About   |   More   |   Search

Isotopes of Mercury

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Mercury as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Mercury isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element mercury are summarized under mercury isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 80 protons and, in the uncharged state, 80 electrons. The difference between each isotope of mercury is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Mercury Isotopes

The natural mercury deposits on earth consist of a mix of seven different, stable isotopes with the following percentage composition:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Mercury
Isotopic mixture
200,592 u100 %
Isotope 196Hg195,96583(2) u0,15(1) %stable0+
Isotope 198Hg197,966769(3) u10,04(3) %stable0+
Isotope 199Hg198,968281(3) u16,94(12) %stable1/2-
Isotope 200Hg199,968327(3) u23,14(9) %stable0+
Isotope 201Hg200,970303(5) u13,17(9) %stable3/2-
Isotope 202Hg201,970643(5) u29,74(13) %stable0+
Isotope 204Hg203,973494(3) u6,82(4) %stable0+

 

Alle anderen bekannten und charakterisierten Quecksilber-Nuklide sind instabil; mit einer Halbwertszeit von 444 Jahren ist Quecksilber-194 das langlebigste Radioisotop. Technisch besitzen die künstlichen Quecksilbernuklide keinerlei Bedeutung.

 

Isotope Table: Mercury

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
171Hg8017191Mercury-171171.00374(32) u
[170.9598584 u]
{3.48379 MeV}
172Hg8017292Mercury-172171.99886(16) u
[171.9549784 u]
{-1.0619 MeV}
0+
173Hg8017393Mercury-173172.99709(21) u
[172.9532084 u]
{-2.71065 MeV}
(7/2-)
174Hg8017494Mercury-174173.992871(21) u
[173.9489894 u]
{-6.64062 MeV}
175Hg8017595Mercury-175174.99144(8) u
[174.9475584 u]
{-7.97359 MeV}
(7/2-)
176Hg8017696Mercury-176175.987348(12) u
[175.9434664 u]
{-11.78526 MeV}
0+180Pb
177Hg8017797Mercury-177176.98628(8) u
[176.9423984 u]
{-12.7801 MeV}
7/2--1.025(48)
177mHg8017797Mercury-177m176.98628(8) u
[176.9423984 u]
{-12.7801 MeV}
13/2+
178Hg8017898Mercury-178177.982484(12) u
[177.9386024 u]
{-16.31605 MeV}
0+182Pb
179Hg8017999Mercury-179178.981827(29) u
[178.9379454 u]
{-16.92804 MeV}
(7/2-)183Pb
180Hg80180100Mercury-180179.978260(14) u
[179.9343784 u]
{-20.25068 MeV}
0+184Pb
181Hg80181101Mercury-181180.977819(17) u
[180.9339374 u]
{-20.66147 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.5071(7)
182Hg80182102Mercury-182181.974689(11) u
[181.9308074 u]
{-23.57704 MeV}
0+186Pb
182Tl
183Hg80183103Mercury-183182.974445(8) u
[182.9305634 u]
{-23.80433 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.524(5)187Pb
183Tl
184Hg80184104Mercury-184183.971713(11) u
[183.9278314 u]
{-26.34917 MeV}
0+188Pb
184Tl
185Hg80185105Mercury-185184.971891(15) u
[184.9280094 u]
{-26.18336 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.508(3)189Pb
185mHg80185105Mercury-185m184.971891(15) u
[184.9280094 u]
{-26.18336 MeV}
13/2+- 1.017(9)
186Hg80186106Mercury-186185.969362(13) u
[185.9254804 u]
{-28.53911 MeV}
0+190Pb
186mHg80186106Mercury-186m185.969362(13) u
[185.9254804 u]
{-28.53911 MeV}
(8-)
187Hg80187107Mercury-187186.969814(15) u
[186.9259324 u]
{-28.11808 MeV}
3/2(-)- 0.594(4)191Pb
187Tl
187mHg80187107Mercury-187m186.969814(15) u
[186.9259324 u]
{-28.11808 MeV}
13/2(+)- 1.044(11)
188Hg80188108Mercury-188187.967577(13) u
[187.9236954 u]
{-30.20183 MeV}
0+192Pb
188Tl
188mHg80188108Mercury-188m187.967577(13) u
[187.9236954 u]
{-30.20183 MeV}
12+-2.02(12)
189Hg80189109Mercury-189188.96819(3) u
[188.9243084 u]
{-29.63082 MeV}
3/2-- 0.6086(8)189Tl
189mHg80189109Mercury-189m188.96819(3) u
[188.9243084 u]
{-29.63082 MeV}
13/2+-1.058(6)
190Hg80190110Mercury-190189.966322(17) u
[189.9224404 u]
{-31.37085 MeV}
0+194Pb
190Tl
191Hg80191111Mercury-191190.967158(24) u
[190.9232764 u]
{-30.59213 MeV}
3/2(-)191Tl
191mHg80191111Mercury-191m190.967158(24) u
[190.9232764 u]
{-30.59213 MeV}
13/2(+)- 1.068(5)
192Hg80192112Mercury-192191.965634(17) u
[191.9217524 u]
{-32.01172 MeV}
0+192Tl
193Hg80193113Mercury-193192.966653(17) u
[192.9227714 u]
{-31.06253 MeV}
3/2(-)-0.62757(18)193Tl
193mHg80193113Mercury-193m192.966653(17) u
[192.9227714 u]
{-31.06253 MeV}
13/2(+)- 1.0585(8)
194Hg80194114Mercury-194193.965449(3) u
[193.9215674 u]
{-32.18405 MeV}
0+194Tl
195Hg80195115Mercury-195194.966706(25) u
[194.9228244 u]
{-31.01316 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.5414749(14)195Tl
195mHg80195115Mercury-195m194.966706(25) u
[194.9228244 u]
{-31.01316 MeV}
13/2+- 1.00446473(26)
196Hg80196116Mercury-196195.96583(2) u
[195.9219484 u]
{-31.82915 MeV}
0+196Tl
196Au
197Hg80197117Mercury-197196.967214(3) u
[196.9233324 u]
{-30.53996 MeV}
1/2-197Tl
197mHg80197117Mercury-197m196.967214(3) u
[196.9233324 u]
{-30.53996 MeV}
13/2+
198Hg80198118Mercury-198197.966769(3) u
[197.9228874 u]
{-30.95448 MeV}
0+198Tl
198Au
202Pb
199Hg80199119Mercury-199198.968281(3) u
[198.9243994 u]
{-29.54606 MeV}
1/2-+ 0.5058855(9)199Tl
199Au
199mHg80199119Mercury-199m198.968281(3) u
[198.9243994 u]
{-29.54606 MeV}
13/2+- 1.014703(3)
200Hg80200120Mercury-200199.968327(3) u
[199.9244454 u]
{-29.50321 MeV}
0+200Tl
200Au
201Hg80201121Mercury-201200.970303(5) u
[200.9264214 u]
{-27.66258 MeV}
3/2-- 0.5602257(14)201Tl
201Au
201mHg80201121Mercury-201m200.970303(5) u
[200.9264214 u]
{-27.66258 MeV}
13/2+
202Hg80202122Mercury-202201.970643(5) u
[201.9267614 u]
{-27.34587 MeV}
0+202Tl
202Au
203Hg80203123Mercury-203202.9728723(17) u
[202.9289907 u]
{-25.26929 MeV}
5/2-+ 0.84895(13)203Au
203mHg80203123Mercury-203m202.9728723(17) u
[202.9289907 u]
{-25.26929 MeV}
204Hg80204124Mercury-204203.973494(3) u
[203.9296124 u]
{-24.69018 MeV}
0+204Tl
204Au
205Hg80205125Mercury-205204.976073(4) u
[204.9321914 u]
{-22.28786 MeV}
1/2-205Au
205mHg80205125Mercury-205m204.976073(4) u
[204.9321914 u]
{-22.28786 MeV}
13/2+
206Hg80206126Mercury-206205.977514(22) u
[205.9336324 u]
{-20.94557 MeV}
0+210Pb
207Hg80207127Mercury-207206.98230(3) u
[206.9384184 u]
{-16.48744 MeV}
(9/2+)
208Hg80208128Mercury-208207.98576(3) u
[207.9418784 u]
{-13.26447 MeV}
0+
209Hg80209129Mercury-209208.99072(16) u
[208.9468384 u]
{-8.64426 MeV}
(9/2+)
210Hg80210130Mercury-210209.99424(21) u
[209.9503584 u]
{-5.36541 MeV}
0+
210m1Hg80210130Mercury-210m1209.99424(21) u
[209.9503584 u]
{-5.36541 MeV}
(3-)
210m2Hg80210130Mercury-210m2209.99424(21) u
[209.9503584 u]
{-5.36541 MeV}
(8+)
211Hg80211131Mercury-211210.99933(21) u
[210.9554484 u]
{-0.6241 MeV}
212Hg80212132Mercury-212212.00296(32) u
[211.9590784 u]
{2.75722 MeV}
0+
213Hg80213133Mercury-213213.00823(32) u
[212.9643484 u]
{7.6662 MeV}
214Hg80214134Mercury-214214.01200(43) u
[213.9681184 u]
{11.17793 MeV}
0+
215Hg80215135Mercury-215215.01740(43) u
[214.9735184 u]
{16.208 MeV}
216Hg80216136Mercury-216216.02132(43) u
[215.9774384 u]
{19.85945 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Hg-17159 μsα → 167Ptca. 100 %7.668(15) MeVAL
Hg-172231(9) μsα → 168Ptca. 100 %7.524(6) MeVAL
Hg-1730.80(8) msα → 169Pt100 %7.378(4) MeVAL
Hg-1742.1 msα → 170Pt99.6(4) %7.233(6) MeVAL
Hg-17510.6(4) msα → 171Pt100 %7.072(5) MeVAL
Hg-17620.3(14) msα → 172Pt94(12) %6.897(6) MeVAL
Hg-1770.117(7) sα → 173Pt100 %6.74(5) MeVAL
Hg-177m1.50(15) μsIso → 177Hg100 %323.2(12) keV
Hg-178266.5(24) msα → 174Pt
EC/β+178Au
ca. 70 %
ca. 30 %
6.577(3) MeV
5.988(15) MeV
AL
Hg-1791.05(3) sα → 175Pt
EC/β+179Au
EC, p → 178Pt
55(25) %
45(25) %
ca. 0.15 %
6.36(3) MeV
8.06(3) MeV
?
AL
Hg-1802.59(1) sα → 176Pt
EC/β+180Au
48(2) %
52(2) %
6.2585(24) MeV
5.375(14) MeV
AL
Hg-1813.6(1) sα → 177Pt
EC/β+181Au
EC, p → 180Pt
EC, α → 177Ir
27(2) %
73(2) %
0.013(3) %
Spuren
6.284(4) MeV
7.210(25) MeV

AL
Hg-18210.83(6) sα → 178Pt
EC/β+182Au
13.8(9) %
86.2(9) %
5.996(5) MeV
4.724(23) MeV
AL
Hg-1839.4(7) sα → 179Pt
EC/β+183Au
EC, p → 182Pt
11.7(20) %
88.3(20) %
0.00026 %
6.039(4) MeV
6.387(12) MeV
AL
Hg-18430.87(26) sα → 180Pt
EC/β+184Au
1.11(6) %
90.89(6) %
5.662(4) MeV
3.970(24) MeV
AL
Hg-18549.1(10) sα → 181Pt
EC/β+185Au
6(1) %
94(1) %
5.773(4) MeV
5.674(14) MeV
AL
Hg-185m21.6(15) sα → 181Pt
EC/β+185Au
Iso → 185Hg
ca. 0.03 %
46(10) %
54(10) %


99.3(5) keV
Hg-1861.38(6) minα → 182Pt
EC/β+186Au
0.016(5) %
99.984(5) %
5.204(10) MeV
3.176(24) MeV
AL
Hg-186m82(5) μs2217.3 keV
Hg-1871.9(3) minα → 183Pt
EC/β+187Au
< 0.00037 %
> 99.9996 %
5.230(14) MeV
4.910(26) MeV
AL
Hg-187m2.4(3) minα → 183Pt
EC/β+187Au
Spuren
>> 99 %

Hg-1883.25(15) minα → 184Pt
EC/β+188Au
Spuren
> 99.9999 %
4.707(16) MeV
2.169(13) MeV
AL
Hg-188m154(20) ns2724.1(4) keV
Hg-1897.6(2) minα → 185Pt
EC/β+189Au
< 0.00003 %
> 99.9999 %
4.640(40) MeV
3.960(40) MeV
AL
Hg-189m8.6(2) minα → 185Pt
EC/β+189Au
< 0.00003 %
> 99.9999 %

+x keV
Hg-19020.0(5) minα → 186Pt
EC/β+190Au
Spuren
> 99.9999 %
4.069(27) MeV
1.463(16) MeV
AL
Hg-19149(10) minEC/β+191Au100 %3.206(23) MeVAL
Hg-191m50.8(15) minEC/β+191Au100 %+x keV
Hg-1924.85(20) hEC → 192Au100 %0.761(22) MeVAL
Hg-1933.80(15) hEC/β+193Au100 %2.343(18) MeVAL
Hg-193m11.8(2) hEC/β+193Au
Iso → 193Hg
92.8(5) %
7.2(5) %

140.76(5) keV
Hg-194444(77) yEC → 194Au100 %28(4) MeVAL
Hg-19510.53(3) hEC/β+195Au100 %1.554(23) MeVAL
Hg-195m41.6(8) hEC/β+195Au
Iso → 195Hg
45.8(20) %
54.2(20) %

176.07(4) keV
Hg-196stableAL
Hg-19764.14(5) hEC → 197Au100 %0.600(3) MeVAL
Hg-197m23.8(1) hEC/β+197Au
Iso → 197Hg
8.6(7) %
91.4(7) %

298.93(8) keV
Hg-198stableAL
Hg-199stableAL
Hg-199m42.67(9) minIso → 199Hg100 %532.48(19) keV
Hg-200stableAL
Hg-201stableAL
Hg-201m94(2) μsIso → 201Hg100 %766.22(15) keV
Hg-202stableAL
Hg-20346.594(12) dβ-203Tl100 %0.4921(12) MeVAL
Hg-203m24(4) μsIso → 203Hg100 %933.14(23) keV
Hg-204stableAL
Hg-2055.14(9) minβ-205Tl100 %1.533(4) MeVAL
Hg-205m1.09(4) msIso → 205Hg100 %1556.40(17) keV
Hg-2068.32(7) minβ-206Tl100 %1.308(20) MeVAL
Hg-2072.9(2) minβ-207Tl100 %4.55(3) MeVAL
Hg-20841(5) minβ-208Tl100 %3.48(3) MeVAL
Hg-20936 sβ-209Tl100 %5.00(15) MeVAL
Hg-210AL
Hg-210m12.1(7) μsIso → 210Hg100 %663 keV
Hg-210m22(1) μsIso → 210Hg100 %1366+x keV
Hg-211300 nsβ-211Tl
β-, n → 210Tl
?
?
5.45(20) MeV
0.55(20) MeV
AL
Hg-212300 nsβ-212Tl
β-, n → 211Tl
?
?
4.31(36) MeV
0.76(30) MeV
AL
Hg-213300 nsβ-213Tl
β-, n → 212Tl
?
?
5.88(30) MeV
1.15(36) MeV
AL
Hg-214> 300 nsβ-214Tl
β-, n → 213Tl
?
?
4.71(45) MeV
1.32(40) MeV
AL
Hg-215> 300 nsβ-215Tl
β-, n → 214Tl
?
?
6.30(50) MeV
1.67(45) MeV
AL
Hg-216> 300 nsβ-216Tl
β-, n → 215Tl
?
?
5.14(50) MeV
1.88(50) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Mercury isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Mercury isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Mercury isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Mercury nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
199Hg
16,94(12) %
1/2-
+ 0,5058855(9)4,84587,71230,00594
0,1811
201Hg
13,17(9) %
3/2-
- 0,5602257(14)- 1,7888+ 38,7(6)2,84690,00149
0,3343

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Mercury radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Hg-193+106 Bq100 Bq/g3.8 h
Hg-193m+106 Bq10 Bq/g11.8 h
Hg-194+106 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,07 TBqAu-194444.0 a
Hg-195+106 Bq100 Bq/g9.9 h
Hg-195m+106 Bq100 Bq/g0,2 TBqHg-19541.6 h
Hg-197107 Bq100 Bq/g2 TBq10 Bq cm-264.6 h
Hg-197m+106 Bq100 Bq/g0,7 TBq10 Bq cm-223.8 h
Hg-203105 Bq100 Bq/g0,3 TBq10 Bq cm-246.6 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Mercury nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Mercury: NMR properties - 199Hg-NMR, 201Hg-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - Bridget A. Bergquist, Joel D. Blum:
The Odds and Evens of Mercury Isotopes: Applications of Mass-Dependent and Mass-Independent Isotope Fractionation.
In: Elements, (2009), DOI 10.2113/gselements.5.6.353.

[10] - Jeroen E. Sonkea, Joel D. Blum:
Advances in mercury stable isotope biogeochemistry.
In: Chemical Geology, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2012.10.035.

[11] - M. Warda, A. Staszczak, W. Nazarewicz:
Fission modes of mercury isotopes.
In: Physical Review C, (2012), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.024601.

[12] - Jason D. Demers, Joel D. Blum, Donald R. Zak:
Mercury isotopes in a forested ecosystem: implications for air-surface exchange dynamics and the global mercury cycle.
In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, (2013), DOI 10.1002/gbc.20021.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



© 1996 - 2022 Internetchemistry




I agree!

This site uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies! Learn more ...