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Isotopes of Gold

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Gold as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Gold isotopes

Gold isotopes are all atomic nuclei of the chemical element gold; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 79 protons and, in the uncharged state, 79 electrons. The difference between the individual gold isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus.

In nature, the monoisotopic chemical element gold only occurs as the isotope gold-197. In addition to this stable gold isotope, 40 other gold nuclides are known, all of which are unstable.

The standard atomic mass is given as 196.966569(5) u.

 

Isotope Table: Gold

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
170Au7917091Gold-170169.99597(21) u
[169.9526369 u]
{-3.75392 MeV}
(2-)
170mAu7917091Gold-170m169.99597(21) u
[169.9526369 u]
{-3.75392 MeV}
(9+)
171Au7917192Gold-171170.991882(22) u
[170.9485489 u]
{-7.56187 MeV}
(1/2+)
171mAu7917192Gold-171m170.991882(22) u
[170.9485489 u]
{-7.56187 MeV}
(11/2-)
172Au7917293Gold-172171.99000(6) u
[171.9466669 u]
{-9.31494 MeV}
172mAu7917293Gold-172m171.99000(6) u
[171.9466669 u]
{-9.31494 MeV}
173Au7917394Gold-173172.986224(24) u
[172.9428909 u]
{-12.83226 MeV}
(1/2+)177Tl
173mAu7917394Gold-173m172.986224(24) u
[172.9428909 u]
{-12.83226 MeV}
(11/2-)
174Au7917495Gold-174173.98472(9) u
[173.9413869 u]
{-14.23323 MeV}
175Au7917596Gold-175174.98132(4) u
[174.9379869 u]
{-17.40031 MeV}
(1/2+)179Tl
175mAu7917596Gold-175m174.98132(4) u
[174.9379869 u]
{-17.40031 MeV}
(11/2-)
176Au7917697Gold-176175.98012(4) u
[175.9367869 u]
{-18.5181 MeV}
176m1Au7917697Gold-176m1175.98012(4) u
[175.9367869 u]
{-18.5181 MeV}
(3-)
176m2Au7917697Gold-176m2175.98012(4) u
[175.9367869 u]
{-18.5181 MeV}
(9+)
177Au7917798Gold-177176.976870(11) u
[176.9335369 u]
{-21.54546 MeV}
1/2+1.15(5)181Tl
177mAu7917798Gold-177m176.976870(11) u
[176.9335369 u]
{-21.54546 MeV}
(11/2-)
178Au7917899Gold-178177.976056(11) u
[177.9327229 u]
{-22.30369 MeV}
182Tl
179Au79179100Gold-179178.973174(13) u
[178.9298409 u]
{-24.98826 MeV}
(1/2+,3/2+)183Tl
179mAu79179100Gold-179m178.973174(13) u
[178.9298409 u]
{-24.98826 MeV}
180Au79180101Gold-180179.972490(5) u
[179.9291569 u]
{-25.6254 MeV}
184Tl
180Hg
181Au79181102Gold-181180.970079(21) u
[180.9267459 u]
{-27.87123 MeV}
(3/2-)185Tl
181Hg
182Au79182103Gold-182181.969618(22) u
[181.9262849 u]
{-28.30065 MeV}
(2+)1.30(10)182Hg
183Au79183104Gold-183182.967588(10) u
[182.9242549 u]
{-30.19158 MeV}
(5/2)-+ 1.972(23)187Tl
183Hg
183m1Au79183104Gold-183m1182.967588(10) u
[182.9242549 u]
{-30.19158 MeV}
(1/2)+
183m2Au79183104Gold-183m2182.967588(10) u
[182.9242549 u]
{-30.19158 MeV}
(11/2)-
184Au79184105Gold-184183.967452(24) u
[183.9241189 u]
{-30.31827 MeV}
5++ 2.07(2)184Hg
184mAu79184105Gold-184m183.967452(24) u
[183.9241189 u]
{-30.31827 MeV}
2++ 1.44(2)
185Au79185106Gold-185184.9657989(28) u
[184.9224658 u]
{-31.85812 MeV}
5/2-+ 2.170(17)185Hg
185mAu79185106Gold-185m184.9657989(28) u
[184.9224658 u]
{-31.85812 MeV}
5/2-
186Au79186107Gold-186185.965953(23) u
[185.9226199 u]
{-31.71458 MeV}
3-- 1.272(22)186Hg
186mAu79186107Gold-186m185.965953(23) u
[185.9226199 u]
{-31.71458 MeV}
2+
187Au79187108Gold-187186.964543(24) u
[186.9212099 u]
{-33.02798 MeV}
1/2(+)+ 0.531(12)187Hg
187mAu79187108Gold-187m186.964543(24) u
[186.9212099 u]
{-33.02798 MeV}
9/2(-)
188Au79188109Gold-188187.9652480(29) u
[187.9219149 u]
{-32.37128 MeV}
1-- 0.067(28)188Hg
189Au79189110Gold-189188.963948(22) u
[188.9206149 u]
{-33.58222 MeV}
1/2++ 0.494(14)189Hg
189m1Au79189110Gold-189m1188.963948(22) u
[188.9206149 u]
{-33.58222 MeV}
11/2-+ 6.19(2)
189m2Au79189110Gold-189m2188.963948(22) u
[188.9206149 u]
{-33.58222 MeV}
9/2-
189m3Au79189110Gold-189m3188.963948(22) u
[188.9206149 u]
{-33.58222 MeV}
(31/2+)6.6(5)
190Au79190111Gold-190189.964752(4) u
[189.9214189 u]
{-32.8333 MeV}
1-- 0.065(7)190Hg
190mAu79190111Gold-190m189.964752(4) u
[189.9214189 u]
{-32.8333 MeV}
(11-)
191Au79191112Gold-191190.963716(5) u
[190.9203829 u]
{-33.79833 MeV}
3/2++ 0.1369(7)191Hg
191mAu79191112Gold-191m190.963716(5) u
[190.9203829 u]
{-33.79833 MeV}
(11/2-)6.6(6)
192Au79192113Gold-192191.964818(17) u
[191.9214849 u]
{-32.77182 MeV}
1-- 0.0107(15)192Hg
192m1Au79192113Gold-192m1191.964818(17) u
[191.9214849 u]
{-32.77182 MeV}
(5)+
192m2Au79192113Gold-192m2191.964818(17) u
[191.9214849 u]
{-32.77182 MeV}
(11-)
193Au79193114Gold-193192.964138(9) u
[192.9208049 u]
{-33.40524 MeV}
3/2++ 0.1396(5)193Hg
193m1Au79193114Gold-193m1192.964138(9) u
[192.9208049 u]
{-33.40524 MeV}
11/2-6.18(9)
193m2Au79193114Gold-193m2192.964138(9) u
[192.9208049 u]
{-33.40524 MeV}
(31/2+)
194Au79194115Gold-194193.9654191(23) u
[193.922086 u]
{-32.2119 MeV}
1-+ 0.0763(13)194Hg
194m1Au79194115Gold-194m1193.9654191(23) u
[193.922086 u]
{-32.2119 MeV}
(5+)
194m2Au79194115Gold-194m2193.9654191(23) u
[193.922086 u]
{-32.2119 MeV}
(11-)
195Au79195116Gold-195194.9650379(12) u
[194.9217048 u]
{-32.56699 MeV}
3/2+195Hg
195mAu79195116Gold-195m194.9650379(12) u
[194.9217048 u]
{-32.56699 MeV}
11/2-
196Au79196117Gold-196195.966571(3) u
[195.9232379 u]
{-31.13891 MeV}
2-
196m1Au79196117Gold-196m1195.966571(3) u
[195.9232379 u]
{-31.13891 MeV}
5+
196m2Au79196117Gold-196m2195.966571(3) u
[195.9232379 u]
{-31.13891 MeV}
12-
197Au79197118Gold-197196.966569(5) u
[196.9232359 u]
{-31.14078 MeV}
3/2++ 0.145746197Hg
197Pt
197mAu79197118Gold-197m196.966568812(707) u
[196.9232357 u]
{-31.14095 MeV}
11/2-(+) 5.98(9)
198Au79198119Gold-198197.9682437(6) u
[197.9249106 u]
{-29.5808 MeV}
2-+ 0.5934(4)
198m1Au79198119Gold-198m1197.9682437(6) u
[197.9249106 u]
{-29.5808 MeV}
5+-1.11(2)
198m2Au79198119Gold-198m2197.9682437(6) u
[197.9249106 u]
{-29.5808 MeV}
(12-)(+) 5.85(9)
199Au79199120Gold-199198.9687666(6) u
[198.9254335 u]
{-29.09372 MeV}
3/2++ 0.2715(7)199Pt
199mAu79199120Gold-199m198.9687666(6) u
[198.9254335 u]
{-29.09372 MeV}
(11/2)-
200Au79200121Gold-200199.970757(29) u
[199.9274239 u]
{-27.23968 MeV}
(1-)200Pt
200mAu79200121Gold-200m199.970757(29) u
[199.9274239 u]
{-27.23968 MeV}
12-
201Au79201122Gold-201200.971658(3) u
[200.9283249 u]
{-26.4004 MeV}
3/2+201Pt
202Au79202123Gold-202201.973856(25) u
[201.9305229 u]
{-24.35298 MeV}
(1-)202Pt
203Au79203124Gold-203202.975154(3) u
[202.9318209 u]
{-23.1439 MeV}
3/2+
204Au79204125Gold-204203.97783(21) u
[203.9343909 u]
{-20.74996 MeV}
(2-)
205Au79205126Gold-205204.97985(21) u
[204.9365169 u]
{-18.7696 MeV}
(3/2+)
206Au79206127Gold-206205.98474(32) u
[205.9414069 u]
{-14.2146 MeV}
5+,6+
207Au79207128Gold-207206.98839(32) u
[206.9450569 u]
{-10.81465 MeV}
208Au79208129Gold-208207.99345(32) u
[207.9501169 u]
{-6.10129 MeV}
209Au79209130Gold-209208.99727(43) u
[208.9539369 u]
{-2.54298 MeV}
(3/2+)
210Au79210131Gold-210210.00250(43) u
[209.9591669 u]
{2.32873 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Au-1700.29 msα → 166Ir
p → 169Pt
11(10) %
89(10) %
7.177(15) MeV
AL
Au-170m0.62 msα → 166Ir
p → 169Pt
42(5) %
58(5) %

285(13) keV
Au-17122 μsp → 170Pt100 %AL
Au-171m1.04(3) msα → 167Ir
p → 170Pt
60(6) %
40(6) %

259(13) keV
Au-17222 msα → 168Ir
p → 171Pt
EC/β+172Pt
ca. 100 %
?
?
6.923(10) MeV

11.79(6) MeV
AL
Au-172m7.7(14) sα → 168Ir
p → 171Pt
EC/β+172Pt
ca. 100 %
< 0.02 %
?


+x keV
Au-17326.3(12) msα → 169Ir
p → 172Pt
EC/β+173Pt
94(19) %
?
?
6.836(5) MeV

9.11(6) MeV
AL
Au-173m12.2(1) msα → 169Ir
p → 172Pt
EC/β+173Pt
92(13) %
?
?


214(23) min
Au-174120(20) msα → 170Ir> 0 %6.699(7) MeVAL
Au-175α → 171Ir
EC/β+175Pt
90(7) %
10 %
6.583(4) MeV
8.31(4) MeV
AL
Au-175m156(5) msα → 171Ir
EC/β+175Pt
94 %
6 %

+x keV
Au-176AL
Au-176m11.05(1) sα → 172Ir
EC/β+176Pt
?
?

+x keV
Au-176m21.36(2) sα → 172Ir100 %+y keV
Au-1771.501(20) sα → 173Ir
EC/β+177Pt
40(6) %
60(6) %
6.298(4) MeV
7.825(18) MeV
AL
Au-177m1.193(13) sα → 173Ir
EC/β+177Pt
60(10) %
40(10) %

182.7(5) keV
Au-1782.6(5) sα → 174Ir
EC/β+178Pt
≥ 40 %
≤ 60 %
6.135(25) MeV
9.694(14) MeV
AL
Au-1797.1(3) sα → 175Ir
EC/β+179Pt
22.0(9) %
78.0(9) %
5.981(5) MeV
7.280(14) MeV
AL
Au-179m100 μsIso → 179Au?+x keV
Au-1808.4(6) sα → 176Ir
EC/β+180Pt
≥ 1.8 %
≤ 98.2 %
5.828(17) MeV
8.810(12) MeV
AL
Au-18113.7(14) sα → 177Ir
EC/β+181Pt
2.7(5) %
97.3(5) %
5.7514(29) MeV
6.510(24) MeV
AL
Au-18215.5(4) sα → 178Ir
EC/β+182Pt
0.13(5) %
99.87(5) %
5.526(4) MeV
7.868(24) MeV
AL
Au-18342.8(10) sα → 179Ir
EC/β+183Pt
0.55(25) %
99.45(25) %
5.4653(29) MeV
5.581(18) MeV
AL
Au-183m11 μs73.3(4) keV
Au-183m21 μs230.6(6) keV
Au-18420.6(9) sα → 180Ir
EC/β+184Pt
≤ 0.016 %
%ge; 99.984 %
5.234(5) MeV
7.016(27) MeV
AL
Au-184m47.6(14) sα → 180Ir
EC/β+184Pt
Iso → 184Au
≤ 0.016 %
70(10) %
30(10) %


66.46(4) keV
Au-1854.25(6) minα → 181Ir
EC/β+185Pt
0.26(6) %
99.74(6) %
5.180(5) MeV
4.830(26) MeV
AL
Au-185m6.8(3) minIso → 185Au
EC/β+185Pt
?
< 100 %

+x keV
Au-18610.7(5) minα → 182Ir
EC/β+186Pt
Spuren
100 %
4.912(14) MeV
6.15(3) MeV
AL
Au-186m110(10) ns227.77(7) keV
Au-1878.3(2) minα → 183Ir
EC/β+187Pt
Spuren
100 %
4.751(29) MeV
3.66(3) MeV
AL
Au-187m2.3(1) sIso → 187Au100 %120.33(14) keV
Au-1888.84(6) minEC/β+188Pt100 %5.45(6) MeVAL
Au-18928.7(3) minEC/β+189Pt
α → 185Ir
100 %
Spuren
2.887(22) MeV
4.33(3) MeV
AL
Au-189m14.59(11) minEC/β+189Pt
Iso → 189Au
ca. 100 %
?

247.23(16) keV
Au-189m2190(15) nsIso → 189Au100 %325.12(16) keV
Au-189m3242(10) nsIso → 189Au100 %2554.8(8) keV
Au-19042.8(10) minEC/β+190Pt
α → 186Ir
100 %
Spuren
4.473(4) MeV
3.914(17) MeV
AL
Au-190m125(20) msIso → 190Au100 %+x keV
Au-1913.18(8) hEC/β+191Pt100 %1.900(6) MeVAL
Au-191m0.92(11) sIso → 191Au100 %266.2(7) keV
Au-1924.94(9) hEC/β+192Pt100 %3.516(16) MeVAL
Au-192m129 msIso → 192Au100 %135.41(25) keV
Au-192m2160(20) msIso → 192Au100 %431.6(5) keV
Au-19317.65(15) hEC/β+193Pt100 %1.075(9) MeVAL
Au-193m13.9(3) sEC/β+193Pt
Iso → 193Au
0.03 %
99.97 %

290.20(4) keV
Au-193m2150(50) ns2486.7(6) keV
Au-19438.02(10) hEC/β+194Pt100 %2.5481(22) MeVAL
Au-194m1600(8) msIso → 194Au100 %107.4(5) keV
Au-194m2420(10) msIso → 194Au100 %475.8(6) keV
Au-195186.01(6) dEC → 195Pt100 %0.2268(12) MeVAL
Au-195m30.5(2) sIso → 195Au100 %318.58(4) keV
Au-1966.1669(6) dEC/β+196Pt
β-196Hg
93.0(3) %
7.0(3) %
1.506(3) MeV
0.687(3) MeV
AL
Au-196m18.1(2) sIso → 196Au100 %84.656(20) keV
Au-196m29.6(1) hIso → 196Au100 %595.66(4) keV
Au-197stableAL
Au-197m7.73(6) sIso → 197Au100 %0.4094 MeV409.15(8) keV
Au-1982.6941(2) dβ-198Hg100 %1.3735(5) MeVAL
Gold-198m1124(4) ns312.2227(20) keV
Gold-198m22.272(16) dIso → 198Au100 %811.7(15) keV
Au-1993.139(7) dβ-199Hg100 %0.4523(6) MeVAL
Au-199m0.44(3) msIso → 199Au100 %548.9405(21) keV
Au-20048.4(3) minβ-200Hg100 %2.263(27) MeVAL
Au-200m18.7(5) hβ-200Hg
Iso → 200Au
84(1) %
16(1) %

962(88) keV
Au-20126.0(8) minβ-201Hg100 %1.262(3) MeVAL
Au-20228.4(12) sβ-202Hg100 %2.992(23) MeVAL
Au-20360(6) sβ-203Hg100 %2.126(3) MeVAL
Au-20439.8(9) sβ-204Hg100 %4.04(20) MeVAL
Au-20531(2) sβ-205Hg100 %3.52(20) MeVAL
Au-20640(15) sβ-206Hg100 %6.73(30) MeVAL
Au-207300 nsβ-207Hg
β-, n → 206Hg
?
?
5.68(30) MeV
2.06(30) MeV
AL
Au-208300 nsβ-208Hg
β-, n → 207Hg
?
?
7.16(30) MeV
2.31(30) MeV
AL
Au-209300 nsβ-209Hg100 %6.10(43) MeVAL
Au-210300 nsβ-210Hg
β-, n → 209Hg
?
?
7.69(45) MeV
2.90(43) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Gold isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Gold isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Gold isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Gold nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
197Au
100 %
3/2+
+ 0,1457460,4692+ 54,7(16)0,74060,00003
0,0870

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Gold radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Au-193107 Bq100 Bq/g0,6 TBq17.7 h
Au-194106 Bq10 Bq/g0,07 TBq38.0 h
Au-195107 Bq10 Bq/g2 TBq186.1 d
Au-198106 Bq10 Bq/g0,2 TBq10 Bq cm-22.7 d
Au-198m106 Bq10 Bq/g2.3 d
Au-199106 Bq100 Bq/g0,9 TBq10 Bq cm-23.1 d
Au-200105 Bq100 Bq/g48.4 min
Au-200m+106 Bq10 Bq/g18.7 h
Au-201106 Bq100 Bq/g26.0 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Gold nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Gold: NMR properties - 197Au-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - A. Schuh, A. Fritsch, J.Q. Ginepro, M. Heim, A. Shore, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of the gold isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2010), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2009.12.001.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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