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Isotopes of Gadolinium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Gadolinium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Gadolinium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element gadolinium are summarized under gadolinium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 64 protons and, in the uncharged state, 64 electrons. The difference between each gadolinium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Gadolinium Isotopes

Natural terrestrial gadolinium deposits consist of 6 stable nuclides and one radionuclide:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Gadolinium
Isotopic mixture
157,25 u100 %
Isotope 152Gd151,91980(2) u0,20(3) %1.08(8) × 1014 a0+
Isotope 154Gd153,92087(2) u2,18(2) %stable0+
Isotope 155Gd154,92263(2) u14,80(9) %stable3/2-
Isotope 156Gd155,92213(2) u20,47(3) %stable0+
Isotope 157Gd156,92397(2) u15,65(4) %stable3/2-
Isotope 158Gd157,92411(2) u24,84(8) %stable0+
Isotope 160Gd159,92706(2) u21,86(3) %stable0+

 

In addition, more than 30 other gadolinium isotopes have been characterized, as well as several core isomers, all of which are unstable.

 

Isotope Table: Gadolinium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
134Gd6413470Gadolinium-134133.95566(43) u
[133.9205537 u]
{-41.30244 MeV}
0+
135Gd6413571Gadolinium-135134.95234(43) u
[134.9172337 u]
{-44.395 MeV}
(5/2+)
136Gd6413672Gadolinium-136135.94730(32) u
[135.9121937 u]
{-49.08973 MeV}
(0+)
137Gd6413773Gadolinium-137136.94502(32) u
[136.9099137 u]
{-51.21354 MeV}
(7/2)
138Gd6413874Gadolinium-138137.94010(21) u
[137.9049937 u]
{-55.79649 MeV}
0+
139Gd6413975Gadolinium-139138.93813(21) u
[138.9030237 u]
{-57.63153 MeV}
(9/2-)139Tb
139mGd6413975Gadolinium-139m138.93813(21) u
[138.9030237 u]
{-57.63153 MeV}
140Gd6414076Gadolinium-140139.93367(3) u
[139.8985637 u]
{-61.786 MeV}
0+140Tb
141Gd6414177Gadolinium-141140.932126(21) u
[140.8970197 u]
{-63.22422 MeV}
1/2+141Tb
141mGd6414177Gadolinium-141m140.932126(21) u
[140.8970197 u]
{-63.22422 MeV}
11/2-
142Gd6414278Gadolinium-142141.92812(3) u
[141.8930137 u]
{-66.95579 MeV}
0+142Tb
143Gd6414379Gadolinium-143142.9267(22) u
[142.8915937 u]
{-68.27851 MeV}
(1/2)+143Tb
143mGd6414379Gadolinium-143m142.9267(22) u
[142.8915937 u]
{-68.27851 MeV}
(11/2-)
144Gd6414480Gadolinium-144143.92296(3) u
[143.8878537 u]
{-71.7623 MeV}
0+144Tb
145Gd6414581Gadolinium-145144.921710(21) u
[144.8866037 u]
{-72.92667 MeV}
1/2+- 0.74(5)145Tb
145mGd6414581Gadolinium-145m144.921710(21) u
[144.8866037 u]
{-72.92667 MeV}
11/2--1.0(2)
146Gd6414682Gadolinium-146145.918319(4) u
[145.8832127 u]
{-76.08536 MeV}
0+146Tb
150Dy
147Gd6414783Gadolinium-147146.9191010(21) u
[146.8839947 u]
{-75.35693 MeV}
7/2-1.02(9)147Tb
151Dy
148Gd6414884Gadolinium-148147.9181215(17) u
[147.8830152 u]
{-76.26933 MeV}
0+148Tb
152Dy
149Gd6414985Gadolinium-149148.919348(4) u
[148.8842417 u]
{-75.12685 MeV}
7/2-0.88(4)149Tb
153Dy
150Gd6415086Gadolinium-150149.918664(7) u
[149.8835577 u]
{-75.764 MeV}
0+150Tb
154Dy
150Eu
151Gd6415187Gadolinium-151150.920355(3) u
[150.8852487 u]
{-74.18884 MeV}
7/2-0.77(6)151Tb
152Gd6415288Gadolinium-152151.91980(2) u
[151.8846937 u]
{-74.70582 MeV}
0+152Tb
152Eu
153Gd6415389Gadolinium-153152.9217574(13) u
[152.8866511 u]
{-72.88251 MeV}
3/2-0.38(8)153Tb
153m1Gd6415389Gadolinium-153m1152.9217574(13) u
[152.8866511 u]
{-72.88251 MeV}
(9/2+)
153m2Gd6415389Gadolinium-153m2152.9217574(13) u
[152.8866511 u]
{-72.88251 MeV}
(11/2-)
154Gd6415490Gadolinium-154153.92087(2) u
[153.8857637 u]
{-73.70912 MeV}
0+154Tb
154Eu
155Gd6415591Gadolinium-155154.92263(2) u
[154.8875237 u]
{-72.06969 MeV}
3/2-- 0.25723(35)155Tb
155Eu
155mGd6415591Gadolinium-155m154.92263(2) u
[154.8875237 u]
{-72.06969 MeV}
11/2-
156Gd6415692Gadolinium-156155.92213(2) u
[155.8870237 u]
{-72.53544 MeV}
0+156Tb
156Eu
156mGd6415692Gadolinium-156m155.92213(2) u
[155.8870237 u]
{-72.53544 MeV}
7-
157Gd6415793Gadolinium-157156.92397(2) u
[156.8888637 u]
{-70.82149 MeV}
3/2-- 0.3398(7)157Tb
157Eu
158Gd6415894Gadolinium-158157.92411(2) u
[157.8890037 u]
{-70.69108 MeV}
0+158Tb
158Eu
159Gd6415995Gadolinium-159158.9263963(13) u
[158.89129 u]
{-68.5614 MeV}
3/2-- 0.44(3)159Eu
159mGd6415995Gadolinium-159m158.9263963(13) u
[158.89129 u]
{-68.5614 MeV}
5/2+
160Gd6416096Gadolinium-160159.92706(2) u
[159.8919537 u]
{-67.94317 MeV}
0+160Eu
252Cf
161Gd6416197Gadolinium-161160.9296766(17) u
[160.8945703 u]
{-65.50583 MeV}
5/2-161Eu
162Gd6416298Gadolinium-162161.930992(4) u
[161.8958857 u]
{-64.28054 MeV}
0+252Cf
163Gd6416399Gadolinium-163162.934177(9) u
[162.8990707 u]
{-61.31373 MeV}
(5/2-,7/2+)
164Gd64164100Gadolinium-164163.93586(43) u
[163.9007537 u]
{-59.74603 MeV}
0+252Cf
165Gd64165101Gadolinium-165164.93939(13) u
[164.9042837 u]
{-56.45785 MeV}
166Gd64166102Gadolinium-166165.94146(21) u
[165.9063537 u]
{-54.52966 MeV}
0+
167Gd64167103Gadolinium-167166.94545(32) u
[166.9103437 u]
{-50.813 MeV}
(5/2-)
168Gd64168104Gadolinium-168167.94808(43) u
[167.9129737 u]
{-48.36317 MeV}
0+
169Gd64169105Gadolinium-169168.95260(54) u
[168.9174937 u]
{-44.15282 MeV}
(7/2-)
170Gd64170106Gadolinium-170169.95558(64) u
[169.9204737 u]
{-41.37696 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Gd-134AL
Gd-1351.1(2) sEC, β+135Eu
EC, p 134Sm
82 %
18 %
9.76(45) MeV
AL
Gd-136200 nsAL
Gd-1372.2(2) sEC β+137Eu
EC, p → 136Sm
100 %
?
8.93(30) MeV
AL
Gd-1384.7(9) sEC β+138Eu100 %5.95(20) MeVAL
Gd-1395.8(9) sEC β+139Eu
EC, p → 138Sm
100 %
?
7.77(20) MeV
AL
Gd-139m4.8(9) sEC β+139Eu
EC, p → 138Sm
100 %
?

+x keV
Gd-14015.8(4) sEC β+140Eu100 %5.20(6) MeVAL
Gd-14114(4) sEC β+141Eu
β+, p → 140Sm
99.97 %
0.03(1) %
6.701(23) MeV
AL
Gd-141m24.5(5) sEC β+141Eu
Iso → 141Gd
89(2) %
11(2) %

377.76(9) keV
Gd-14270.2(6) sEC β+142Eu100 %4.35(4) MeVAL
Gd-14339(2) sEC β+143Eu100 %6.01(20) MeVAL
Gd-143m110.0(14) sEC β+143Eu100 %152.6 keVAL
Gd-1444.47(6) minEC β+144Eu100 %3.86(3) MeVAL
Gd-14523.0(4) minEC β+145Eu100 %5.065(20) MeVAL
Gd-145m85(3) sIso → 145Gd
EC β+145Eu
94.3(5) %
5.7(5) %

749.1(2) keV
Gd-14648.27(9) dEC β+146Eu100 %1.032(7) MeVAL
Gd-14738.06(12) hEC β+147Eu100 %2.188(3) MeVAL
Gd-14871.1(12) aα → 144Sm100 %3.27129(3) MeVAL
Gd-1499.28(10) dEC β+149Eu
α → 145Sm
> 99 %
<< 1 %
1.314(4) MeV
3.099(3) MeV
AL
Gd-1501.79(8) × 106 aα → 146Sm100 %2.807(6) MeVAL
Gd-151123.9(10) dEC → 151Eu
α → 147Sm
> 99 %
<< 1 %
0.464(4) MeV
2.6527(29) MeV
AL
Gd-1521.08(8) × 1014 aα → 148Sm100 %2.2044(10) MeVAL
Gd-153240.4(10) dEC → 152Eu100 %0.4847(18) MeVAL
Gd-153m13.5(4) μsIso → 153Gd100 %95.1736(8) keV
Gd-153m276.0(14) μsIso → 153Gd100 %171.188(4) keV
Gd-154stableAL
Gd-155stableAL
Gd-155m31.97(27) msIso → 155Gd100 %121.05(19) keV
Gd-156stableAL
Gd-156m1.3(1) μs
Gd-157stableAL
Gd-158stableAL
Gd-15918.479(4) hβ-159Tb100 %0.9709(8) MeVAL
Gd-159m26.2(8) nsIso → 159Gd100 %67.829(24) keV
Gd-160stableAL
Gd-1613.66(5) minβ-161Tb100 %1.9558(14) MeVAL
Gd-1628.4(2) minβ-162Tb100 %1.40(4) MeVAL
Gd-16368(3) sβ-163Tb100 %3.282(9) MeVAL
Gd-16445(3) sβ-164Tb100 %2.30(14) MeVAL
Gd-16510.3(16) sβ-165Tb100 %4.11(6) MeVAL
Gd-1664.8(10) sβ-166Tb100 %3.35(21) MeVAL
Gd-1674.26 sβ-167Tb100 %5.11(36) MeVAL
Gd-1683.03(16) sβ-168Tb100 %4.36(50) MeVAL
Gd-1690.75(21) sβ-169Tb
β-, n → 168Tb
100 %
?
6.18(58) MeV
0.50(58) MeV
AL
Gd-1700.41 sβ-170Tb
β-, n → 168Tb
100 %
?
5.34(72) MeV
0.88(67) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Gadolinium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Gadolinium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Gadolinium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Gadolinium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
155Gd
14,80(9) %
3/2-
- 0,25723(35)0,8273127,0(30)1,3120,00015
0,1541
157Gd
15,65(4) %
3/2-
- 0,3398(7)1,0792135,0(30)1,7200,00033
0,2020

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Gadolinium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Gd-145105 Bq10 Bq/g23.0 min
Gd-146+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,03 TBqEu-14648.3 d
Gd-147106 Bq10 Bq/g38.1 h
Gd-148104 Bq1 Bq/g0,4 TBq74.6 a
Gd-149106 Bq100 Bq/g9.3 d
Gd-151107 Bq100 Bq/g124.0 d
Gd-152104 Bq1 Bq/g1.1 × 1014 a
Gd-153107 Bq10 Bq/g1 T Bq10 Bq cm-2240.4 d
Gd-159106 Bq100 Bq/g2 TBq100 Bq cm-218.5 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Gadolinium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Gadolinium: NMR properties - 155Gd-NMR, 157Gd-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - E. May, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of samarium, europium, Dysprosium, and Dysprosium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.01.007.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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