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Isotopes of Phosphorus

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Phosphorus as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Phosphorus isotopes

The element phosphorus, as a monoisotope, only has the stable isotope 31P, which represents 100% of the naturally occurring phosphorus. All other 22 known phosphorus isotopes are unstable radionuclides with half-lives of 25 days to a few milliseconds.

The phosphorus isotopes 33P and decay with a half-life of 25 or 14 days 32P are used as beta emitters, for example for radiolabeling DNA and RNA samples.

The isotope 26P has a halo nucleus (1-proton Halo).

The standard atomic mass of phosphorus is 30.973761998(5) u.

 

Isotope Table: Phosphorus

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
24P15249Phosphorus-24(1+)
25P152510Phosphorus-2525.02119(43) u
[25.0129614 u]
{19.73836 MeV}
(1/2+)
26P152611Phosphorus-2626.01178(21) u
[26.0035514 u]
{10.973 MeV}
(3)+
27P152712Phosphorus-2726.999224(28) u
[26.9909954 u]
{-0.72284 MeV}
1/2+
28P152813Phosphorus-2827.9923266(12) u
[27.984098 u]
{-7.14773 MeV}
3+0.312(3)28S
29P152914Phosphorus-2928.9818004(4) u
[28.9735718 u]
{-16.95282 MeV}
1/2+1.2344(3)29S
31Ar
30P153015Phosphorus-3029.97831349(7) u
[29.9700849 u]
{-20.20085 MeV}
1+30S
31Cl
31P153116Phosphorus-3130.973761998(5) u
[30.9655334 u]
{-24.44054 MeV}
1/2++ 1.130925(5)31S
31Si
32Cl
32P153217Phosphorus-3231.97390764(4) u
[31.965679 u]
{-24.30488 MeV}
1+- 0.2528(2)32Si
33P153318Phosphorus-3332.9717257(12) u
[32.9634971 u]
{-26.33734 MeV}
1/2+33Si
34P153419Phosphorus-3433.9736459(9) u
[33.9654173 u]
{-24.54869 MeV}
1+34Si
35P153520Phosphorus-3534.9733141(20) u
[34.9650855 u]
{-24.85776 MeV}
1/2+35Si
36Si
36P153621Phosphorus-3635.978260(14) u
[35.9700314 u]
{-20.25068 MeV}
4-36Si
37P153722Phosphorus-3736.97961(4) u
[36.9713814 u]
{-18.99316 MeV}
(1/2+)
38P153823Phosphorus-3837.98430(8) u
[37.9760714 u]
{-14.62446 MeV}
(2-)
39P153924Phosphorus-3938.98629(12) u
[38.9780614 u]
{-12.77078 MeV}
(1/2+)
40P154025Phosphorus-4039.99129(16) u
[39.9830614 u]
{-8.11331 MeV}
(2-,3-)
41P154126Phosphorus-4140.99465(13) u
[40.9864214 u]
{-4.98349 MeV}
(1/2+)41Si
42Si
42P154227Phosphorus-4242.00108(34) u
[41.9928514 u]
{1.00601 MeV}
43P154328Phosphorus-4343.00502(60) u
[42.9967914 u]
{4.6761 MeV}
1/2+
44P154429Phosphorus-4444.01122(54) u
[44.0029914 u]
{10.45136 MeV}
45P154530Phosphorus-4545.01675(54) u
[45.0085214 u]
{15.60252 MeV}
1/2+
46P154631Phosphorus-4646.02466(75) u
[46.0164314 u]
{22.97064 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
P-24- ungelistet -AL
P-2530 nsp → 24Si100 %15.910 MeVAL
P-2643.7(6) msEC/β+26Si
β+, p → 25Al
β+, 2p → 24Mg
61.04 %
36.8 %
2.16 %
18.11398 MeV
12.600 MeV
10.329 MeV
AL
P-27260(80) msEC/β+27Si
β+, p → 26Al
99.93 %
0.07 %
11.6685 MeV
4.204 MeV
AL
P-28270.3(5) msEC/β+28Si
ε, p → 27Al
ε, α → 24Mg
99.998 %
0.0013 %
0.00086 %
14.34374 MeV
2.749 MeV
4.350 MeV
AL
P-294.142(15) sEC/β+29Si100 %4.94246 MeVAL
P-302.498(4) minEC/β+30Si100 %4.23235 MeVAL
P-31stableAL
P-3214.268(5) dβ-32S100 %1.71066(4) MeVAL
P-3325.35(11) dβ-33S100 %0.2485(11) MeVAL
P-3412.43(10) sβ-34S100 %5.3830(8) MeVAL
P-3547.3(8) sβ-35S100 %3.9884(19) MeVAL
P-365.6(3) sβ-36S100 %10.413(13) MeVAL
P-372.31(13) sβ-37S100 %7.90(4) MeVAL
P-380.64(14) sβ-38S
β-, n → 37S
88(5) %
12(5) %
12.218 MeV
4.1823 MeV
AL
P-390.28(4) sβ-39S
β-, n → 38S
74(8) %
26(8) %
10.36718 MeV
5.9947 MeV
AL
P-40150(8) msβ-40S
β-, n → 39S
β-, 2n → 38S
84.2(21) %
15.8(21) %
?
14.85592 MeV
7.0166 MeV
AL
P-41101(5) msβ-41S
β-, n → 40S
70(10) %
30(10) %
14.10898 MeV
9.8793 MeV
AL
P-4248.5(15) msβ-42S
β-, n → 41S
β-, 2n → 40S
50 %
50(20) %
?
18.68724 MeV
12.027 MeV
AL
P-4336.5(15) msβ-43S
β-, n → 42S
β-, 2n → 41S


?
16.7501 MeV
14.286 MeV
AL
P-4418.5(25) msβ-44S
β-, n → 43S
?
?
19.65(50) MeV
14.57(50) MeV
AL
P-45200 nsβ-45S?19.59(115) MeVAL
P-46β-46S100 %22.63(86) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Phosphorus isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Phosphorus isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Phosphorus isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Phosphorus nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
31P
100 %
1/2+
+ 1,130925(5)10,84117,25150,06652
0,4052

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Phosphorus radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
P-32105 Bq1000 Bq/g10 TBq100 Bq/cm214.3 d
P-33108 Bq1000 Bq/g200 TBq100 Bq/cm225.4 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Phosphorus nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Phosphorus: NMR properties - 31P-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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