Californium, a late actinide with twenty known isotopes, is a man-made transuranium chemical element that does not occur naturally. It was first identified by Glenn Seaborg and his co-workers in February 1950 in an experiment that used a 60-inch cyclotron to bombard curium isotope Cm242 with helium ions:
24296Cm + 42He → 24598Cf + 10n.
Although primarily named for the state of California, it also honors the University of California at Berkeley where many elements were first discovered.
General Information about Californium
Atomar Properties of Californium
Electron configuration of Californium
Abbreviated form: [Rn] 5f10 7s2 .
Ionization Energies of Californium
The following table lists the ionization energies IE (ionization potentials); the IE is the energy required in electron volts (eV) per atom to separate a given electron from an Californium atom.
Isotopic Data of Californium
An overview of the nuclides as well as the isotopic data and properties are listed on the following page: Californium isotopes.
Chemistry of Californium
-97.31 kJ mol-1
Material and Physical Properties
The following table lists some calculated or experimentally determined physical data or material properties of californium.
Use of Californium
The element has a certain practical importance in the form of the isotope californium-252, which is used in various areas as a neutron source.
External Data, Identifiers
Literature Sources and References
 - S. G. Thomson:
New element californium (atomic number 98).
In: OSTI Technical Report, (1950), DOI https://www.osti.gov/biblio/381639.
 - Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt:
In: Nature Chemistry, (2014), DOI 10.1038/nchem.2035.
 - Samantha K. Cary, Monica Vasiliu, Ryan E. Baumbach et al.:
Emergence of californium as the second transitional element in the actinide series.
In: Nature Communications, (2015), DOI 10.1038/ncomms7827.
Category: Chemical Elements
Last update: 05.12.2022 00:00:00
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