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Isotopes of Gallium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Gallium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Gallium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element gallium are summarized under gallium isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 31 protons and in the uncharged state of 31 electrons. The difference between the individual gallium isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Gallium Isotopes

Natural occurrences of the basic chemical gallium are composed of the stable isotopes Ga-69 and Ga-61. In addition, 26 radioisotopes are known.

The following table provides information about the natural isotopic composition of gallium:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Gallium
Isotopic mixture
69,723 u100 %
Isotope 69Ga68,925574(8) u60,108(50) %stable3/2-
Isotope 71Ga70,924703(6) u39,892(50) %stable3/2-

 

The radioactive gallium nuclides Ga-67 and in particular Ga-68 are used in nuclear medicine as radiodiagnostics: PET diagnostics (positron emission tomography), peptide diagnostics. Gallium-68 is currently of particular interest to research, since it can be produced inexpensively from the stable gallium-69 by proton irradiation without a cyclotron.

 

Isotope Table: Gallium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
59Ga315928Gallium-5958.96376(18) u
[58.9467546 u]
{-33.75734 MeV}
3/2-~
60Ga316029Gallium-6059.95750(21) u
[59.9404946 u]
{-39.58849 MeV}
(2+)
61Ga316130Gallium-6160.94940(40) u
[60.9323946 u]
{-47.1336 MeV}
3/2-61Ge
62Ga316231Gallium-6261.9441898(7) u
[61.9271844 u]
{-51.98687 MeV}
0+
63Ga316332Gallium-6362.9392942(14) u
[62.9222888 u]
{-56.54709 MeV}
3/2-
64Ga316433Gallium-6463.9368404(15) u
[63.919835 u]
{-58.83279 MeV}
0+64Ge
64mGa316433Gallium-64m63.9368404(15) u
[63.919835 u]
{-58.83279 MeV}
(2+)
65Ga316534Gallium-6564.9327344(9) u
[64.915729 u]
{-62.6575 MeV}
3/2-65Ge
66Ga316635Gallium-6665.9315898(12) u
[65.9145844 u]
{-63.72369 MeV}
0+66Ge
67Ga316736Gallium-6766.9282024(13) u
[66.911197 u]
{-66.87903 MeV}
3/2-+1.8494(5)67Ge
68Ga316837Gallium-6867.9279802(15) u
[67.9109748 u]
{-67.08601 MeV}
1+0.01174(7)68Ge
69Ga316938Gallium-6968.925574(8) u
[68.9085686 u]
{-69.32737 MeV}
3/2-+2.01502(6)69Ge
69Zn
70Ga317039Gallium-7069.9260219(13) u
[69.9090165 u]
{-68.91016 MeV}
1++0.571(2)70Ge
70Zn
71Ga317140Gallium-7170.924703(6) u
[70.9076976 u]
{-70.1387 MeV}
3/2-+2.56033(9)71Ge
71Zn
72Ga317241Gallium-7271.9263674(9) u
[71.909362 u]
{-68.58833 MeV}
3-- 0.13214(2)72Zn
72mGa317241Gallium-72m71.9263674(9) u
[71.909362 u]
{-68.58833 MeV}
(0+)
73Ga317342Gallium-7372.9251747(18) u
[72.9081693 u]
{-69.69932 MeV}
1/2-+0.209(2)73Zn
73mGa317342Gallium-73m72.9251747(18) u
[72.9081693 u]
{-69.69932 MeV}
3/2-
74Ga317443Gallium-7473.926946(3) u
[73.9099406 u]
{-68.04936 MeV}
(3-)0.00(8)74Zn
74mGa317443Gallium-74m73.926946(3) u
[73.9099406 u]
{-68.04936 MeV}
(0+)
75Ga317544Gallium-7574.9265002(26) u
[74.9094948 u]
{-68.46462 MeV}
3/2-+1.835(4)75Zn
76Ga317645Gallium-7675.9288276(21) u
[75.9118222 u]
{-66.29666 MeV}
(2+,3+)-0.945(4)76Zn
77Ga317746Gallium-7776.9291543(26) u
[76.9121489 u]
{-65.99234 MeV}
3/2(-)+2.018(3)77Zn
78Ga317847Gallium-7877.9316088(20) u
[77.9146034 u]
{-63.70599 MeV}
(3+)-1.214(5)78Zn
79Zn
78mGa317847Gallium-78m77.9316088(20) u
[77.9146034 u]
{-63.70599 MeV}
79Ga317948Gallium-7978.9328523(20) u
[78.9158469 u]
{-62.54768 MeV}
(3/2)-+1.046(3)79Zn
80Zn
80Ga318049Gallium-8079.936421(3) u
[79.9194156 u]
{-59.22346 MeV}
6(-)+0.036(4)80Zn
81Zn
80mGa318049Gallium-80m79.936421(3) u
[79.9194156 u]
{-59.22346 MeV}
3(-)-1.425(5)
81Ga318150Gallium-8180.938134(4) u
[80.9211286 u]
{-57.62781 MeV}
(5/2-)+1.746(5)
82Ga318251Gallium-8281.9431765(26) u
[81.9261711 u]
{-52.93075 MeV}
(2-)+0.449(12)
83Ga318352Gallium-8382.9471203(28) u
[82.9301149 u]
{-49.25712 MeV}
84Ga318453Gallium-8483.95267(21) u
[83.9356646 u]
{-44.08761 MeV}
(0-)
84mGa318453Gallium-84m83.95267(21) u
[83.9356646 u]
{-44.08761 MeV}
(3-,4-)
85Ga318554Gallium-8584.95722(32) u
[84.9402146 u]
{-39.84931 MeV}
(5/2-)
86Ga318655Gallium-8685.96341(43) u
[85.9464046 u]
{-34.08337 MeV}
87Ga318756Gallium-8786.96860(54) u
[86.9515946 u]
{-29.24891 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Ga-5943 nsp → 58Zn?AL
Ga-6070(13) msEC/β+60Zn
β+, p → 59Cu
β+, α → 56Ni
98.4(7) %
1.6(7) %
0.023(20) %
14.58(29) MeV

AL
Ga-61167(3) msEC/β+61Zn
EC, p → 60Cu
> 99.75 %
< 0.25 %
9.21(4) MeV
AL
Ga-62116.121(21) msEC/β+62Zn
ε, p → 61Cu
100 %
?
9.1811(9) MeV
AL
Ga-6332.4(5) sEC/β+63Zn100 %5.6663(20) MeVAL
Ga-642.627(12) minEC/β+64Zn100 %7.1712(16) MeVAL
Ga-64m21.9(7) μs42.85(8) keV
Ga-6515.2(2) minEC/β+65Zn100 %3.2545(10) MeVAL
Ga-669.49(3) hEC/β+66Zn100 %5.1755(13) MeVAL
Ga-673.2617(5) dEC → 67Zn100 %1.0013(14) MeVAL
Ga-6867.71(8) minEC/β+68Zn100 %2.9211(16) MeVAL
Ga-69stableAL
Ga-7021.14(3) minEC → 70Zn
β-70Ge
0.41(5) %
99.59(5) %
0.6546(23) MeV
1.6517(15) MeV
AL
Ga-71stableAL
Ga-7214.10(2) hβ-72Ge100 %3.9976(8) MeVAL
Ga-72m39.68(13) ms119.66(5) keV
Ga-734.86(3) hβ-73Ge100 %1.5982(17) MeVAL
Ga-73m200 msβ-73Ge
Iso → 73Ga
?
?

0.3 keV
Ga-748.12(12) minβ-74Ge100 %5.373(3) MeVAL
Ga-74m9.5(10) sIso → 74Ga
β-74Ge
75(25) %
25(25) %

59.571(14) keVAL
Ga-75126(2) sβ-75Ge100 %3.3924(24) MeVAL
Ga-7632.6(6) sβ-76Ge100 %6.9162(20) MeVAL
Ga-7713.2(2) sβ-77Ge100 %5.2205(25) MeVAL
Ga-785.09(5) sβ-78Ge100 %8.156(4) MeVAL
Ga-78m500 nsIso → 78Ga~100 %559.6(7) keV
Ga-792.848(3) sβ-79Ge
β-, n → 78Ge
99.911 %
0.089(19) %
6.98(4) MeV
1.243(4) MeV
AL
Ga-801.9(1) sβ-80Ge
β-, n → 79Ge
99.14 %
0.86(7) %
10.312(4) MeV
2.23(4) MeV
AL
Ga-80m1.3(2) sβ- 80Ge
β-, n 79Ge
Iso → 80Ga
100 %
?
?


22.4 keV
Ga-811.217(5) sβ-81Ge
β-, n → 80Ge
88.1 %
11.9(7) %
8.664(4) MeV
3.836(4) MeV
AL
Ga-82600(2) msβ-82Ge
β-, n → 81Ge
78.8 %
22.2(20) %
12.484(3) MeV
5.290(3) MeV
AL
Ga-83308.1(10) msβ-83Ge
β-, n → 82Ge
37.2 %
62.8(25) %
11.719(4) MeV
8.087(3) MeV
AL
Ga-8485(10) msβ-84Ge
β-, n → 83Ge
30 %
70(15) %
14.06(20) MeV
8.82(20) MeV
AL
Ga-84m85(10) msβ-84Ge
β-, n → 83Ge
100 %
?

+x keV
Ga-8592(4) msβ-85Ge
β-, n → 84Ge
< 65 %
> 35 %
13.27(30) MeV
10.23(30) MeV
AL
Ga-8643 msβ-86Ge
β-, n → 85Ge
β-,2 n → 84Ge
20 %
60 %
20 %
15.32(59 MeV
10.97(40) MeV
AL
Ga-87634 nsβ-87Ge
β-, n → 86Ge
β-, 2n → 85Ge
100 %
?
?
14.83(58) MeV
12.08(66) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Gallium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Gallium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Gallium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Gallium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
69Ga
60,108(50) %
3/2-
+2,01502(6)6,4389+17,1(2)10,24780,06971
1,2035
71Ga
39,892(50) %
3/2-
+2,56033(9)8,1812+ 10,7(1)13,02080,14300
1,5291

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Gallium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Ga-65105 Bq10 Bq/g15.2 min
Ga-66105 Bq10 Bq/g9.5 h
Ga-67106 Bq100 Bq/g0,5 TBq3.3 d
Ga-68105 Bq10 Bq/g0,07 TBq67.7 min
Ga-70106 Bq1000 Bq/g21.1 min
Ga-72105 Bq10 Bq/g0,03 TBq1 Bq cm-214.1 h
Ga-73+106 Bq100 Bq/g4.9 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Gallium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Gallium: NMR properties - 69Ga-NMR, 71Ga-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - Johannes Notni:
Mit Gallium-68 in ein neues Zeitalter?.
In: Nachrichten aus der Chemie, (2012), DOI 10.1002/nadc.201290233.

[10] - J. L. Gross, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of gallium, germanium, lutetium, and hafnium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.09.004.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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