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Isotopes of Palladium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Palladium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Palladium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element palladium are summarized under palladium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 46 protons and, in the uncharged state, 46 electrons. The difference between each palladium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Palladium Isotopes

The palladium occurring on earth is composed of a total of six stable isotopes as follows:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Palladium
Isotopic mixture
106,42 u100 %
Isotope 102Pd101,90560(2) u1,02(1) %stable0+
Isotope 104Pd103,904031(9) u11,14(8) %stable0+
Isotope 105Pd104,905080(8) u22,33(8) %stable5/2+
Isotope 106Pd105,903480(8) u27,33(3) %stable0+
Isotope 108Pd107,903892(8) u26,46(9) %stable0+
Isotope 110Pd109,905172(5) u11,72(9) %stable0+

 

All other palladium nuclides known and characterized so far are unstable; With a half-life of 6.5 million years, the palladium isotope 107 is the longest-lived radioisotope.

 

Isotope Table: Palladium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
90Pd469044Palladium-9089.95737(43) u
[89.9321366 u]
{-39.70959 MeV}
0+
91Pd469145Palladium-9190.95069(43) u
[90.9254566 u]
{-45.93197 MeV}
92Pd469246Palladium-9291.94141(32) u
[91.9161766 u]
{-54.57623 MeV}
0+
93Pd469347Palladium-9392.93666(32) u
[92.9114266 u]
{-59.00083 MeV}
(9/2+)
94Pd469448Palladium-9493.929036(5) u
[93.9038026 u]
{-66.10254 MeV}
0+94Ag
95Pd469549Palladium-9594.924889(3) u
[94.8996556 u]
{-69.96545 MeV}
(9/2+)
95mPd469549Palladium-95m94.924889(3) u
[94.8996556 u]
{-69.96545 MeV}
(21/2+)
96Pd469650Palladium-9695.918214(5) u
[95.8929806 u]
{-76.18317 MeV}
0+96Ag
97Pd469751Palladium-9796.916472(5) u
[96.8912386 u]
{-77.80583 MeV}
(5/2+)97Ag
98Cd
98Pd469852Palladium-9897.912698(5) u
[97.8874646 u]
{-81.32129 MeV}
0+98Ag
99Cd
99Pd469953Palladium-9998.911773(5) u
[98.8865396 u]
{-82.18292 MeV}
(5/2)+99Ag
100Pd4610054Palladium-10099.908520(19) u
[99.8832866 u]
{-85.21307 MeV}
0+100Ag
101Pd4610155Palladium-101100.908285(5) u
[100.8830516 u]
{-85.43197 MeV}
5/2+- 0.66(2)101Ag
102Pd4610256Palladium-102101.90560(2) u
[101.8803666 u]
{-87.93303 MeV}
0+102Ag
102Rh
103Pd4610357Palladium-103102.9061108(10) u
[102.8808774 u]
{-87.45723 MeV}
5/2+103Ag
104Pd4610458Palladium-104103.904031(9) u
[103.8787976 u]
{-89.39455 MeV}
0+104Ag
104Rh
105Pd4610559Palladium-105104.905080(8) u
[104.8798466 u]
{-88.41741 MeV}
5/2+- 0.642(3)105Ag
105Rh
106Pd4610660Palladium-106105.903480(8) u
[105.8782466 u]
{-89.9078 MeV}
0+106Ag
106Rh
107Pd4610761Palladium-107106.9051281(13) u
[106.8798947 u]
{-88.37261 MeV}
5/2+107Rh
107m1Pd4610761Palladium-107m1106.9051281(13) u
[106.8798947 u]
{-88.37261 MeV}
1/2+
107m2Pd4610761Palladium-107m2106.9051281(13) u
[106.8798947 u]
{-88.37261 MeV}
11/2-
108Pd4610862Palladium-108107.903892(8) u
[107.8786586 u]
{-89.52403 MeV}
0+108Ag
108Rh
109Pd4610963Palladium-109108.9059506(12) u
[108.8807172 u]
{-87.60645 MeV}
5/2+109Rh
109mPd4610963Palladium-109m108.9059506(12) u
[108.8807172 u]
{-87.60645 MeV}
1/2+
109m2Pd4610963Palladium-109m2108.9059506(12) u
[108.8807172 u]
{-87.60645 MeV}
11/2-
110Pd4611064Palladium-110109.905172(5) u
[109.8799386 u]
{-88.33171 MeV}
0+110Ag
110Rh
111Pd4611165Palladium-111110.9076903(8) u
[110.8824569 u]
{-85.98593 MeV}
5/2+111Rh
111mPd4611165Palladium-111m110.9076903(8) u
[110.8824569 u]
{-85.98593 MeV}
11/2-
112Pd4611266Palladium-112111.907330(7) u
[111.8820966 u]
{-86.32155 MeV}
0+112Rh
252Cf
113Pd4611367Palladium-113112.910261(7) u
[112.8850276 u]
{-83.59134 MeV}
(5/2+)113Rh
252Cf
113mPd4611367Palladium-113m112.910261(7) u
[112.8850276 u]
{-83.59134 MeV}
(9/2-)
114Pd4611468Palladium-114113.910369(7) u
[113.8851356 u]
{-83.49074 MeV}
0+114Rh
252Cf
115Pd4611569Palladium-115149.13659(15) u
[149.1113566 u]
{31798.02877 MeV}
(1/2)+115Rh
252Cf
115mPd4611569Palladium-115m149.13659(15) u
[149.1113566 u]
{31798.02877 MeV}
(7/2-)
116Pd4611670Palladium-116115.914297(8) u
[115.8890636 u]
{-79.83183 MeV}
0+116Rh
252Cf
117Pd4611771Palladium-117116.917955(8) u
[116.8927216 u]
{-76.42443 MeV}
(5/2+)117Rh
252Cf
117mPd4611771Palladium-117m116.917955(8) u
[116.8927216 u]
{-76.42443 MeV}
(11/2-)
118Pd4611872Palladium-118117.9190668(27) u
[117.8938334 u]
{-75.38879 MeV}
0+118Rh
252Cf
119Pd4611973Palladium-119118.923340(9) u
[118.8981066 u]
{-71.40833 MeV}
120Pd4612074Palladium-120119.9245513(25) u
[119.8993179 u]
{-70.28001 MeV}
0+
121Pd4612175Palladium-121120.928950(4) u
[120.9037166 u]
{-66.18265 MeV}
122Pd4612276Palladium-122121.930632(21) u
[121.9053986 u]
{-64.61588 MeV}
0+
123Pd4612377Palladium-123122.93513(85) u
[122.9098966 u]
{-60.42602 MeV}
124Pd4612478Palladium-124123.93732(32) u
[123.9120866 u]
{-58.38604 MeV}
0+
125Pd4612579Palladium-125124.94190(43) u
[124.9166666 u]
{-54.1198 MeV}
126Pd4612680Palladium-126125.94433(43) u
[125.9190966 u]
{-51.85627 MeV}
0+
126m1Pd4612680Palladium-126m1125.94433(43) u
[125.9190966 u]
{-51.85627 MeV}
(5-)
126m2Pd4612680Palladium-126m2125.94433(43) u
[125.9190966 u]
{-51.85627 MeV}
(7-)
126m3Pd4612680Palladium-126m3125.94433(43) u
[125.9190966 u]
{-51.85627 MeV}
(10+)
127Pd4612781Palladium-127126.94935(54) u
[126.9241166 u]
{-47.18017 MeV}
128Pd4612882Palladium-128127.95224(54) u
[127.9270066 u]
{-44.48815 MeV}
0+
128mPd4612882Palladium-128m127.95224(54) u
[127.9270066 u]
{-44.48815 MeV}
(8+)
129Pd4612983Palladium-129128.95962(64) u
[128.9343866 u]
{-37.61373 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Pd-90760 nsEC/β+90Rh
EC, p → 89Ru
?
?

Pd-91EC/β+91Rh100 %12.64(50) MeVAL
Pd-921.0 sEC/β+92Rh100 %8.42(30) MeVAL
Pd-931.00(9) sEC/β+93Rh
EC, p → 92Ru
ca. 100 %
?
10.01(30) MeV
?
AL
Pd-949.0(5) sEC/β+94Rh100 %6.805(5) MeVAL
Pd-955(3) sEC/β+95Rh100 %8.375(5) MeVAL
Pd-95m13.3(3) sEC/β+95Rh
Iso → 95Pd
β+, p → 94Ru
89(3) %
11(3) %
0.93(15) %


1875.13(14) keV
Pd-96122(2) sEC/β+96Rh100 %3.504(11) MeVAL
Pd-973.10(9) minEC/β+97Rh100 %4.79(4) MeVAL
Pd-9817.7(3) minEC/β+98Rh100 %1.854(13) MeVAL
Pd-9921.4(2) minEC/β+99Rh100 %3.399(8) MeVAL
Pd-1003.63(9) dEC → 100Rh100 %0.378(25) MeVAL
Pd-1018.47(6) hEC/β+101Rh100 %1.980(7) MeVAL
Pd-102stableAL
Pd-10316.991(19) dEC → 103Rh100 %0.5745(25) MeVAL
Pd-104stableAL
Pd-105stableAL
Pd-106stableAL
Pd-1076.5(3) × 106 aβ-107Ag100 %0.0340(23) MeVAL
Pd-107m10.85(10) μs115.74(12) keV
Pd-107m221.3(5) sIso → 107Pd100 %214.6(3) keV
Pd-108stableAL
Pd-10913.59(12) hβ-109Ag100 %1.1129(14) MeVAL
Pd-109m113.400 keV
Pd-109m24.703(9) minIso → 109Pd100 %188.9903(10) keV
Pd-110stableAL
Pd-11123.4(2) minβ-111Ag100 %2.2296(16) MeVAL
Pd-111m5.5(1) hβ-111Ag
Iso → 111Pd
27(3) %
73(3) %

172.18(8) keV
Pd-11221.04(17) hβ-112Ag100 %0.262(7) MeVAL
Pd-11393(5) sβ-113Ag100 %3.436(18) MeVAL
Pd-113m0.3(1) sIso → 113Pd100 %81.1(3) keV
Pd-1142.42(6) minβ-114Ag100 %1.440(8) MeVAL
Pd-11525(2) sβ-115Ag100 %4.556(22) MeVAL
Pd-115m50(3) sβ-115Ag
Iso → 115Pd
92.0(20) %
8.0(20) %

89.21(16) keV
Pd-11611.8(4) sβ-116Ag100 %2.711(8) MeVAL
Pd-1174.3(3) sβ-117Ag100 %5.758(15) MeVAL
Pd-117m19.1(7) msIso → 117Pd100 %203.3(3) keV
Pd-1181.9(1) sβ-118Ag100 %4.165(4) MeVAL
Pd-1190.92(1) sβ-119Ag100 %7.238(17) MeVAL
Pd-120492(33) msβ-120Ag
β-, n → 119Ag
100 %
< 0.7 %
5.371(5) MeV
0.294(15) MeV
AL
Pd-121285(24) msβ-121Ag
β-, n → 120Ag
≥ 99.2 %
≤ 0.8 %
8.220(13) MeV
1.398(6) MeV
AL
Pd-122175(16) msβ-122Ag
β-, n → 121Ag
≥ 97.5 %
≤ 2.5 %
6.49(4) MeV
1.715(23) MeV
AL
Pd-123108(2) msβ-123Ag
β-, n → 122Ag
100 %
?
9.12(79) MeV
2.61(79) MeV
AL
Pd-12438 msβ-124Ag
β-, n → 123Ag
100 %
?
7.81(39) MeV
3.09(30) MeV
AL
Pd-12557(10) msβ-125Ag
β-, n → 124Ag
100 %
?
10.40(59) MeV
4.01(47) MeV
AL
Pd-12648.6(12) msβ-126Ag
β-, n → 125Ag
?
?
8.82(45) MeV
4.59(59) MeV
AL
Pd-126m10.33(4) μsIso → 126Pd100 %2023.5(7) keV
Pd-126m20.44(3) μsIso → 126Pd100 %2109.7(9) keV
Pd-126m323.0(9) msIso → 126Pd
β-126Ag
28(8) %
72(8) %

2406.4(10) keV
Pd-12738(2) msβ-127Ag
β-, n → 126Ag
β-, 2n → 125Ag
100 %
?
?
11.26(54) MeV
5.43(54) MeV
AL
Pd-12835(3) msβ-128Ag
β-, n → 127Ag
100 %
?
10.13(58) MeV
5.88(54) MeV
AL
Pd-128m5.8(8) μsIso → 128Pd100 %2151.0(10) keV
Pd-12931(7) msβ-129Ag
β-, n → 128Ag
β-, 2n → 127Ag
100 %
?
?
14.37(72) MeV
8.94(67) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Palladium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Palladium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Palladium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Palladium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
105Pd
22,33(8) %
5/2+
- 0,642(3)- 1,2305+ 66,0(11)1,9570,00113
0,5364

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Palladium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Pd-100+107 Bq100 Bq/g3.6 d
Pd-101106 Bq100 Bq/g8.5 h
Pd-103+108 Bq1000 Bq/g90 TBq100 Bq cm-2Rh-10617.0 d
Pd-107108 Bq1000 Bq/gUnbegrenzt (UL)6500000 a
Pd-109+106 Bq100 Bq/g20 TBq100 Bq cm-213.7 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Palladium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Palladium: NMR properties - 105Pd-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - T. Fujii, F. Moynier, A. Agranier, E. Ponzevera, M. Abe:
Isotope fractionation of palladium in chemical exchange reaction.
In: Proceedings in Radiochemistry, (2011), DOI 10.1524/rcpr.2011.0060.

[10] - J. Kathawa, C. Fry, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of palladium, antimony, tellurium, iodine, and xenon isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.01.004.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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