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Oxidation States

Data chart of the oxidation states of the chemical elements.

 

The following table lists the preferred (in bold), occasionally occurring, observed under certain conditions (in parentheses) and theoretically predicted oxidation states (in brackets) of the various chemical elements; in addition, the electron configurations of neutral atoms (oxidation state zero; outer electron shells) listed.

The oxidation number or oxidation state - sometimes referred to as oxidation value or electrochemical value - specifies the hypothetical charge of the atom of a molecule of a simple or a polyatomic ion if all bonds as exclusively ionic, ie without covalent share, be considered; it is now the atom, ie ion, out, so its positive, negative or neutral charge is equal to its oxidation number (note that in reality the ionic and covalent share of binding are quite different degrees. In polyatomic molecules of an element (for example, O2) is the oxidation state zero.



Data Table: Oxidation States

 

OZElementnegativezeropositive
    -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9
1 Hydrogen
1s1
−1 H +1
2 Helium
1s2
He
3 Lithium
[He] 2s1
Li +1
4 Beryllium
[He] 2s2
Be (+1) +2
5 Boron
[He] 2s2 2p1
B +1 +2 +3
6 Carbon
[He] 2s2 2p2
−4 −3 −2 −1 C +1 +2 +3 +4
7 Nitrogen
[He] 2s2 2p3
−3 −2 −1 N +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
8 Oxygen
[He] 2s2 2p4
−2 −1 O +1 +2
9 Fluorine
[He] 2s2 2p5
−1 F
10 Neon
[He] 2s2 2p6
Ne
11 Sodium
[Ne] 3s1
−1 Na +1
12 Magnesium
[Ne] 3s2
Mg (+1) +2
13 Aluminium
[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Al +1 (+2) +3
14 Silicon
−4 −3 −2 −1 Si +1 +2 +3 +4
15 Phosphorus
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
−3 −2 −1 P +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
16 Sulfur
[Ne] 3s2 3p4
−2 −1 S +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
17 Chlorine
[Ne] 3s2 3p5
−1 Cl +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
18 Argon
[Ne] 3s2 3p6
Ar
19 Potassium
[Ar] 4s1
−1 K +1
20 Calcium
[Ar] 4s2
Ca (+1) +2
21 Scandium
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc +1 +2 +3
22 Titanium
[Ar] 3d2 4s2
−1 Ti (+1) +2 +3 +4
23 Vanadium
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
−1 V +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
24 Chromium
[Ar] 3d5 4s1
−2 −1 Cr +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
25 Manganese
[Ar] 3d5 4s2
−3 −2 −1 Mn +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
26 Iron
[Ar] 3d6 4s2
−2 −1 Fe +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
27 Cobalt
[Ar] 3d7 4s2
−1 Co +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
28 Nickel
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
−1 Ni +1 +2 +3 +4
29 Copper
[Ar] 3d10 4s1
Cu +1 +2 +3 +4
30 Zinc
[Ar] 3d10 4s2
Zn (+1) +2
31 Gallium
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga +1 +2 +3
32 Germanium
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
−4 (−3) (−2) (−1) Ge +1 +2 +3 +4
33 Arsenic
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p3
−3 As (+1) +2 +3 +5
34 Selenium
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p4
−2 Se (+1) +2 +4 +6
35 Bromine
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p5
−1 Br +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +7
36 Krypton
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Kr +2
37 Rubidium
[Kr] 5s1
−1 Rb +1
38 Strontium
[Kr] 5s2
Sr (+1) +2
39 Yttrium
[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Y (+1) (+2) +3
40 Zirconium
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr +1 +2 +3 +4
41 Niob
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
−1 Nb (+1) +2 +3 +4 +5
42 Molybdenum
[Kr] 4d5 5s1
−2 −1 Mo +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
43 Technetium
[Kr] 4d6 5s1
−3 −1 Tc +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
44 Ruthenium
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
−2 Ru +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
45 Rhodium
[Kr] 4d8 5s1
−1 Rh +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
46 Palladium
[Kr] 4d10
Pd (+1) +2 +4
47 Silver
[Kr] 4d10 5s1
Ag +1 +2 +3 (+4)
48 Cadmium
[Kr] 4d10 5s2
Cd (+1) +2
49 Indium
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
In +1 +2 +3
50 Tin
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
−4 Sn +2 +4
51 Antimon
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
−3 Sb +3 +5
52 Tellurium
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p4
−2 Te +2 +4 +5 +6
53 Iodine
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
−1 I +1 +3 (+4) +5 +7
54 Xenon
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Xe (+1) +2 +4 +6 +8
55 Cesium
[Xe] 6s1
−1 Cs +1
56 Barium
[Xe] 6s2
Ba +2
57 Lanthanum
[Xe] 5d1 6s2
La +2 +3
58 Cer
[Xe] 4f1 5d16s2
Ce +2 +3 +4
59 Praseodymium
[Xe] 4f3 6s2
Pr +2 +3 +4
60 Neodymium
[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Nd +2 +3 (+4)
61 Promethium
[Xe] 4f5 6s2
Pm (+2) +3
62 Samarium
[Xe] 4f6 6s2
Sm +2 +3
63 Europium
[Xe] 4f7 6s2
Eu +2 +3
64 Gadolinium
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd +1 +2 +3
65 Terbium
[Xe] 4f9 6s2
Tb +1 (+2) +3 +4
66 Dysprosium
[Xe] 4f10 6s2
Dy +2 +3 (+4)
67 Holmium
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho (+2) +3
68 Erbium
[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Er (+2) +3
69 Thulium
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm +2 +3 (+4)
70 Ytterbium
[Xe] 4f14 6s2
Yb +2 +3
71 Lutetium
[Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
Lu +3
72 Hafnium
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf +2 +3 +4
73 Tantal
[Xe] 4f14 5d3 6s2
−1 Ta +2 +3 +4 +5
74 Tungsten
[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
−2 −1 W +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6
75 Rhenium
[Xe] 4f14 5d5 6s2
−3 −1 Re +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
76 Osmium
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
−2 (−1) Os +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8
77 Iridium
[Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
(−3) −1 Ir +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +8 +9
78 Platinum
[Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
(−3) (−2) (−1) Pt (+1) +2 (+3) +4 +5 +6
79 Gold
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
−1 Au +1 +2 +3 +5
80 Mercury
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Hg +1 +2 (+4)
81 Thallium
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Tl +1 +3
82 Lead
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
−4 Pb +2 +4
83 Bismuth
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
−3 Bi (+1) +3 +5
84 Polonium
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4
−2 Po +2 +4 (+5) +6
85 Astatine
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5
−1 At +1 +3 +5 +7
86 Radon
[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6
Rn +2 (+6)
87 Francium
[Rn] 7s1
Fr +1
88 Radium
[Rn] 7s2
Ra +2
89 Actinium
[Rn] 6d1 7s2
Ac (+2) +3
90 Thorium
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th +2 +3 +4
91 Protactinium
[Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2
Pa (+2) +3 +4 +5
92 Uranium
[Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
U (+2) +3 +4 +5 +6
93 Neptunium
[Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
Np +3 +4 +5 +6 +7
94 Plutonium
[Rn] 5f6 7s2
Pu +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 (+8)
95 Americium
[Rn] 5f7 7s2
Am +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 (+7)
96 Curium
[Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
Cm +3 +4
97 Berkelium
[Rn] 5f9 7s2
Bk (+2) +3 +4
98 Californium
[Rn] 5f10 7s2
Cf +2 +3 +4
99 Einsteinium
[Rn] 5f11 7s2
Es +2 +3
100 Fermium
[Rn] 5f12 7s2
Fm +2 +3
101 Mendelevium
[Rn] 5f13 7s2
Md +2 +3
102 Nobelium
[Rn] 5f14 7s2
No +2 +3
103 Lawrencium
[Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2
Lr +3
104 Rutherfordium
[Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2
Rf +4
105 Dubnium
[Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2
Db +5
106 Seaborgium
[Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2
Sg +6
107 Bohrium
[Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2
Bh [+7]
108 Hassium
[Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2
Hs [+8]
109 Meitnerium
[Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2
Mt [+3] [+4]
110 Darmstadtium
[Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1
Ds [+2] [+4] [+5] [+6]
111 Roentgenium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1
[-1] Rg [+1] [+3] [+5]
112 Copernicium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2
Cn [+2] [+4]
113 Nihonium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1
Nh [+1] [+2] [+3] [+5]
114 Flerovium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2
Fl [+2] [+4]
115 Moscovium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3
Mc [+1] [+3]
116 Livermorium
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4
Lv [+2] [+4]
117 Tennessine
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5
[-1] Ts [+1] [+3] [+5]
118 Oganesson
[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6
Og [+1] [+2] [+4] [+6]

 


Last update: 15 November 2022



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