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Photosynthesis Research

Current research articles..




The journal Photosynthesis Research is an international journal dealing with both basic and applied aspects of photosynthesis. The journal publishes research at all levels of plant organization: molecular, subcellular, cellular, whole plant, canopy, ecosystem and global.

The publisher is Springer. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (photosynthesis):

 - Photosynthetica.



Photosynthesis Research - Abstracts



Erratum to: Interaction of the signaling state analog and the apoprotein form of the orange carotenoid protein with the fluorescence recovery protein

Abstract

In Fig. 1a in the original article, the amino acid side chains were incorrectly labeled in the structure representation of the orange carotenoid protein (OCP). The corrected figure is printed in this erratum.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Self-aggregation of synthetic zinc methyl 20-substituted 3-hydroxymethyl-pyropheophorbides as models of bacteriochlorophyll- c

Abstract

Zinc 3-hydroxymethyl-131-oxo-chlorins bearing a variety of primary alkyl groups at the 20-position were prepared as models of bacteriochlorophyll-c by chemical modification of naturally occurring chlorophyll-a. The synthetic chlorophyll-a derivatives self-aggregated in an aqueous Triton X-100 solution to afford large oligomers whose Soret and Qy bands were red-shifted and broadened, compared with the bands of their monomers in tetrahydrofuran. The oligomeric bands are similar to those of bacteriochlorophyll-c self-aggregates in chlorosomes, the main light-harvesting antennae of photosynthetic green bacteria. The 20-alkylation led to bathochromic shifts of the visible Soret maxima in J-type self-aggregates of the synthetic models, while elongation of the 20-alkyl group decreased the chlorosomal Qy maxima due to an increase in steric hindrance. Considering the light-harvesting and energy-transferring processes in a chlorosome, the 20-methylation in bacteriochlorophyll-c would be more suitable for efficient culturing of green bacteria than the 20-ethylation and propylation as well as the 20-unsubstitution in bacteriochlorophyll-d.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Mechanisms of drought-induced dissipation of excitation energy in sun- and shade-adapted drought-tolerant mosses studied by fluorescence yield change and global and target analysis of fluorescence decay kinetics

Abstract

Some mosses stay green and survive long even under desiccation. Dissipation mechanisms of excess excitation energy were studied in two drought-tolerant moss species adapted to contrasting niches: shade-adapted Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus and sun-adapted Rhytidium rugosum in the same family. (1) Under wet conditions, a light-induced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) mechanism decreased the yield of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence in both species. The NPQ extent saturated at a lower illumination intensity in R. squarrosus, suggesting a larger PSII antenna size. (2) Desiccation reduced the fluorescence intensities giving significantly lower F 0 levels and shortened the overall fluorescence lifetimes in both R. squarrosus and R. rugosum, at room temperature. (3) At 77 K, desiccation strongly reduced the PSII fluorescence intensity. This reduction was smaller in R. squarrosus than in R. rugosum. (4) Global and target analysis indicated two different mechanisms of energy dissipation in PSII under desiccation: the energy dissipation to a desiccation-formed strong fluorescence quencher in the PSII core in sun-adapted R. rugosum (type-A quenching) and (5) the moderate energy dissipation in the light-harvesting complex/PSII in shade-adapted R. squarrosus (type-B quenching). The two mechanisms are consistent with the different ecological niches of the two mosses.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Picosecond excitation energy transfer of allophycocyanin studied in solution and in crystals

Abstract

Cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis with the use of large light-harvesting antennae called phycobilisomes (PBSs). These hemispherical PBSs contain hundreds of open-chain tetrapyrrole chromophores bound to different peptides, providing an arrangement in which excitation energy is funnelled towards the PBS core from where it can be transferred to photosystem I and/or photosystem II. In the PBS core, many allophycocyanin (APC) trimers are present, red-light-absorbing phycobiliproteins that covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) chromophores. APC trimers were amongst the first light-harvesting complexes to be crystallized. APC trimers have two spectrally different PCBs per monomer, a high- and a low-energy pigment. The crystal structure of the APC trimer reveals the close distance (~21 Å) between those two chromophores (the distance within one monomer is ~51 Å) and this explains the ultrafast (~1 ps) excitation energy transfer (EET) between them. Both chromophores adopt a somewhat different structure, which is held responsible for their spectral difference. Here we used spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence to study EET in these APC trimers both in crystallized and in solubilized form. We found that not all closely spaced pigment couples consist of a low- and a high-energy pigment. In ~10% of the cases, a couple consists of two high-energy pigments. EET to a low-energy pigment, which can spectrally be resolved, occurs on a time scale of tens of picoseconds. This transfer turns out to be three times faster in the crystal than in the solution. The spectral characteristics and the time scale of this transfer component are similar to what have been observed in the whole cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for which it was ascribed to EET from C-phycocyanin to APC. The present results thus demonstrate that part of this transfer should probably also be ascribed to EET within APC trimers.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Spectrally selective fluorescence imaging of Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers conjugated to chelator-modified silver nanowires

Abstract

A polyhistidine tag (His-tag) present on Chlorobaculum tepidum reaction centers (RCs) was used to immobilize photosynthetic complexes on a silver nanowire (AgNW) modified with nickel-chelating nitrilo-triacetic acid (Ni-NTA). The optical properties of conjugated nanostructures were studied using wide-field and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Plasmonic enhancement of RCs conjugated to AgNWs was observed as their fluorescence intensity dependence on the excitation wavelength does not follow the excitation spectrum of RC complexes in solution. The strongest effect of plasmonic interactions on the emission intensity of RCs coincides with the absorption spectrum of AgNWs and is observed for excitation into the carotenoid absorption. From the absence of fluorescence decay shortening, we attribute the emission enhancement to increase of absorption in RC complexes.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Introduction: light harvesting for photosynthesis


Datum: 01.03.2018


The identification of IsiA proteins binding chlorophyll d in the cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina

Abstract

The bioavailable iron in many aquatic ecosystems is extremely low, and limits the growth and photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton. In response to iron limitation, a group of chlorophyll-binding proteins known as iron stress-induced proteins are induced and serve as accessory light-harvesting components for photosystems under iron limitation. In the present study, we investigated physiological features of Acaryochloris marina in response to iron-deficient conditions. The growth doubling time under iron-deficient conditions was prolonged to ~3.4 days compared with 1.9 days under normal culture conditions, accompanied with dramatically decreased chlorophyll content. The isolation of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes using sucrose density gradient centrifugation shows six main green bands and three main fluorescence components of 712, 728, and 748 nm from the iron-deficient culture. The fluorescence components of 712 and 728 nm co-exist in the samples collected from iron-deficient and iron-replete cultures and are attributed to Chl d-binding accessory chlorophyll-binding antenna proteins and also from photosystem II. A new chlorophyll-binding protein complex with its main fluorescence peak at 748 nm was observed and enriched in the heaviest fraction from the samples collected from the iron-deficient culture only. Combining western blotting analysis using antibodies of CP47 (PSII), PsaC (PSI) and IsiA and proteomic analysis on an excised protein band at ~37 kDa, the heaviest fraction (−F6) isolated from iron-deficient culture contained Chl d-bound PSI–IsiA supercomplexes. The PSII-antenna supercomplexes isolated from iron-replete conditions showed two fluorescence peaks of 712 and 728 nm, which can be assigned as 6-transmembrane helix chlorophyll-binding antenna and photosystem II fluorescence, respectively, which is supported by protein analysis of the fractions (F5 and F6).


Datum: 01.03.2018


The contributions of 49ers to the measurements and models of ultrafast photosynthetic energy transfer

Abstract

Progress in measuring and understanding the mechanism of the elementary energy transfer steps in photosynthetic light harvesting from roughly 1949 to the present is sketched with a focus on the group of scientists born in 1949 ± 1. Improvements in structural knowledge, laser spectroscopic methods, and quantum dynamical theories have led to the ability to record and calculate with reasonable accuracy the timescales of elementary energy transfer steps. The significance of delocalized excited states and of near-field Coulombic coupling is noted. The microscopic understanding enables consistent coarse graining and should enable a much-improved understanding of the regulation of photosynthetic light harvesting.


Datum: 01.03.2018


In vitro enzymatic assays of photosynthetic bacterial 3-vinyl hydratases for bacteriochlorophyll biosyntheses

Abstract

A chlorosome is a large and efficient light-harvesting antenna system found in some photosynthetic bacteria. This system comprises self-aggregates of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, d, or e possessing a chiral 1-hydroxyethyl group at the 3-position, which plays a key role in the formation of the supramolecule. Biosynthesis of chlorosomal pigments involves stereoselective conversion of 3-vinyl group to 3-(1-hydroxyethyl) group facilitated by a 3-vinyl hydratase. This 3-vinyl hydration also occurs in BChl a biosynthesis, followed by oxidation that introduces an acetyl group at the 3-position. Herein, we present in vitro enzymatic assays of paralogous 3-vinyl hydratases derived from green sulfur bacteria, Chlorobaculum tepidum and Chlorobaculum limnaeum, the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph Chloroflexus aurantiacus, and the chloracidobacterium Chloracidobacterium thermophilum. All the hydratases showed hydration activities. The biosynthetic pathway of BChl a and other chlorosomal pigments is discussed considering the substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of the present hydratases.


Datum: 01.03.2018


An improved crystal structure of C-phycoerythrin from the marine cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. A09DM

Abstract

C-Phycoerythrin (PE) from Phormidium sp. A09DM has been crystallized using different conditions and its structure determined to atomic resolution (1.14 Å). In order for the pigment present, phycoerythrobilin (PEB), to function as an efficient light-harvesting molecule it must be held rigidly (Kupka and Scheer in Biochim Biophys Acta 1777:94–103, 2008) and, moreover, the different PEB molecules in PE must be arranged, relative to each other, so as to promote efficient energy transfer between them. This improved structure has allowed us to define in great detail the structure of the PEBs and their binding sites. These precise structural details will facilitate theoretical calculations of each PEB’s spectroscopic properties. It was possible, however, to suggest a model for which chromophores contribute to the different regions of absorption spectrum and propose a tentative scheme for energy transfer. We show that some subtle differences in one of these PEB binding sites in two of the 12 subunits are caused by crystal contacts between neighboring hexamers in the crystal lattice. This explains some of the differences seen in previous lower resolution structures determined at two different pH values (Kumar et al. in Photosyn Res 129:17–28, 2016).


Datum: 01.03.2018


Light-harvesting complexes of Botryococcus braunii

Abstract

The colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii (BB) is a potential source of biofuel due to its natural high hydrocarbon content. Unfortunately, its slow growth limits its biotechnological potential. Understanding its photosynthetic machinery could help to identify possible growth limitations. Here, we present the first study on BB light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). We purified two LHC fractions containing the complexes in monomeric and trimeric form. Both fractions contained at least two proteins with molecular weight (MW) around 25 kDa. The chlorophyll composition is similar to that of the LHCII of plants; in contrast, the main xanthophyll is loroxanthin, which substitutes lutein in most binding sites. Circular dichroism and 77 K absorption spectra lack typical differences between monomeric and trimeric complexes, suggesting that intermonomer interactions do not play a role in BB LHCs. This is in agreement with the low stability of the BB LHCII trimers as compared to the complexes of plants, which could be related to loroxanthin binding in the central (L1 and L2) binding sites. The properties of BB LHCII are similar to those of plant LHCII, indicating a similar pigment organization. Differences are a higher content of red chlorophyll a, similar to plant Lhcb3. These differences and the different Xan composition had no effect on excitation energy transfer or fluorescence lifetimes, which were similar to plant LHCII.


Datum: 01.03.2018


High light acclimation of Chromera velia points to photoprotective NPQ

Abstract

It has previously been shown that the long-term treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana with the chloroplast inhibitor lincomycin leads to photosynthetic membranes enriched in antennas, strongly reduced in photosystem II reaction centers (PSII) and with enhanced nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) (Belgio et al. Biophys J 102:2761–2771, 2012). Here, a similar physiological response was found in the microalga Chromera velia grown under high light (HL). In comparison to cells acclimated to low light, HL cells displayed a severe re-organization of the photosynthetic membrane characterized by (1) a reduction of PSII but similar antenna content; (2) partial uncoupling of antennas from PSII; (3) enhanced NPQ. The decrease in the number of PSII represents a rather unusual acclimation response compared to other phototrophs, where a smaller PSII antenna size is more commonly found under high light. Despite the diminished PSII content, no net damage could be detected on the basis of the Photosynthesis versus irradiance curve and electron transport rates pointing at the excess capacity of PSII. We therefore concluded that the photoinhibition is minimized under high light by a lower PSII content and that cells are protected by NPQ in the antennas.


Datum: 01.03.2018


C-terminal cleavage of the LH1 α -polypeptide in the Sr 2+ -cultured Thermochromatium tepidum

Abstract

The light-harvesting 1 reaction center (LH1-RC) complex in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium (Tch.) tepidum binds Ca ions as cofactors, and Ca-binding is largely involved in its characteristic Q y absorption at 915 nm and enhanced thermostability. Ca2+ can be biosynthetically replaced by Sr2+ in growing cultures of Tch. tepidum. However, the resulting Sr2+-substituted LH1-RC complexes in such cells do not display the absorption maximum and thermostability of those from Ca2+-grown cells, signaling that inherent structural differences exist in the LH1 complexes between the Ca2+- and Sr2+-cultured cells. In this study, we examined the effects of the biosynthetic Sr2+-substitution and limited proteolysis on the spectral properties and thermostability of the Tch. tepidum LH1-RC complex. Preferential truncation of two consecutive, positively charged Lys residues at the C-terminus of the LH1 α-polypeptide was observed for the Sr2+-cultured cells. A proportion of the truncated LH1 α-polypeptide increased during repeated subculturing in the Sr2+-substituted medium. This result suggests that the truncation is a biochemical adaptation to reduce the electrostatic interactions and/or steric repulsion at the C-terminus when Sr2+ substitutes for Ca2+ in the LH1 complex. Limited proteolysis of the native Ca2+-LH1 complex with lysyl protease revealed selective truncations at the Lys residues in both C- and N-terminal extensions of the α- and β-polypeptides. The spectral properties and thermostability of the partially digested native LH1-RC complexes were similar to those of the biosynthetically Sr2+-substituted LH1-RC complexes in their Ca2+-bound forms. Based on these findings, we propose that the C-terminal domain of the LH1 α-polypeptide plays important roles in retaining proper structure and function of the LH1-RC complex in Tch. tepidum.


Datum: 01.03.2018


A functional compartmental model of the Synechocystis PCC 6803 phycobilisome

Abstract

In the light-harvesting antenna of the Synechocystis PCC 6803 phycobilisome (PB), the core consists of three cylinders, each composed of four disks, whereas each of the six rods consists of up to three hexamers (Arteni et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1787(4):272–279, 2009). The rods and core contain phycocyanin and allophycocyanin pigments, respectively. Together these pigments absorb light between 400 and 650 nm. Time-resolved difference absorption spectra from wild-type PB and rod mutants have been measured in different quenching and annihilation conditions. Based upon a global analysis of these data and of published time-resolved emission spectra, a functional compartmental model of the phycobilisome is proposed. The model describes all experiments with a common set of parameters. Three annihilation time constants are estimated, 3, 25, and 147 ps, which represent, respectively, intradisk, interdisk/intracylinder, and intercylinder annihilation. The species-associated difference absorption and emission spectra of two phycocyanin and two allophycocyanin pigments are consistently estimated, as well as all the excitation energy transfer rates. Thus, the wild-type PB containing 396 pigments can be described by a functional compartmental model of 22 compartments. When the interhexamer equilibration within a rod is not taken into account, this can be further simplified to ten compartments, which is the minimal model. In this model, the slowest excitation energy transfer rates are between the core cylinders (time constants 115–145 ps), and between the rods and the core (time constants 68–115 ps).


Datum: 01.03.2018


Excitation transfer and trapping kinetics in plant photosystem I probed by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

Abstract

Photosystem I is a robust and highly efficient biological solar engine. Its capacity to utilize virtually every absorbed photon’s energy in a photochemical reaction generates great interest in the kinetics and mechanisms of excitation energy transfer and charge separation. In this work, we have employed room-temperature coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to follow exciton equilibration and excitation trapping in intact Photosystem I complexes as well as core complexes isolated from Pisum sativum. We performed two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements with low excitation pulse energies to record excited-state kinetics free from singlet–singlet annihilation. Global lifetime analysis resolved energy transfer and trapping lifetimes closely matches the time-correlated single-photon counting data. Exciton energy equilibration in the core antenna occurred on a timescale of 0.5 ps. We further observed spectral equilibration component in the core complex with a 3–4 ps lifetime between the bulk Chl states and a state absorbing at 700 nm. Trapping in the core complex occurred with a 20 ps lifetime, which in the supercomplex split into two lifetimes, 16 ps and 67–75 ps. The experimental data could be modelled with two alternative models resulting in equally good fits—a transfer-to-trap-limited model and a trap-limited model. However, the former model is only possible if the 3–4 ps component is ascribed to equilibration with a “red” core antenna pool absorbing at 700 nm. Conversely, if these low-energy states are identified with the P700 reaction centre, the transfer-to-trap-model is ruled out in favour of a trap-limited model.


Datum: 01.03.2018


In vivo NMR as a tool for probing molecular structure and dynamics in intact Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells

Abstract

We report the application of NMR dynamic spectral editing for probing the structure and dynamics of molecular constituents in fresh, intact cells and in freshly prepared thylakoid membranes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr.) green algae. For isotope labeling, wild-type Cr. cells were grown on 13C acetate-enriched minimal medium. 1D 13C J-coupling based and dipolar-based MAS NMR spectra were applied to distinguish 13C resonances of different molecular components. 1D spectra were recorded over a physiological temperature range, and whole-cell spectra were compared to those taken from thylakoid membranes, evaluating their composition and dynamics. A theoretical model for NMR polarization transfer was used to simulate the relative intensities of direct, J-coupling, and dipolar-based polarization from which the degree of lipid segmental order and rotational dynamics of the lipid acyl chains were estimated. We observe that thylakoid lipid signals dominate the lipid spectral profile of whole algae cells, demonstrating that with our novel method, thylakoid membrane characteristics can be detected with atomistic precision inside intact photosynthetic cells. The experimental procedure is rapid and applicable to fresh cell cultures, and could be used as an original approach for detecting chemical profiles, and molecular structure and dynamics of photosynthetic membranes in vivo in functional states.


Datum: 01.03.2018


The structure of FCPb, a light-harvesting complex in the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana

Abstract

Diatoms possess fucoxanthin chlorophyll proteins (FCP) as light-harvesting systems. These membrane intrinsic proteins bind fucoxanthin as major carotenoid and Chl c as accessory chlorophyll. The relatively high sequence homology to higher plant light-harvesting complex II gave rise to the assumption of a similar overall structure. From centric diatoms like Cyclotella meneghiniana, however, two major FCP complexes can be isolated. FCPa, composed of Fcp2 and Fcp6 subunits, was demonstrated to be trimeric, whereas FCPb, known to contain Fcp5 polypeptides, is of higher oligomeric state. No molecular structure of either complex is available so far. Here we used electron microscopy and single particle analysis to elucidate the overall architecture of FCPb. The complexes are built from trimers as basic unit, assembling into nonameric moieties. The trimer itself is smaller, i.e. more compact than LHCII, but the main structural features are conserved.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Significance of accumulation of the alarmone (p)ppGpp in chloroplasts for controlling photosynthesis and metabolite balance during nitrogen starvation in Arabidopsis

Abstract

The regulatory nucleotides, guanosine 5′-triphosphate 3′-diphosphate (pppGpp) and guanosine 5′-diphosphate 3′-diphosphate (ppGpp), were originally identified in Escherichia coli, and control a large set of gene expression and enzyme activities. The (p)ppGpp-dependent control of cell activities is referred to as the stringent response. A growing number of (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase homologs have been identified in plants, which are localized in plastids in Arabidopsis thaliana. We recently reported that the Arabidopsis mutant overproducing ppGpp in plastids showed dwarf chloroplasts, and transcript levels in the mutant plastids were significantly suppressed. Furthermore, the mutant showed more robust growth than the wild type (WT), especially under nutrient-deficient conditions, although the mechanisms are unclear. To better understand the impact of the ppGpp accumulation on plant responses to nutrient deficiency, photosynthetic activities and metabolic changes in the ppGpp-overproducing mutant were characterized here. Upon transition to the nitrogen-deficient conditions, the mutant showed reduction of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) contents, and effective and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II compared with WT. The mutant also showed more obvious changes in key metabolite levels including some amino acid contents than WT; similar metabolic change is known to be critical for plants to maintain carbon–nitrogen balance in their cells. These results suggest that artificially overproducing ppGpp modulates the organelle functions that play an important role in controlling photosynthetic performance and metabolite balance during nitrogen starvation.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Photoactivation and relaxation studies on the cyanobacterial orange carotenoid protein in the presence of copper ion

Abstract

Photosynthesis starts with absorption of light energy by light-harvesting antenna complexes with subsequent production of energy-rich organic compounds. However, all photosynthetic organisms face the challenge of excess photochemical conversion capacity. In cyanobacteria, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) performed by the orange carotenoid protein (OCP) is one of the most important mechanisms to regulate the light energy captured by light-harvesting antennas. This regulation permits the cell to meet its cellular energy requirements and at the same time protects the photosynthetic apparatus under fluctuating light conditions. Several reports have revealed that thermal dissipation increases under excess copper in plants. To explore the effects and mechanisms of copper on cyanobacteria NPQ, photoactivation and relaxation of OCP in the presence of copper were examined in this communication. When OCPo (OCP at orange state) is converted into OCPr(OCP at red state), copper ion has no effect on the photoactivation kinetics. Relaxation of OCPr to OCPo, however, is largely delayed—almost completely blocked, in the presence of copper. Even the addition of the fluorescence recovery protein (FRP) cannot activate the relaxation process. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis result indicates the heterogeneous population of Cu2+-locked OCPr. The Cu2+-OCP binding constant was estimated using a hyperbolic binding curve. Functional roles of copper-binding OCP in vivo are discussed.


Datum: 01.03.2018


Carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer through vibronic coupling in LH2 from Phaeosprillum molischianum

Abstract

The peripheral light-harvesting antenna complex (LH2) of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ideal testing ground for models of structure–function relationships due to its well-determined molecular structure and ultrafast energy deactivation. It has been the target for numerous studies in both theory and ultrafast spectroscopy; nevertheless, certain aspects of the convoluted relaxation network of LH2 lack a satisfactory explanation by conventional theories. For example, the initial carotenoid-to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer step necessary on visible light excitation was long considered to follow the Förster mechanism, even though transfer times as short as 40 femtoseconds (fs) have been observed. Such transfer times are hard to accommodate by Förster theory, as the moderate coupling strengths found in LH2 suggest much slower transfer within this framework. In this study, we investigate LH2 from Phaeospirillum (Ph.) molischianum in two types of transient absorption experiments—with narrowband pump and white-light probe resulting in 100 fs time resolution, and with degenerate broadband 10 fs pump and probe pulses. With regard to the split Qx band in this system, we show that vibronically mediated transfer explains both the ultrafast carotenoid-to-B850 transfer, and the almost complete lack of transfer to B800. These results are beyond Förster theory, which predicts an almost equal partition between the two channels.


Datum: 01.03.2018


 


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 04.01.2018.






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