatty acid content of the EDCL was significantly higher than that of the WDCL. Emulsions stabilized using EDCL resulted in the highest stability when deionized water was used as the aqueous phase (original pH); however, at pH=7.5, emulsions stabilized using EDCL and WDCL were less stable compared to the emulsion stabilized with soy lecithin. Results showed that camelina seed lecithin is a promising alternative PI-rich emulsifier for various food applications.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Chemical composition, nutritional value and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes in relation to harvest stage

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Spyridon Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of fruit size on nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Mediterranean okra genotypes. For this purpose, pods from four okra cultivars and local landraces commonly cultivated in Greece, as well as pods from four commercial cultivars from North America were collected at two sizes (3–5 and>7cm). Significant differences were observed between the studied genotypes for both nutritional value and chemical composition parameters. Small fruit had a higher nutritional value, whereas chemical composition differed in a genotype dependent manner with most of the studied cultivars showing better results when harvested in small size. In conclusion, fruit size has a genotype dependent impact on chemical composition and nutritional value of okra pods and the common practice of harvesting okra fruit while they still have a small size helps to increase nutritional value for most of the studied genotypes.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) protein hydrolysate promotes mouse mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts through up-regulation of bone morphogenetic protein

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Jun-Ho Hyung, Chang-Bum Ahn, Jae-Young Je

Seafood provides a range of health benefits due to its high-protein level. In this study, the osteogenic effect of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) protein hydrolysates (BMPH) on osteoblast differentiation were examined using mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A preparation we called BMPH<1kDa which showed the highest osteogenic effect in MSCs, was prepared by peptic hydrolysis. BMPH<1kDa treatment stimulated osteoblast differentiation with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) induction, osteocalcin and type I collagen activity as well as calcium deposition. Osteoblast differentiation stimulated by BMPH<1kDa treatment was achieved by expression of osteogenic lineage markers, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and downstream signal and transcription factors, including p-Smad1/5/8, Dlx5, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osterix. BMPH<1kDa activated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Adding noggin, a BMP antagonist, inhibited BMPH<1 kDa-induced ALP activity in MSCs. Taken together, our results show that BMPH<1kDa promoted osteoblast differentiation by activating BMP-2.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Effects of moisture and temperature during grain storage on the functional properties and isoflavone profile of soy protein concentrate

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Valmor Ziegler, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Jéssica Fernanda Hoffmann, Maurício de Oliveira, Moacir Cardoso Elias

The objective of this study was evaluate the effects of moisture and temperature during grain storage on the functional properties and isoflavone profile of soy protein concentrate. The protein concentrate was extracted from soybeans on the first day of storage and after 12months of storage, at 12 and 15% moisture and at temperatures of 11, 18, 25, and 32°C. The protein concentrate obtained from grains stored at 32°C showed decreased extraction yield (51.6% with 15% of moisture) and protein solubility (24.8% with 15% of moisture) with increased emulsifying capacity (52.2% with 12% of moisture) and foam formation, compared with sample obtained at the start of the storage period. The isoflavone profile showed a decrease in the concentrations of glycosylated, malonyl, and acetyl isoflavones and a corresponding increase in the concentrations of aglycone isoflavones, with the magnitude of these changes increasing with increasing storage temperature and moisture content.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Improved analysis of anthocyanins and vitamin C in blue-purple potato cultivars

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Liz Gutiérrez-Quequezana, Anssi L. Vuorinen, Heikki Kallio, Baoru Yang

Methods were optimized for extraction and quantification of anthocyanins (ACY) and vitamin C in potatoes. Acidified aqueous methanol (70%) was the optimal extraction solvent and freeze-drying significantly improved the extraction yield of ACY. The content of ACY varied widely in five potato cultivars from 0.42 to 3.18mg/g dry weight, with the latter being the highest value found in the Finnish cultivar ‘Synkeä Sakari’. Compared with dithiothreitol (DTT), tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP) was more efficient in reducing dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) to ascorbic acid (AA) and for quantifying the content of total ascorbic acid (TAA). For raw potatoes, quantification of TAA after treatment with TCEP was more reliable than a direct analysis of AA, whereas AA can be analyzed directly in steam-cooked samples. The TAA contents in the three potato cultivars were around 0.30–0.35mg/g dry weight. The loss of AA in steam cooking was 24%.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Simultaneous optimization of the ultrasound-assisted extraction for phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. fruit using response surface methodology

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Shasha Chen, Zhi Zeng, Na Hu, Bo Bai, Honglun Wang, Yourui Suo

Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LR) is a functional food that plays an important role in anti-oxidation due to its high level of phenolic compounds. This study aims to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of obtained extracts from LR using response surface methodology (RSM). A four-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to discuss the following extracting parameters: extraction time (X 1), ultrasonic power (X 2), solvent to sample ratio (X 3) and solvent concentration (X 4). The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results revealed that the solvent to sample ratio had a significant influence on all responses, while the extraction time had no statistically significant effect on phenolic compounds. The optimum values of the combination of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were obtained for X 1 =30min, X 2 =100W, X 3 =40mL/g, and X 4 =33% (v/v). Five phenolic acids, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, were analyzed by HPLC. Our results indicated that optimization extraction is vital for the quantification of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in LR, which may be contributed to large-scale industrial applications and future pharmacological activities research.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Chitosan delays ripening and ROS production in guava (Psidium guajava L.) fruit

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Willian Batista Silva, Gláucia Michelle Cosme Silva, Diederson Bortolini Santana, Acácio Rodrigues Salvador, David Barbosa Medeiros, Ikram Belghith, Natália Martins da Silva, Maria Helena Menezes Cordeiro, Gisele Polete Misobutsi

Guava is a typically tropical fruit highly perishable with a short shelf-life due to intense metabolic activity after harvested. In attempt to minimize the problems related to the postharvest, we evaluated the physiochemical characteristics and antioxidant system in guava fruits under chitosan coating at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 3% stored at 25°C during 96h. The chitosan suppressed the respiratory rate, fresh weight loss, firmness and skin color with delay in the degradation of chlorophyll. In the treatment with 2% and 3% of chitosan in the solid soluble content and ascorbic acid were reduced; retarded the loss of titratable acidity during 96h after treatment. These treatment induced significant decreases in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and significantly increases of peroxidase Activity. Our results suggest that chitosan effectively prolongs the quality attributes in guava fruits after harvesting due to increases in the antioxidant processes, delaying the ripening during room temperature of storage.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Structural analysis of the α-d-glucan produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Enes Dertli, Ian J. Colquhoun, Gregory L. Côté, Gwénaëlle Le Gall, Arjan Narbad

Cereal-associated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are well known for homopolymeric exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Herein, the structure of an EPS isolated from sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25 was determined. A modified BHI medium was used for production of EPS-E25 in order to eliminate potential contaminants. Analysis of sugar monomers in EPS revealed that glucose was the only sugar present. Structural characterisation of EPS by NMR and methylation analysis revealed that E25 produced a highly branched α-glucan with (α13) and (α16) glycosidic linkages, and was similar in structure to a previously reported EPS from Lactobacillus reuteri 180. The 1H and 13C NMR data were contrasted with newly recorded data for known polysaccharides (alternan, commercial dextran) which also contain α-(1,3,6)Glc branch points. It was found in both E25 EPS and alternan that NMR parameters could be used to distinguish glucose residues that had the same substitution pattern but occupied different positions in the structure.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Microencapsulation of Thai rice grass (O. Sativa cv. Khao Dawk Mali 105) extract incorporated to form bioactive carboxymethyl cellulose edible film

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Pattrathip Rodsamran, Rungsinee Sothornvit

Microencapsulation was investigated to enhance the stability of Thai rice grass extract. Microencapsulated powder (MP) was formed using total solid of extract solution and maltodextrin ratios of 1:4 (MP 1:4) and 1:9 (MP 1:9). The absence of an endothermic peak for both MPs confirmed all extract solutions were coated with maltodextrin. MP 1:9 had a lower total phenolic content (TPC) but was higher in antioxidant capacity than MP 1:4. Moreover, the TPC of the MPs slightly decreased (70.02–93.04%) during storage at 10, 30 and 70°C for 30d. Comparatively, the TPC of the extract solution significantly decreased from 100% down to 20.8%, 11.2% and 8.6% at 10, 30 and 70°C, respectively. Therefore, MP 1:9 incorporated with blended carboxymethyl cellulose film increased the water barrier and the TPC. This film can serve as a bioactive biodegradable packaging material to reduce plastic packaging in the food industry.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Determination of hydroxytyrosol produced by winemaking yeasts during alcoholic fermentation using a validated UHPLC–HRMS method

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): M. Antonia Álvarez-Fernández, E. Fernández-Cruz, E. Cantos-Villar, Ana M. Troncoso, M. Carmen García-Parrilla

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound of recognized bioactivity that has been described in wines but little is known about its origin. This work demonstrates that yeast involved in wine making, i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the non-Saccharomyces Torulaspora delbrueckii, can synthesise HT, as this compound was identified in the intracellular media of three strains by means of a developed and validated UHPLC–HRMS method with LOQ and LOD of 0.108 and 0.035ngmL−1 respectively. Controlled fermentations were performed with different varieties of grapes (Corredera, Moscatel, Chardonnay, Palomino fino, Sauvignon Blanc, Vijiriega, and Tempranillo) and synthetic must. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain QA23 was the most efficient producer of HT from tested yeasts. On the other hand, the grape variety influences HT wine concentrations. Furthermore, the maximum concentration of HT is reached between the fourth and sixth day of fermentation. This work reveals that yeasts have a great potential for the production of HT.






Datum: 25.09.2017


1H NMR combined with chemometrics for the rapid detection of adulteration in camellia oils

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Ting Shi, MengTing Zhu, Yi Chen, XiaoLi Yan, Qian Chen, XiaoLin Wu, Jiangnan Lin, Mingyong Xie

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and chemometrics were employed to detect the adulteration of camellia oil (CAO) with 3 different cheap vegetable oils. With the intensity of 15 selected 1H NMR signals as input variables, principal component analysis (PCA) showed good group clustering results for pure and nonpure CAO, but unsatisfied identification accuracy for the adulterated oil types, indicating relatively small difference among those oils. Whereas these difference could be revealed by orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), with identification accuracy higher than 90%. Partial least squares (PLS) was further applied for the prediction of adulteration level in CAO. With less than 6 variables screened out by variable importance in the projection (VIP) scores as potential key markers, the developed PLS models showed better accuracy. The prediction results for 10 hold-out samples also confirmed that this method was accurate and fast for the detection of CAO adulteration.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Romina Beleggia, Mariagiovanna Fragasso, Franco Miglietta, Luigi Cattivelli, Valeria Menga, Franca Nigro, Nicola Pecchioni, Clara Fares

The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, −28.3%; Fe, −26.7%; Zn, −21.9%; Mg, −22.7%; Mo, −40.4%; K, −22.4%; and Ca, −19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo).






Datum: 25.09.2017


Effect of methyl jasmonate on the aroma of Sangiovese grapes and wines

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Claudio D'Onofrio, Fabiola Matarese, Angela Cuzzola

Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was applied in a vineyard on leaves and grape clusters of cv Sangiovese to test its ability to stimulate the production of aromas and identify the main genes involved in the biosynthetic pathways switched on by the elicitor. MeJA application led to a delay in grape technological maturity and a significant increase in the concentration of several berry aroma classes (about twice the total aroma: from around 3 to 6μg/g of berry). Of these, monoterpenes showed the most significant increase. An analysis of the expression of terpenoid biosynthesis genes confirmed that the MeJA application activated the related biosynthetic pathway. The expression of all the TPS genes analyzedwas higher in samples treated with MeJA. Also the wines produced by microvinification of Sangiovese treated and untreated grapes showed a rise in the aroma concentration as in berries, with an important impact on longevity and sensorial characters of wines.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Comparison of the effect of chemical composition of anthocyanin-rich plant extracts on colon cancer cell proliferation and their potential mechanism of action using in vitro, in silico, and biochemical assays

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Candice Mazewski, Katie Liang, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia

The objective was to compare the anti-proliferative effect of anthocyanin-rich plant extracts on human colon cancer cells and determine their mechanism of action. Eleven extracts were tested: red (RG) and purple grape, purple sweet potato, purple carrot, black and purple bean, black lentil (BL), black peanut, sorghum (SH), black rice, and blue wheat. HCT-116 and HT-29 inhibition correlated with total phenolics (r=0.87 and 0.77, respectively), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside concentration with HT-29 inhibition (r=0.69). The concentration inhibition fifty (IC50) for BL, SH, RG on HT-29 and HCT-116 cell proliferation ranged 0.9–2.0mg/mL. Extracts decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, cIAP-2, XIAP), induced apoptosis, and arrested cells in G1. Anthocyanins exhibited tyrosine kinase inhibitory potential in silico and biochemically; cyanidin-3-O-glucoside had one of the highest binding affinities with all kinases, especially ABL1 (−8.5kcal/mol). Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinidin-3-O-glucoside inhibited EGFR (IC50 =0.10 and 2.37µM, respectively). Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was the most potent anthocyanin on kinase inhibition.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Impact of functional properties and release kinetics on antioxidant activity of biopolymer active films and coatings

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Nasreddine Benbettaïeb, Cadhla Tanner, Philippe Cayot, Thomas Karbowiak, Frédéric Debeaufort

This work deals with the study of the release kinetics of some natural antioxidants (ferulic acid, caffeic acid and tyrosol) from chitosan-fish gelatin edible films immersed ethanol at 96%, as well as the kinetics of their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The aim was to determine how film functional properties influence the release kinetic and antioxidant activity. The addition of antioxidants to chitosan-fish gelatin matrix decreased the water vapour permeability by more than 30%. The tensile strength (TS) increased up to 50% after the incorporation of antioxidants. Some molecular interactions between polymer chains and antioxidants were confirmed by FTIR where spectra displayed a shift of the amide-III peak. Films containing caffeic acid or a caffeic-ferulic acid mixture exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity, leading to a 90% antioxidant activity at equilibrium but the release rate controlled the efficacy of the system.

Graphical abstract

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Datum: 25.09.2017


DNA barcoding based identification of Hippophae species and authentication of commercial products by high resolution melting analysis

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Yue Liu, Li Xiang, Yi Zhang, Xianrong Lai, Chao Xiong, Jingjian Li, Yanyan Su, Wei Sun, Shilin Chen

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae), an ancient crop with modern virtues, is increasingly consumed in source of foods and nutraceuticals. The growing demand leads to the adulteration of commercial sea buckthorn products, which is a common form of food fraud. Herein, a high resolution melting assay, targeting a DNA barcoding region of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) (Bar-HRM) was developed to identify the seven native Chinese Hippophae species, and to authenticate commercial sea buckthorn products. Melting data from the HRM assay demonstrated that all Hippophae species could be clearly distinguished. Then, application to commercial sea buckthorn products indicated the existence of adulterants or contamination, further confirmed using Sanger sequencing results for PCR products from HRM. The Bar-HRM technique proposed in this work could provide a method for regulatory agencies, promoting consumers trust, and raise the quality and safety of sea buckthorn products.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Stabilization of alpha-lipoic acid by complex formation with octenylsuccinylated high amylose starch

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Yi-Xuan Li, Eun Young Park, Seung-Taik Lim

The thermal and oxidative stability of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in aqueous dispersions containing beta-cyclodextrin (CD), native high amylose (HA) and octenylsuccinylated high amylose (OS) starches (0.1% ALA and 1.0% CD or starch solids) were compared. Both native and modified starches increased the stability of ALA against thermal degradation and oxidation at higher degrees than CD. The OS was more effective in stabilizing ALA than HA. The ALA loss in the dispersions occurred mainly in the supernatant, suggesting that the complex formation of ALA with amylose played a key role in the stabilization. In an in vitro digestion test, the release of ALA from OS dispersion was less than that of HA dispersion, indicating that ALA complexed with OS amylose was most stable against digestion. The octenylsuccinylated high amylose starch was an effective protecting agent for ALA in aqueous media, as well as a delivery carrier for ALA in digestive tract.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Predominant yeasts in Chinese traditional sourdough and their influence on aroma formation in Chinese steamed bread

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Tongjie Liu, Yang Li, Faizan A. Sadiq, Huanyi Yang, Jingsi Gu, Lei Yuan, Yuan Kun Lee, Guoqing He

A total of 105 yeast isolates was obtained from 15 sourdough samples collected from different regions in China and subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Six species were identified including Pichia membranifaciens, which has not previously been reported in Chinese sourdoughs. Different species of yeast were used in single-culture fermentation to make Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The volatiles of the CSB were captured by solid-phase microextraction method, separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41 volatile compounds were found in all the steamed breads. All CSBs showed a similar volatile profile; however, significant differences in the quantity of some volatile compounds were seen among the CSB fermented by different yeast species. A partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that the CSBs could be separated by their characteristic volatile profiles. The study suggested that the aromatic properties of CSB are determined by the yeast used.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Rapid and sensitive detection of free fatty acids in edible oils based on chemical derivatization coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Ming Liu, Fang Wei, Xin Lv, Xu-yan Dong, Hong Chen

In this study, a strategy based on chemical derivatization coupled with electrospray ionizationtandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for rapid and sensitive detection of FFAs in edible oils was developed. A derivative reagent (N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine, DEEA) was employed to selectively label carboxyl groups of FFAs to form an amino compound with a tertiary amino group. The DEEA derivative products could lose a characteristic neutral loss fragment of 73Da in collision-induced dissociation (CID), which enabled to discriminate and analyze the DEEA derived FFAs with neutral loss scan (NLS 73Da)under the positive ion mode of mass spectrometry. The assay was linear over the concentration range 0.5–200nmol/L with satisfactory correlation coefficients (R2 0.9942), whilst the limit of detection and quantitation were 0.1–0.3nmol/L and 0.3–1.0nmol/L, respectively. Finally, the established method was applied to determine dynamic FFA formation in seven types of edible oils subjected to a microwave heating treatment test.






Datum: 25.09.2017


The impact of disulfide bond dynamics in wheat gluten protein on the development of fermented pastry crumb

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Nand Ooms, Koen J.A. Jansens, Bram Pareyt, Stijn Reyniers, Kristof Brijs, Jan A. Delcour

Gluten proteins functionality during pastry production was examined by including redox agents in the ingredient bill. Addition of reducing and oxidizing agents respectively increased and decreased dough height during fermentation. The presence of large gas bubbles in the samples with oxidizing agents may have caused a ‘stacking’-effect and a more effective dough lift. During baking, the level of extractable proteins decreased to comparable values for all samples, except when potassium iodate (KIO3) was used in the recipe. As a result of its use, a lower level of gliadin was incorporated into the gluten polymer and dough layers tended to ‘slide’ apart during baking, thereby causing collapse. Most likely, KIO3 caused glutenin oxidation within each individual dough layer to such extent during the dough stage that insufficient thiol groups were available for forming dough layer interconnections during baking, after margarine melting. Furthermore, addition of redox agents impacted the product’s crumb structure.






Datum: 25.09.2017


The effects of edible chitosan-based coatings on flavor quality of raw grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during refrigerated storage

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Dawei Yu, Yanshun Xu, Joe M. Regenstein, Wenshui Xia, Fang Yang, Qixing Jiang, Bin Wang

This study investigated the effects of chitosan-based coatings on flavor retention of refrigerated grass carp fillets by using various indicators: free amino acids (FAA), nucleotides, trimethylamine (TMA), volatile profile, sensory quality, and electronic nose analysis. The results indicated that chitosan-based coatings contributed to the significant reduction of off-flavor compounds, such as TMA, hypoxanthine (Hx) and histidine, and accumulation of inosine monophosphate (IMP) and umami-associated FAA. GC–MS analysis showed 23 volatile organic compounds, including many C5–C9 aldehydes and alcohols in the fresh fillets. The coating treatments, especially chitosan-clove bud essential oil composite coatings, sharply reduced the relative content of off-odor volatiles, such as hexanal, octanal and 1-octen-3-ol. According to the results of the sensory evaluation and electronic nose analyses, chitosan coating combined with glycerol monolaurate and clove bud essential oil was a promising method to improve the edibility of grass carp fillets by maintaining flavor quality during refrigerated storage.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Characterization of carotenoids and vitamin E in R. rugosa and R. canina: Comparative analysis

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Ahlam Al-Yafeai, Angelika Malarski, Volker Böhm

The hips of Rosa species have gained more attention in recent years due to their high contents of antioxidant compounds. This study was designed to compare rosehips of the two roses species Rosa rugosa and Rosa canina, including different products, on carotenoid contents, including phytoene and phytofluene, as well as vitamin E. The investigation allowed the identification and quantification of types of (Z)-isomers of lycopene and rubixanthin in both rosehips and focused also on isomerisation of both carotenoids. The carotenoid identification and quantification were done using HPLC-DAD and LC-MS/MS. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in carotenoid contents and (P<0.001) in vitamin E contents between different rosehips species. The HPLC analysis showed that carotenoid contents varied between rosehips species. The isomerisation of (all-E)-rubixanthin and (all-E)-lycopene using iodine-catalysed photoisomerisation showed that the (5′Z)-isomer gazaniaxanthin is the main (Z)-isomer of rubixanthin and the (13Z)-isomer is the main (Z)-isomer of lycopene.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Cooking quality properties and free and bound phenolics content of brown, black, and red rice grains stored at different temperatures for six months

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Valmor Ziegler, Cristiano Dietrich Ferreira, Jessica Fernanda Hoffmann, Fábio Clasen Chaves, Nathan Levien Vanier, Maurício de Oliveira, Moacir Cardoso Elias

The changes in cooking quality and phenolic composition of whole black and red rice grains stored during six months at different temperatures were evaluated. Brown rice with known cooking quality properties and low phenolic levels was used for purposes comparison. All rice genotypes were stored at 13% moisture content at temperatures of 16, 24, 32, and 40°C. Cooking time, hardness, free and bound phenolics, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and free radical scavenging capacity were analysed. The traditional rice with brown pericarp exhibited an increase in cooking time and free phenolics content, while rice with black pericarp exhibited a reduction in cooking time after six months of storage at the highest studied temperature of 40°C. There as increases in ferulic acid levels occurred as a function of storage temperature. Red pericarp rice grains showed decreased antioxidant capacity against ABTS radical for the soluble phenolic fraction with increased time and storage temperature.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Peptides derived from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of germinated soybean proteins inhibit human colon cancer cells proliferation and inflammation

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Marcela González-Montoya, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma, Jose Manuel Silván, Rosalva Mora-Escobedo, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga

The aim was to investigate the potential of germinated soybean proteins asa source of peptides with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities produced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Protein concentrate from germinated soybean was hydrolysed with pepsin/pancreatin and fractionated by ultrafiltration. Whole digest and fractions>10, 5–10, and<5kDa caused cytotoxicity to Caco-2, HT-29, HCT-116 human colon cancer cells, and reduced inflammatory response caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages RAW 264.7. Antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory effects were generally higher in 5–10kDa fractions. This fraction was further purified by semi-preparative chromatography and characterised by HPLC-MS/MS. The most potent fraction was mainly composed of β-conglycinin and glycinin fragments rich in glutamine. This is the first report on the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of newly isolated and identified peptides from germinated soybean released during gastrointestinal digestion. These findings highlight the potential of germination as a process to obtain functional foods or nutraceuticals for colon cancer prevention.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Enhanced CaSO4-induced gelation properties of soy protein isolate emulsion by pre-aggregation

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Xufeng Wang, Maomao Zeng, Fang Qin, Benu Adhikari, Zhiyong He, Jie Chen

The effects of CaSO4-induced pre-aggregation on the rheological and structural properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) emulsion gels were investigated. As the Ca2+ concentration during pre-aggregation increased (from 0mM to 7.5mM), the elastic modulus of the gels showed substantial increase, indicating stiffer gel structures. Large-deformation rheology suggested stronger but more brittle networks formed at higher Ca2+ concentration during pre-aggregation. However, when the pre-aggregated Ca2+ concentration reached 10mM, the corresponding gel became weaker. Water-holding capacity (WHC) of the gels were significantly improved via the pre-aggregation process. The differences in rheological properties and WHC among the gels were consistent with the variation in their microstructures. Pre-aggregation helped to form denser and more uniform structures with thicker strands, whereas over aggregation made the gel network coarser.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Low-current & high-frequency electrical stunning increased oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and gene transcription of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (MAPK/Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway in breast muscle of broilers

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Lei Xu, Hai-jun Zhang, Hong-yuan Yue, Shu-geng Wu, Hai-ming Yang, Guang-hai Qi, Zhi-yue Wang

Mechanism of electrical stunning (ES) methods on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection were studied by determining meat color, serum variables, antioxidant-related enzyme activities, gene expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and superoxide dismutases (SODs). Broilers were sacrificed without stunning, or after ES with 65V, 86mA, 1000Hz (E65V) or 150V, 130mA, 60Hz (E150V). Serum cortisol and uric acid, muscular malondialdehyde and mRNA levels of MAPKs, Nrf2, GSTA3, GSTT1 and SOD2 were increased, whereas, serum free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, muscular GST1d activity were decreased in E65V compared with E150V. Overall, the serum uric acid and transcription of the MAPK/Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant responsive element) signaling pathway were elevated, but didn’t overcome the oxidative stress stimulated by low-current & high-frequency ES, leading to aggravated lipid peroxidation at 1d and 9d postmortem in breast muscle compared with high-current & low-frequency ES.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Co-fermentation of red grapes and white pomace: A natural and economical process to modulate hybrid wine composition

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Paméla Nicolle, Charlène Marcotte, Paul Angers, Karine Pedneault

The impact of co-fermenting white grape pomace (WP) and red grape pomace (RP) on the composition of interspecific hybrid wine was studied using the Vitis sp. ‘Frontenac’ and ‘Vidal’. The proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin content of the resulting wines were analysed by HPLC-fluorescence and UPLC–MS/MS, respectively. The CIELAB parameters and volatile compounds were analysed using spectrophotometry-UV and GC–MS-SPME, respectively. The WP addition increased the concentration of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols, and terpenes in the wines. The manipulation of the WP/RP ratio efficiently modulated the anthocyanin profile of the wines, resulting in faded red colour, a desirable achievement in hybrid red wine, which is usually perceived as too dark. An appropriate ratio (30% RP/6% WP) improved the colour stability of the wines without a significant impact on wine colour. Addition of WP proved to be a suitable tool to modulate the colour, the phenolic and volatile composition of interspecific hybrid wine.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Targeted regulation of hygroscopicity of soybean antioxidant pentapeptide powder by zinc ions binding to the moisture absorption sites

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Peiyu Xue, Na Sun, Yong Li, Sheng Cheng, Songyi Lin

In the present study, a targeted regulation of hygroscopicity of soybean antioxidant pentapeptide (SAP) powder was explored by zinc ions binding to its moisture absorption sites. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscope were used to confirm the formation of the SAP-zinc complex. The results showed that morphology of SAP-zinc complex belonged to crystalline nanoparticles. The moisture sorption/desorption kinetics of the SAP-zinc complex changed compared to that of the SAP. In particular, the moisture sorption capacity of the SAP decreased and the distribution of adsorbed water changed after zinc chelation. Based on the binding of zinc ions to the moisture absorption sites, the hygroscopicity of SAP powder could be target regulated. Thus, this study could provide a new method to regulate the hygroscopicity of peptide powder.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Mass spectrometry-based phytochemical screening for hypoglycemic activity of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Raffaella Pascale, Giuliana Bianco, Tommaso R.I. Cataldi, Philippe-Schmitt Kopplin, Federica Bosco, Lisiana Vignola, Jenny Uhl, Marianna Lucio, Luigi Milella

The present study deals with the evaluation of antidiabetic activities of Fagioli di Sarconi beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including 21 ecotypes protected by the European Union with the mark PGI (i.e., Protected Geographical Indication), and cultivated in Basilicata (southern Italy). For this purpose, α-glucosidase and α-amylase assays were assessed; among all bean ecotypes, the tight green seed colour of Verdolino extracts exhibited the highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 =1.1±0.1μg/ml and IC50 =19.3±1.1μg/ml, respectively. Phytochemical compound screening of all Fagioli di Sarconi beans performed by flow injection-electrospray ionization-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (uHRMS) and based on the calculation of elemental formulas from accurate m/z values, was helpful to annotate specific compounds, such as alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, which are most likely responsible for their biological activity.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Effect of late harvest and floral origin on honey antibacterial properties and quality parameters

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): I.N. Pasias, I.K. Kiriakou, A. Kaitatzis, A.E. Koutelidakis, C. Proestos

Honey is a food of high importance due to its nutritional value. The effect of late harvest and pollen composition on honey quality and antimicrobial activity was studied. Different physicochemical parameters were determined as quality indicators. The HMF content, diastase activity, sugar content, antimicrobial activity, and hydrogen peroxide content were selected in current work as the crucial parameters for evaluation. The results proved that the late harvested honey sample showed a vast number of pollens from different blossom periods. The hydrogen peroxide content and antimicrobial activity of late harvested honey was significantly increased (proved by t-test), whereas the honey seems to be affected significantly from weather conditions since the HMF content was also increased. The diastase activity was proved to be lower than the respective in fresh honey, whereas no difference was observed on the sugar content. Finally, the effect of origin and processing in late harvested honey was discussed.

Graphical abstract

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Datum: 25.09.2017


Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Patricia López, Diana P.K.H. Pereboom-de Fauw, Patrick P.J. Mulder, Martien Spanjer, Joyce de Stoppelaar, Hans G.J. Mol, Monique de Nijs

A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Influence of emulsion interfacial membrane characteristics on Ostwald ripening in a model emulsion

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Sung Won Han, Ha Youn Song, Tae Wha Moon, Seung Jun Choi

Ostwald ripening is a major destabilization mechanism for emulsions containing flavor oils with relatively high water solubilities. Emulsions with different oil phase compositions were prepared that were stabilized by polyoxyethylene alkyl ether-type emulsifiers with differently sized hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. Emulsions prepared using only orange oil were highly unstable to Ostwlad ripening during storage. When emulsifier concentration was increased, Ostawald ripening in emulsions containing emulsifiers with small hydrophilic groups was inhibited, while size increment of droplets in emulsions containing emulsifiers with large hydrophilic groups was not. Droplet enlargement was effectively inhibited by incorporating corn oil into the oil phase prior to homogenization. However, the concentration of corn oil required to inhibit Ostwald ripening varied depending on the structural characteristics and concentrations of the emulsifiers present. These results could have important implications for the selection of emulsifiers to improve the physical stability of orange oil emulsions for use in the food and beverage industries.






Datum: 25.09.2017


Optimized method for the quantification of pyruvic acid in onions by microplate reader and confirmation by high resolution mass spectra

Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 242

Author(s): Rita Metrani, G.K. Jayaprakasha, Bhimanagouda S. Patil

The present study describes the rapid microplate method to determine pyruvic acid content in different varieties of onions. Onion juice was treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to obtain hydrazone, which was further treated with potassium hydroxide to get stable colored complex. The stability of potassium complex was enhanced up to two hours and the structures of hydrazones were confirmed by LC-MS for the first time. The developed method was optimized by testing different bases, acids with varying concentrations of dinitrophenyl hydrazine to get stable color and results were comparable to developed method. Repeatability and precision showed <9% relative standard deviation. Moreover, sweet onion juice was stored for four weeks at different temperatures for the stability; the pyruvate remained stable at all temperatures except at 25°C. Thus, the developed method has good potential to determine of pungency in large number of onions in a short time using minimal amount of reagents.






Datum: 25.09.2017






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