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Isotopes of Molybdenum

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Molybdenum as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Molybdenum isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element molybdenum are summarized under molybdenum isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 42 protons and, in the uncharged state, 42 electrons. The difference between each molybdenum isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Molybdenum Isotopes

Natural molybdenum deposits consist of a mixture of seven different isotopes, six of which are stable and one (100Mo) decays radioactively; Overall, this results in a relative atomic mass of 95.95(1) u for molybdenum.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Molybdenum
Isotopic mixture
95,95 u100 %
Isotope 92Mo91,906808(5) u14,649(106) %stable0+
Isotope 94Mo93,905085(3) u9,187(33) %stable0+
Isotope 95Mo94,905839(3) u15,873(30) %stable5/2+
Isotope 96Mo95,904676(3) u16,673(8) %stable0+
Isotope 97Mo96,906018(3) u9,582(15) %stable5/2+
Isotope 98Mo97,905405(3) u24,292(80) %stable0+
Isotope 100Mo99,907472(7) u9,744(65) %7.3(4) × 1018 a0+

 

The radioactive nuclide molybdenum-99 is used in nuclear medicine as a starting material for the preparation of the technetium isotope 99mTc.

All other molybdenum nuclides known and characterized to date are unstable and are of no importance for technical applications.

 

Isotope Table: Molybdenum

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
81Mo428139Molybdenum-8180.96591(54) u
[80.9428707 u]
{-31.75463 MeV}
82Mo428240Molybdenum-8281.95666(43) u
[81.9336207 u]
{-40.37095 MeV}
0+
83Mo428341Molybdenum-8382.95025(43) u
[82.9272107 u]
{-46.34183 MeV}
84Mo428442Molybdenum-8483.94185(32) u
[83.9188107 u]
{-54.16638 MeV}
0+
85Mo428543Molybdenum-8584.938261(17) u
[84.9152217 u]
{-57.50951 MeV}
(1/2-)
86Mo428644Molybdenum-8685.931175(4) u
[85.9081357 u]
{-64.11007 MeV}
0+86Tc
87Mo428745Molybdenum-8786.928196(3) u
[86.9051567 u]
{-66.885 MeV}
(7/2+)
88Mo428846Molybdenum-8887.921968(4) u
[87.8989287 u]
{-72.68634 MeV}
0+88Tc
89Mo428947Molybdenum-8988.919468(4) u
[88.8964287 u]
{-75.01507 MeV}
(9/2+)89Tc
89mMo428947Molybdenum-89m88.919468(4) u
[88.8964287 u]
{-75.01507 MeV}
(1/2-)
90Mo429048Molybdenum-9089.913931(4) u
[89.8908917 u]
{-80.17276 MeV}
0+90Tc
90mMo429048Molybdenum-90m89.913931(4) u
[89.8908917 u]
{-80.17276 MeV}
8+-1.391(14)
91Mo429149Molybdenum-9190.911745(7) u
[90.8887057 u]
{-82.209 MeV}
9/2+-0.931(3)91Tc
91mMo429149Molybdenum-91m90.911745(7) u
[90.8887057 u]
{-82.209 MeV}
1/2-
92Mo429250Molybdenum-9291.906808(5) u
[91.8837687 u]
{-86.80779 MeV}
0+92Tc
93Ru
92mMo429250Molybdenum-92m91.906808(5) u
[91.8837687 u]
{-86.80779 MeV}
8++11.30(5)
93Mo429351Molybdenum-9392.90680877(19) u
[92.8837695 u]
{-86.80707 MeV}
5/2+93Tc
93mMo429351Molybdenum-93m92.90680877(19) u
[92.8837695 u]
{-86.80707 MeV}
21/2+9.93(8)
94Mo429452Molybdenum-9493.905085(3) u
[93.8820457 u]
{-88.41275 MeV}
0+94Tc
94Nb
95Mo429553Molybdenum-9594.905839(3) u
[94.8827997 u]
{-87.71041 MeV}
5/2+- 0.9132(3)95Tc
95Nb
96Mo429654Molybdenum-9695.904676(3) u
[95.8816367 u]
{-88.79373 MeV}
0+96Tc
96Nb
97Mo429755Molybdenum-9796.906018(3) u
[96.8829787 u]
{-87.54367 MeV}
5/2+- 0.9324(3)97Tc
97Nb
98Mo429856Molybdenum-9897.905405(3) u
[97.8823657 u]
{-88.11467 MeV}
0+98Nb
99Mo429957Molybdenum-9998.90770730(24) u
[98.884668 u]
{-85.9701 MeV}
1/2++ 0.375(3)99Nb
99m1Mo429957Molybdenum-99m198.90770730(24) u
[98.884668 u]
{-85.9701 MeV}
5/2+0.775(5)
99m2Mo429957Molybdenum-99m298.90770730(24) u
[98.884668 u]
{-85.9701 MeV}
11/2-
100Mo4210058Molybdenum-10099.907472(7) u
[99.8844327 u]
{-86.18928 MeV}
0+100Tc
100Nb
101Mo4210159Molybdenum-101100.9103376(3) u
[100.8872983 u]
{-83.51999 MeV}
1/2+101Nb
101mMo4210159Molybdenum-101m100.9103376(3) u
[100.8872983 u]
{-83.51999 MeV}
3/2+
102Mo4210260Molybdenum-102101.910288(9) u
[101.8872487 u]
{-83.56619 MeV}
0+102Nb
103Mo4210361Molybdenum-103102.913085(10) u
[102.8900457 u]
{-80.9608 MeV}
(3/2+)-0.27(2)103Nb
252Cf
104Mo4210462Molybdenum-104103.913741(10) u
[103.8907017 u]
{-80.34974 MeV}
0+104Nb
252Cf
248Cm
105Mo4210563Molybdenum-105104.916975(10) u
[104.8939357 u]
{-77.33729 MeV}
(5/2-)-0.55(2)105Nb
106Mo4210664Molybdenum-106105.918266(10) u
[105.8952267 u]
{-76.13473 MeV}
0+106Nb
107Mo4210765Molybdenum-107106.922113(10) u
[106.8990737 u]
{-72.55127 MeV}
(5/2+)
107mMo4210765Molybdenum-107m106.922113(10) u
[106.8990737 u]
{-72.55127 MeV}
(1/2+)
108Mo4210866Molybdenum-108107.92404(1) u
[107.9010007 u]
{-70.75628 MeV}
0+108Nb
109Mo4210967Molybdenum-109108.928431(12) u
[108.9053917 u]
{-66.66609 MeV}
(5/2+)
109mMo4210967Molybdenum-109m108.928431(12) u
[108.9053917 u]
{-66.66609 MeV}
(1/2+)
110Mo4211068Molybdenum-110109.930711(26) u
[109.9076717 u]
{-64.54229 MeV}
0+110Nb
111Mo4211169Molybdenum-111110.935652(14) u
[110.9126127 u]
{-59.93978 MeV}
(1/2+,3/2+)
112Mo4211270Molybdenum-112111.93831(21) u
[111.9152707 u]
{-57.46386 MeV}
0+
113Mo4211371Molybdenum-113112.94365(32) u
[112.9206107 u]
{-52.48969 MeV}
114Mo4211472Molybdenum-114113.94653(32) u
[113.9234907 u]
{-49.80698 MeV}
0+
115Mo4211573Molybdenum-115114.95196(43) u
[114.9289207 u]
{-44.74897 MeV}
116Mo4211674Molybdenum-116115.95545(54) u
[115.9324107 u]
{-41.49806 MeV}
0+
117Mo4211775Molybdenum-117116.96117(54) u
[116.9381307 u]
{-36.16991 MeV}
118Mo4211876Molybdenum-118117.96497(54) u
[117.9419307 u]
{-32.63023 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Mo-81450 nsEC/β+81Nb
EC, p → 80Zr
?
14.61(64) MeV
Mo-82?EC/β+82Nb
EC, p → 81Zr
?
11.72(50) MeV
Mo-836 msEC/β+83Nb100 %11.22(43) MeVAL
Mo-842.3(3) sEC/β+84Nb
ε, p → 83Zr
100 %
?
7.05(30) MeV
AL
Mo-853.2(2) sEC/β+85Nb
EC, p → 84Zr

0.14(2) %
8.77(16) MeV
AL
Mo-8619.1(3) sEC/β+86Nb100 %5.024(7) MeVAL
Mo-8714.1(3) sEC/β+87Nb
ε, p → 86Zr
85(8) %
15(8) %
6.990(7) MeV
AL
Mo-888.0(2) minEC/β+88Nb100 %3.49(6) MeVAL
Mo-892.11(10) minEC/β+89Nb100 %5.610(24) MeVAL
Mo-89m190(15) msIso → 89Mo100 %387.5(2) keV
Mo-905.56(9) hEC/β+90Nb100 %2.489(5) MeVAL
Mo-90m1.12(5) μs2874.73(15) keV
Mo-9115.49(1) minEC/β+91Nb100 %4.429(7) MeVAL
Mo-91m64.6(6) sEC/β+91Nb
Iso → 91Mo
50.0(16) %
50.0(16) %

653.01(9) keVAL
Mo-92stableAL
Mo-92m190(3) ns2760.52(14) keV
Mo-934000(800) aEC → 93Nb100 %0.4058(15) MeVAL
Mo-93m6.85(7) hEC/β+93Nb
Iso → 93Mo
0.12(1) %
99.88(1) %

2424.95(4) keV
Mo-94stableAL
Mo-95stableAL
Mo-96stableAL
Mo-97stableAL
Mo-98stableAL
Mo-9965.924(6) hβ-99mTc100 %1.3578(9) MeVAL
Mo-99m115.5(2) μs97.785(3) keV
Mo-99m20.76(6) μs684.10(19) keV
Mo-1007.3(4) × 1018 a2 β-100Ru100 %AL
Mo-10114.61(3) minβ-101Tc100 %2.825(24) MeVAL
Mo-101m226(7) ns13.497(9) keV
Mo-10211.3(2) minβ-102Tc100 %10.07(12) MeVAL
Mo-10367.5(15) sβ-103Tc100 %3.6343(13) MeVAL
Mo-10460(2) sβ-104Tc100 %2.153(24) MeVAL
Mo-10535.6(16) sβ-105Tc100 %4.95(4) MeVAL
Mo-1068.73(12) sβ-106Tc100 %3.642(15) MeVAL
Mo-1073.5(5) sβ-107Tc100 %6.198(13) MeVAL
Mo-107m420(30) ns65.4 keV
Mo-1081.09(2) sβ-108Tc100 %5.167(13) MeVAL
Mo-1090.61 sβ-109Tc
β-, n → 108Tc
98.7 %
1.3(6) %
7.617(15) MeV
1.185(14) MeV
AL
Mo-109m0.194 μs69.7(5) keV
Mo-110296(17) msβ-110Tc
β-, n → 109Tc
98.0(7) %
2.0(7) %
6.492(26) MeV
1.669(26) MeV
AL
Mo-111186(9) msβ-111Tc
β-, n → 110Tc
>88 %
< 12 %
9.085(7) MeV
3.023(15) MeV
AL
Mo-112120 msβ-112Tc100 %7.79(20) MeVAL
Mo-11380(2) msβ-113Tc
β-, n → 112Tc

?
10.32(30) MeV
4.70(30) MeV
AL
Mo-11458(2) msβ-114Tc
β-, n → 113Tc

?
8.79(53) MeV
4.93(30) MeV
AL
Mo-11545.5(20) msβ-115Tc
β-, n → 114Tc
β-, 2n →

?
?
11.57(88) MeV
5.78(59) MeV
AL
Mo-11632(4) msβ-116Tc
β-, n → 115Tc
β-, 2n → 114Tc
?
?
?
9.96(58) MeV
6.75(93) MeV
AL
Mo-11722(5) msβ-117Tc
β-, n → 116Tc
β-, 2n → 115Tc
?
?
?
12.21(64) MeV
7.21(58) MeV
AL
Mo-11819 msβ-118Tc
β-, n → 117Tc
β-, 2n → 116Tc
?
?
?
11.16(64) MeV
4.53(71) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Molybdenum isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Molybdenum isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Molybdenum isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Molybdenum nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
95Mo
15,873(30) %
5/2+
- 0,9132(3)- 1,7514- 2,2(1)2,78740,00327
0,7638
97Mo
9,582(15) %
5/2+
- 0,9324(3)- 1,7884+ 25,5(13)2,84630,00349
0,7799

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Molybdenum radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Mo-90+106 Bq10 Bq/g1 Bq cm-25.6 h
Mo-93108 Bq10 Bq/g300 TBq100 Bq cm-24000 a
Mo-99+106 Bq10 Bq/g0,3 TBq1 Bq cm-265.9 h
Mo-101+106 Bq10 Bq/g1 Bq cm-214.6 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Molybdenum nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Molybdenum: NMR properties - 95Mo-NMR, 97Mo-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann:
Über die bei der Uranspaltung auftretenden Molybdän-Isotope.
In: Naturwissenschaften, (1941), DOI 10.1007/BF01479369.

[10] - J. L. Hannah, H. J. Stein, M. E. Wieser, J. R. de Laeter, M. D. Varner:
Molybdenum isotope variations in molybdenite: Vapor transport and Rayleigh fractionation of Mo.
In: Geology, (2007), DOI 10.1130/G23538A.1.

[11] - A. M. Parker, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.06.001.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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