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Isotopes of Magnesium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Magnesium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Magnesium isotopes

Of the 22 known isotopes of magnesium, 3 occur as stable nuclei in nature: 24magnesium, 25magnesium and 26magnesium. All other magnesium isotopes are unstable radionuclides, of which 28Mg is the most long-lived with a half-life of about 21 hours.

 

Naturally Occurring Magnesium Isotopes

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Magnesium
Isotopic mixture
24,305 u100 %
Isotope 24Mg23,98504170(9) u78,965 %stable0+
Isotope 25Mg24,9858370(3) u10,011 %stable5/2+
Isotope 26Mg25,9825930(2) u11,024 %stable0+

 

The natural isotope composition (isotope ratio) of naturally occurring magnesium can vary to a greater or lesser extent. The atomic weight of magnesium is therefore given with the interval 24.304 to 24.307 u.

 

Isotope Table: Magnesium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
19Mg12197Magnesium-1919.03417(5) u
[19.0275871 u]
{31.82915 MeV}
1/2-
20Mg12208Magnesium-2020.0187631(2) u
[20.0121802 u]
{17.47772 MeV}
0+
21Mg12219Magnesium-2121.0117058(8) u
[21.0051229 u]
{10.90388 MeV}
5/2+-0.983(7)22Si
22Mg122210Magnesium-2221.9995707(3) u
[21.9929878 u]
{-0.39989 MeV}
0+23Si
22Al
23Mg122311Magnesium-2322.99412394(17) u
[22.987541 u]
{-5.47351 MeV}
3/2+-0.5363(3)24Si
23Al
24Mg122412Magnesium-2423.98504170(9) u
[23.9784588 u]
{-13.93357 MeV}
0+25Si
24Al
24Na
26P
28P
25Mg122513Magnesium-2524.9858370(3) u
[24.9792541 u]
{-13.19275 MeV}
5/2+-0.85533(3)25Al
25Na
26Mg122614Magnesium-2625.9825930(2) u
[25.9760101 u]
{-16.21452 MeV}
0+26Al
26Na
27Na
27Mg122715Magnesium-2726.98434063(5) u
[26.9777577 u]
{-14.58661 MeV}
1/2+-0.4106(15)27Na
28Mg122816Magnesium-2827.9838766(21) u
[27.9772937 u]
{-15.01885 MeV}
0+28Na
29Na
29Mg122917Magnesium-2928.988617(12) u
[28.9820341 u]
{-10.6032 MeV}
3/2++0.9779(6)29Na
30Na
31Na
30Mg123018Magnesium-3029.990463(4) u
[29.9838801 u]
{-8.88366 MeV}
0+30Na
31Na
32Na
31Mg123119Magnesium-3130.996648(3) u
[30.9900651 u]
{-3.12237 MeV}
1/2(+)- 0.88340(15)31Na
32Na
33Na
32Mg123220Magnesium-3231.999110(4) u
[31.9925271 u]
{-0.82903 MeV}
0+32Na
33Na
34Na
33Mg123321Magnesium-3333.005327(3) u
[32.9987441 u]
{4.96207 MeV}
3/2-- 0.7455(5)33Na
34Na
34Mg123422Magnesium-3434.00894(3) u
[34.0023571 u]
{8.32756 MeV}
0+34Na
35Na
35Mg123523Magnesium-3535.01679(29) u
[35.0102071 u]
{15.63978 MeV}
(5/2-)35Na
36Mg123624Magnesium-3636.02188(74) u
[36.0152971 u]
{20.38109 MeV}
0+
37Mg123725Magnesium-3737.03029(75) u
[37.0237071 u]
{28.21495 MeV}
(7/2-)
38Mg123826Magnesium-3838.03658(54) u
[38.0299971 u]
{34.07405 MeV}
0+
39Mg123927Magnesium-3939.04538(55) u
[39.0387971 u]
{42.2712 MeV}
40Mg124028Magnesium-4040.05191(54) u
[40.0453271 u]
{48.35385 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Mg-195(3) ps2p → 17Neca. 100 %AL
Mg-2093(5) msβ+20Na
β+, p → 19Ne
69.7 %
30.3(12) %
10.6271(22) MeV
8.530 MeV
AL
Mg-21122(3) msEC/β+21Na
β+, p → 20Ne
β+, α → 16F
66.9 %
32.6 %
0.5 %
13.0885(8) MeV
10.663 MeV
6.534 MeV
AL
Mg-223.8755(12) sEC β+22Na100 %4.7816(4) MeVAL
Mg-2311.317(11) sEC β+23Na100 %4.05634(16) MeVAL
Mg-24stableAL
Mg-25stableAL
Mg-26stableAL
Mg-279.458(12) minβ-27Al100 %2.61025(7) MeVAL
Mg-2820.915(9) hβ-28Al100 %1.8318(20) MeVAL
Mg-291.30(12) sβ-29Al100 %7.61254 MeVAL
Mg-30335(17) msβ-30Al100 %6.98041 MeVAL
Mg-31236(20) msβ-31Al
β-, n → 30Al
93.8 %
6.2(19) %
11.7646 MeV
4.61077 MeV
AL
Mg-3286(5) msβ-32Al
β-, n → 31Al
94.5(5) %
5.5(5) %
10.15028 MeV
5.97199 MeV
AL
Mg-3390.5(16) msβ-33Al
β-, n → 32Al
86(2) %
14(2) %
13.38438 MeV
7.93781 MeV
AL
Mg-3420(10) msβ-34Al
β-, n → 33Al

11.60756 MeV
8.9263 MeV
AL
Mg-3511.3(6) msβ-35Al
β-, n → 34Al
β-, 2n ?
β-, 3n ?
48 %
52 %

15.85962 MeV
10.6156 MeV

AL
Mg-363.9(13) msβ-36Al
β-, n → 35Al

14.42978 MeV
12.5287 MeV
AL
Mg-378(4) msβ-37Al
β-, n 36Al
?
?
18.40(72) MeV
14.19(71) MeV
AL
Mg-38260 nsβ-38Al
β-, n → 37Al
β-, n → 36Al
100 %
?
?
17.86(63) MeV
16.19(53) MeV
AL
Mg-39180 nsn ? AL
Mg-40170 nsβ- ? 40Al
β-, n 39Al
β-, 2n 38Al
100 %
?
?
20.76(64) MeV
19.63(64) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Magnesium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Magnesium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Magnesium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Magnesium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
25Mg
10,011 %
5/2+
-0,85533(3)- 1,639+ 19,94(20)2,60830,002698
0,7147

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Magnesium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Mg-28+105 Bq1 Bq/g0,02 TBqAl-2820.9 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Magnesium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Magnesium: NMR properties - 25Mg-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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