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Isotopes of Krypton

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Krypton as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Krypton isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element krypton are summarized under krypton isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 36 protons and in the uncharged state of 36 electrons. The difference between the individual krypton isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Krypton Isotopes

The chemical element krypton, which is one of the noble gases, occurs in nature as a mixture of six different, stable isotopes; the following table provides information about the natural isotope composition:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Krypton
Isotopic mixture
83,798 u100 %
Isotope 78Kr77,920365(5) u0,355(3) %stable0+
Isotope 80Kr79,916378(5) u2,286(10) %stable0+
Isotope 82Kr81,913483(6) u11,593(31) %stable0+
Isotope 83Kr82,914127(2) u11,500(19) %stable9/2+
Isotope 84Kr83,91149773(3) u56,987(15) %stable0+
Isotope 86Kr85,91061063(3) u17,279(41) %stable0+

 

In addition, 26 other, but unstable, radioactively decaying krypton isotopes are currently known.

 

Isotope Table: Krypton

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
69Kr366933Krypton-6968.96518(43) u
[68.9454319 u]
{-32.43462 MeV}
(5/2-)
70Kr367034Krypton-7069.95588(21) u
[69.9361319 u]
{-41.09752 MeV}
0+
71Kr367135Krypton-7170.95027(14) u
[70.9305219 u]
{-46.3232 MeV}
(5/2-)
72Kr367236Krypton-7271.942092(9) u
[71.9223439 u]
{-53.94095 MeV}
0+
73Kr367337Krypton-7372.939289(7) u
[72.9195409 u]
{-56.55193 MeV}
(3/2)-
73mKr367337Krypton-73m72.939289(7) u
[72.9195409 u]
{-56.55193 MeV}
(9/2+)
74Kr367438Krypton-7473.9330840(22) u
[73.9133359 u]
{-62.33185 MeV}
0+74Rb
75Sr
75Kr367539Krypton-7574.930946(9) u
[74.9111979 u]
{-64.32339 MeV}
5/2+- 0.531(4)75Rb
76Kr367640Krypton-7675.925911(4) u
[75.9061629 u]
{-69.01346 MeV}
0+76Rb
77Sr
77Kr367741Krypton-7776.9246700(21) u
[76.9049219 u]
{-70.16944 MeV}
5/2+- 0.583(3)77Rb
77mKr367741Krypton-77m76.9246700(21) u
[76.9049219 u]
{-70.16944 MeV}
3/2-
78Kr367842Krypton-7877.920365(5) u
[77.9006169 u]
{-74.17952 MeV}
0+78Rb
78Br
79Kr367943Krypton-7978.920083(4) u
[78.9003349 u]
{-74.44221 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.536(2)79Rb
79mKr367943Krypton-79m78.920083(4) u
[78.9003349 u]
{-74.44221 MeV}
7/2+- 0.785(2)
80Kr368044Krypton-8079.916378(5) u
[79.8966299 u]
{-77.89339 MeV}
0+80Rb
80Br
81Kr368145Krypton-8180.9165897(12) u
[80.8968416 u]
{-77.69619 MeV}
7/2+- 0.907(2)81Rb
81mKr368145Krypton-81m80.9165897(12) u
[80.8968416 u]
{-77.69619 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.586(2)
82Kr368246Krypton-8281.913483(6) u
[81.8937349 u]
{-80.59007 MeV}
0+82Rb
82Br
82Se
83Kr368347Krypton-8382.914127(2) u
[82.8943789 u]
{-79.99018 MeV}
9/2+-0.970730(3)83Rb
83Br
83m1Kr368347Krypton-83m182.914127(2) u
[82.8943789 u]
{-79.99018 MeV}
7/2+-0.943(2)
83m2Kr368347Krypton-83m282.914127(2) u
[82.8943789 u]
{-79.99018 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.591(2)
84Kr368448Krypton-8483.91149773(3) u
[83.8917496 u]
{-82.43933 MeV}
0+84Rb
84Br
84m1Kr368448Krypton-84m183.91149773(3) u
[83.8917496 u]
{-82.43933 MeV}
8+- 1.968(16)
84m2Kr368448Krypton-84m283.91149773(3) u
[83.8917496 u]
{-82.43933 MeV}
12++ 2.04(24)
85Kr368549Krypton-8584.9125273(21) u
[84.8927792 u]
{-81.4803 MeV}
9/2+- 1.0055(4)85Br
85m1Kr368549Krypton-85m184.9125273(21) u
[84.8927792 u]
{-81.4803 MeV}
1/2-+0.632(2)
85m2Kr368549Krypton-85m284.9125273(21) u
[84.8927792 u]
{-81.4803 MeV}
(17/2+)
86Kr368650Krypton-8685.91061063(3) u
[85.8908625 u]
{-83.26566 MeV}
0+86Br
86Rb
87Br
87Kr368751Krypton-8786.91335476(26) u
[86.8936066 u]
{-80.70952 MeV}
5/2+- 1.022(2)87Br
88Br
88Kr368852Krypton-8887.9144479(28) u
[87.8946998 u]
{-79.69127 MeV}
0+88Br
89Br
248Cm
89Kr368953Krypton-8988.9178354(23) u
[88.8980873 u]
{-76.53583 MeV}
3/2(+)- 0.330(3)89Br
90Br
252Cf
90Kr369054Krypton-9089.9195279(20) u
[89.8997798 u]
{-74.95928 MeV}
0+90Br
91Kr369155Krypton-9190.9238063(24) u
[90.9040582 u]
{-70.97397 MeV}
5/2(+)- 0.583(2)91Br
92Br
92Kr369256Krypton-9291.9261731(29) u
[91.906425 u]
{-68.76931 MeV}
0+92Br
93Br
248Cm
93Kr369357Krypton-9392.9311472(27) u
[92.9113991 u]
{-64.13597 MeV}
1/2+- 0.413(2)93Br
94Br
94Kr369458Krypton-9493.934140(13) u
[93.9143919 u]
{-61.34819 MeV}
0+248Cm
95Kr369559Krypton-9594.939711(20) u
[94.9199629 u]
{-56.15884 MeV}
1/2(+)- 0.410(3)
95mKr369559Krypton-95m94.939711(20) u
[94.9199629 u]
{-56.15884 MeV}
(7/2+)
96Kr369660Krypton-9695.943017(22) u
[95.9232689 u]
{-53.07932 MeV}
0+
97Kr369761Krypton-9796.94909(14) u
[96.9293419 u]
{-47.42236 MeV}
(3/2+)
98Kr369862Krypton-9897.95243(32) u
[97.9326819 u]
{-44.31117 MeV}
0+
99Kr369963Krypton-9998.95839(43) u
[98.9386419 u]
{-38.75947 MeV}
100Kr3610064Krypton-10099.96237(43) u
[99.9426219 u]
{-35.05212 MeV}
0+
101Kr3610165Krypton-101100.96873(54) u
[100.9489819 u]
{-29.12782 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Kr-6928(1) msEC/β+69Br
β+, p → 68Se

99 %
13.82(40) MeV
AL
Kr-7040(6) msEC/β+70Br
EC, p → 69Se
98.7 %
< 1.3 %
10.33(20) MeV
AL
Kr-71100(3) msEC/β+71Br
EC, p → 70Se
97.9 %
2.1(7) %
10.18(13) MeV
AL
Kr-7217.1(2) sEC/β+72Br
EC, p → 71Se
> 99 %
< 1 %
5.121(8) MeV
AL
Kr-7327.3(10) sEC/β+73Br
EC, p → 72Se
> 99 %
0.25(3) %
7.096(10) MeV
AL
Kr-73m107(10) nsIso → 73Kr100 %433.55(13) keVAL
Kr-7411.50(11) minEC/β+74Br100 %2.956(6) MeVAL
Kr-754.60(7) minEC/β+75Br100 %4.783(9) MeVAL
Kr-7614.8(1) hEC/β+76Br100 %1.275(10) MeVAL
Kr-7774.4(6) minEC/β+77Br100 %3.065(3) MeVAL
Kr-77m118(12) ns
Kr-78stableAL
Kr-7935.04(10) hEC/β+79Br100 %1.626(4) MeVAL
Kr-79m50(3) sIso → 79Kr100 %0.1299 MeV129.77(5) keVAL
Kr-80stableAL
Kr-812.29(11) × 105 aEC → 81Br100 %0.2809(15) MeVAL
Kr-81m13.10(3) sIso → 81Kr
EC → 81Br
99.9975(4) %
0.0025(4) %

190.64(4) keVAL
Kr-82stableAL
Kr-83stableAL
Kr-83m1156.8(5) ns9.4057(6) keV
Kr-83m21.83(2) hIso → 83Kr100 %0.0416 MeV41.5575(7) keVAL
Kr-84stableAL
Kr-84m11.83(4) μsIso → 84Kr100 %3236.07(18) keVAL
Kr-84m243.7(21) nsIso → 84Kr100 %5373.4(4) keVAL
Kr-8510.739(14) aβ-85Rb100 %0.687(2) MeVAL
Kr-85m14.480(8) hIso → 85Kr
β-85Rb
21.2(5) %
78.8(5) %

304.871(20) keVAL
Kr-85m21.82(5) μs1991.8(2) keV
Kr-86stableAL
Kr-8776.3(5) minβ-87Rb100 %3.88827(25) MeVAL
Kr-882.825(19) hβ-88Rb100 %2.9177(26) MeVAL
Kr-893.15(4) minβ-89Rb100 %5.177(6) MeVAL
Kr-9032.32(9) sβ-90Rb100 %4.405(7) MeVAL
Kr-918.57(4) sβ-91Rb100 %6.771(8) MeVAL
Kr-921.840(8) sβ-92Rb
β-, n → 91Rb
99.9778 %
0.0332(25) %
6.003(7) MeV
0.904(8) MeV
AL
Kr-931.286(10) sβ-93Rb
β-, n → 92Rb
98.05 %
1.95(11) %
8.484(8) MeV
2.565(7) MeV
AL
Kr-94212(5) msβ-94Rb
β-, n → 93Rb
98.89 %
1.11(7) %
7.215(12) MeV
3.201(14) MeV
AL
Kr-95114(3) msβ-95Rb
β-, n → 94Rb
97.1 %
2.87(18) %
9.733(28) MeV
4.333(19) MeV
AL
Kr-95m1.4(2) μsIso → 95Kr100 %195.5(3) keV
Kr-9680(8) msβ-96Rb
β-, n → 95Rb
96.3 %
3.7(4) %
8.275(21) MeV
4.740(29) MeV
AL
Kr-9763(4) msβ-97Rb
β-, n → 96Rb
93.3 %
6.7(6) %
11.10(13) MeV
5.86(13) MeV
AL
Kr-9846(8) msβ-98Rb
β-, n → 97Rb
?
7.0(10) %
10.06(30) MeV
6.14(30) MeV
AL
Kr-9913 msβ-99Rb
β-, n → 98Rb
89 %
11(7) %
12.36(40) MeV
7.54(40) MeV
AL
Kr-1007 msβ-100Rb
β-, n → 99Rb
100 %
?
11.19(40) MeV
8.0(4) MeV
AL
Kr-101635 nsβ-101Rb
β-, n → 100Rb
β-, 2n → 99Rb
?
?
?
13.72(54) MeV
2.15(64) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Krypton isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Krypton isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Krypton isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Krypton nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
83Kr
11,500(19) %
9/2+
-0,970730(3)1,0331+ 25,9(1)1,64420,00190
1,2744

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Krypton radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Kr-74109 Bq100 Bq/g11.5 min
Kr-76109 Bq100 Bq/g14.6 h
Kr-77109 Bq100 Bq/g1.2 h
Kr-79105 Bq1000 Bq/g34.9 h
Kr-81107 Bq10000 Bq/g30 TBq210000 a
Kr-81m1010 Bq1000 Bq/g13.3 Sekunden
Kr-83m1012 Bq100000 Bq/g1.8 h
Kr-85104 Bq100000 Bq/g30 TBq10.8 a
Kr-85m1010 Bq1000 Bq/g0,5 TBq4.5 h
Kr-87109 Bq100 Bq/g0,09 T Bq76.3 min
Kr-88+109 Bq100 Bq/g2.8 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Krypton nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Krypton: NMR properties - 83Kr-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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