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Isotopes of Bromine

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Bromine as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Bromine isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element bromine are summarized under bromine isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 35 protons and, in the uncharged state, 35 electrons. The difference between the individual bromine isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Bromine Isotopes

Bromine occurs in nature as a mixture of the two stable isotopes bromine-79 and bromine-81, which each make up about half of the isotopic composition.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Bromine
Isotopic mixture
79,904 u100 %
Isotope 79Br78,918338(9) u50,65 %stable3/2-
Isotope 81Br80,91690(9) u49,35 %stable3/2-

 

All other known bromine nuclides are unstable and decay with half-lives of 57 hours or less.

 

Isotope Table: Bromine

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
66Br356631Bromine-66
67Br356732Bromine-67
68Br356833Bromine-6867.95852(38) u
[67.9393204 u]
{-38.63837 MeV}
3+
69Br356934Bromine-6968.95034(5) u
[68.9311404 u]
{-46.25799 MeV}
(5/2-)
70Br357035Bromine-7069.944792(16) u
[69.9255924 u]
{-51.42592 MeV}
0+70Kr
70mBr357035Bromine-70m69.944792(16) u
[69.9255924 u]
{-51.42592 MeV}
9+
71Br357136Bromine-7170.939342(6) u
[70.9201424 u]
{-56.50256 MeV}
(5/2)-71Kr
72Br357237Bromine-7271.9365946(11) u
[71.917395 u]
{-59.06175 MeV}
1+0.60(10)72Kr
72mBr357237Bromine-72m71.9365946(11) u
[71.917395 u]
{-59.06175 MeV}
(3-)> 70
73Br357338Bromine-7372.931672(8) u
[72.9124724 u]
{-63.64712 MeV}
1/2-73Kr
74Br357439Bromine-7473.929910(6) u
[73.9107104 u]
{-65.28841 MeV}
(0-)1.820(12)74Kr
74mBr357439Bromine-74m73.929910(6) u
[73.9107104 u]
{-65.28841 MeV}
4(+)1.820(12)
75Br357540Bromine-7574.925811(5) u
[74.9066114 u]
{-69.10661 MeV}
3/2-+ 0.76(18)75Kr
76Br357641Bromine-7675.924542(10) u
[75.9053424 u]
{-70.28867 MeV}
1-0.5477(1)76Kr
76mBr357641Bromine-76m75.924542(10) u
[75.9053424 u]
{-70.28867 MeV}
(4)+
77Br357742Bromine-7776.921379(3) u
[76.9021794 u]
{-73.23499 MeV}
3/2-0.9731(6)77Kr
77mBr357742Bromine-77m76.921379(3) u
[76.9021794 u]
{-73.23499 MeV}
9/2+
78Br357843Bromine-7877.921146(4) u
[77.9019464 u]
{-73.45203 MeV}
1+0.13(3)
78mBr357843Bromine-78m77.921146(4) u
[77.9019464 u]
{-73.45203 MeV}
(4+)+ 4.114(12)
79Br357944Bromine-7978.918338(9) u
[78.8991384 u]
{-76.06766 MeV}
3/2-+2.1046(6)79Kr
79Se
79mBr357944Bromine-79m78.918338(9) u
[78.8991384 u]
{-76.06766 MeV}
9/2+
80Br358045Bromine-8079.9185298(11) u
[79.8993302 u]
{-75.889 MeV}
1+0.5135(6)
80mBr358045Bromine-80m79.9185298(11) u
[79.8993302 u]
{-75.889 MeV}
5-+ 1.3165(6)
81Br358146Bromine-8180.91690(9) u
[80.8977004 u]
{-77.40715 MeV}
3/2-+2.2686(6)81Kr
81Se
81mBr358146Bromine-81m80.91690(9) u
[80.8977004 u]
{-77.40715 MeV}
9/2+5.694(45)
82Br358247Bromine-8281.9168018(10) u
[81.8976022 u]
{-77.49862 MeV}
5-+1.6256(6)
82mBr358247Bromine-82m81.9168018(10) u
[81.8976022 u]
{-77.49862 MeV}
2-
83Br358348Bromine-8382.915175(4) u
[82.8959754 u]
{-79.01398 MeV}
3/2-83Se
84Br358449Bromine-8483.916496(28) u
[83.8972964 u]
{-77.78347 MeV}
2-1.9(7)84Se
84m1Br358449Bromine-84m183.916496(28) u
[83.8972964 u]
{-77.78347 MeV}
(6)-
84m2Br358449Bromine-84m283.916496(28) u
[83.8972964 u]
{-77.78347 MeV}
1+
85Br358550Bromine-8584.915646(3) u
[84.8964464 u]
{-78.57524 MeV}
3/2-85Se
86Br358651Bromine-8685.918805(3) u
[85.8996054 u]
{-75.63266 MeV}
(1-)86Se
87Se
87Br358752Bromine-8786.920674(3) u
[86.9014744 u]
{-73.89169 MeV}
(5/2-)87Se
88Br358853Bromine-8887.924083(3) u
[87.9048834 u]
{-70.71623 MeV}
(2-)88Se
88m1Br358853Bromine-88m187.924083(3) u
[87.9048834 u]
{-70.71623 MeV}
(3-,4-,5-)
89Br358954Bromine-8988.926705(4) u
[88.9075054 u]
{-68.27385 MeV}
(3/2-,5/2-)89Se
90Br359055Bromine-9089.931293(4) u
[89.9120934 u]
{-64.00016 MeV}
91Br359156Bromine-9190.934399(4) u
[90.9151994 u]
{-61.10694 MeV}
92Br359257Bromine-9291.939632(7) u
[91.9204324 u]
{-56.23243 MeV}
(2-)
93Br359358Bromine-9392.94322(46) u
[92.9240204 u]
{-52.89023 MeV}
(5/2-)
94Br359459Bromine-9493.94911(32) u
[93.9299104 u]
{-47.40373 MeV}
95Br359560Bromine-9594.95301(32) u
[94.9338104 u]
{-43.7709 MeV}
96Br359661Bromine-9695.95903(32) u
[95.9398304 u]
{-38.16331 MeV}
97Br359762Bromine-9796.96344(43) u
[96.9442404 u]
{-34.05542 MeV}
(3/2-)
98Br359863Bromine-9897.96967(43) u
[97.9504704 u]
{-28.25221 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Br-66- ungelistet -AL
Br-67- ungelistet -AL
Br-6850 nsp → 67SeAL
Br-6924 nsp → 68Se100 %AL
Br-7079.1(8) msEC/β+70Se100 %10.504(15) MeVAL
Br-70m2.2(2) sEC/β+70Se100 %2.2923(8) keVAL
Br-7121.4(6) sEC/β+71Se100 %6.644(6) MeVAL
Br-7278.6(24) sEC/β+72Se100 %8.8064(22) MeVAL
Br-72m10.6(3) sEC/β+72Se
Iso → 72Br
?
ca. 100 %

100.76(15) keVAL
Br-733.4(2) minEC/β+73Se100 %4.58(1) MeVAL
Br-7425.4(3) minEC/β+74Se100 %6.925(6) MeVAL
Br-74m46(2) minEC/β+74Se100 %13.58(21) keVAL
Br-7596.7(13) minEC/β+75Se100 %3.062(4) MeVAL
Br-7616.2(2) hEC/β+76Se100 %4.963(9) MeVAL
Br-76m1.31(2) sEC/β+76Se
Iso → 76Br
< 0.6 %
> 99.4 %

102.58(3) keVAL
Br-7757.04(12) hEC/β+77Se100 %1.3647(28) MeVAL
Br-77m4.28(10) minIso → 77Br100 %105.86(8) keVAL
Br-786.45(4) minEC/β+78Se
β-78Kr
≥ 99.99 %
≤ 0.01 %
3.574(4) MeV
0.726(4) MeV
AL
Br-78m119.4(10) μsIso → 78Br100 %180.89(13) keVAL
Br-79stableAL
Br-79m4.86(4) sIso → 79Br100 %207.61(9) keVAL
Br-8017.68(2) minEC/β+80Se
β-80Kr
8.3(2) %
91.7(2) %
1.8705(14) MeV
2.0044(12) MeV
AL
Br-80m4.4205(8) hIso → 80Br100 %85.843(4) keVAL
Br-81stableAL
Br-81m34.6(28) μs536.20(9) keV
Br-8235.282(7) hβ-82Kr100 %3.0931(10) MeVAL
Br-82m6.13(5) minβ-82Kr
Iso → 82Br
2.4(3) %
97.6(3) %
3.139 MeV
0.046 MeV
45.9492(10) keVAL
Br-832.374(4) hβ-83Kr100 %0.977(4) MevAL
Br-8431.76(8) minβ-84Kr100 %4.656(26) MeVAL
Br-84m16.0(2) minβ-84Kr100 %4.97 MeV320(10) keVAL
Br-84m20.14 μs408.2(4) keV
Br-852.90(6) minβ-85Kr100 %2.905(4) MeVAL
Br-8655.1(4) sβ-86Kr100 %7.633(3) MeVAL
Br-8755.68(12) sβ-87Kr
β-, n → 86Kr
97.40(4) %
2.60(4) %
6.818(3) MeV
1.303(3) MeV
AL
Br-8816.34(8) sβ-88Kr
β-, n → 87Kr
93.42(18) %
6.58(18) %
8.975(4) MeV
1.922(3) MeV
AL
Br-88m15.3(4) μsIso → 88Br100 %270.1(5) keV
Br-894.357(22) sβ-89Kr
β-, n → 88Kr
86.2 %
13.8 %
8.262(4) MeV
3.346(4) MeV
AL
Br-901.91(1) sβ-90Kr
β-, n → 89Kr
74.8 %
25.2 %
10.959(4) Mev
4.464(4) MeV
AL
Br-91543(4) msβ-91Kr
β-, n → 90Kr
80 %
20 %
9.867(4) MeV
5.781(4) MeV
AL
Br-92314(16) msβ-92Kr
β-, n → 91Kr
66.9(25) %
33.1(25)
12.537(7) MeV
6.67(7) MeV
AL
Br-93102(10) msβ-93Kr
β-, n → 92Kr
32(7) %
68(7) %
11.25(43) MeV
7.81(43) MeV
AL
Br-9470(20) msβ-94Kr
β-, n → 93Kr
32(16) %
68(16) %
13.95(30) MeV
8.66(30) MeV
AL
Br-95150 nsβ-95Kr
β-, n → 94Kr
66 %
34 %
12.39(30) MeV
9.51(30) MeV
AL
Br-96150 nsβ-96Kr
β-, n → 95Kr
ca. 73 %
ca. 27 %
14.92(30) MeV
9.92(30) MeV
AL
Br-97300 nsβ- ? AL
Br-98634 nsβ- ?
β-, n ?
β-, 2n ?




AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Bromine isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Bromine isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Bromine isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Bromine nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
79Br
50,65 %
3/2-
+2,1046(6)6,7256+ 30,87(2)10,70420,07945
1,2570
81Br
49,35 %
3/2-
+2,2686(6)7,2498+ 25,79(2)11,53840,09951
1,3550

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Bromine radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Br-74105 Bq10 Bq/g25.4 min
Br-74m105 Bq10 Bq/g46.0 min
Br-75106 Bq10 Bq/g1.6 h
Br-76105 Bq10 Bq/g0,03 TBq16.2 h
Br-77106 Bq100 Bq/g0,2 TBq57.0 h
Br-80105 Bq100 Bq/g17.6 min
Br-80m+107 Bq1000 Bq/g4.4 h
Br-82106 Bq1 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq/cm235.3 h
Br-83+106 Bq1000 Bq/g2.4 h
Br-84105 Bq10 Bq/g31.8 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Bromine nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Bromine: NMR properties - 79Br-NMR, 81Br-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - J.L. Gross, J. Claes, J. Kathawa, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of zinc, selenium, bromine, and neodymium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.001.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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