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Isotopes of Promethium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Promethium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Promethium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element promethium are summarized under promethium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 61 protons and, in the uncharged state, 61 electrons. The difference between each promethium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Promethium is a chemical element from the group of rare earth metals and lanthanides. Along with technetium, promethium is one of the two chemical elements with an atomic number less than 83 that do not have stable nuclides.

Promethium deposits in nature are insignificant (less than 1 kilogram in the entire earth's crust) , because although promethium isotopes occur in extremely small quantities as intermediate products in the radioactive decay processes (U, Eu) of other elements (e.g. in pitchblende), these are due to the short half-lives of the promethium nuclides of just under 18 years (Pm-145) and further decay very quickly far below.

The nuclide promethium-147 is of little technical importance as a source of β-rays, since it is formed as a fission product in nuclear reactors by beta-decay from neodymium-147 and from it in certain quantities can be won.

 

Isotope Table: Promethium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
126Pm6112665Promethium-126125.95752(54) u
[125.9240592 u]
{-39.56987 MeV}
127Pm6112766Promethium-127126.95163(64) u
[126.9181692 u]
{-45.05636 MeV}
5/2+~
128Pm6112867Promethium-128127.94870(32) u
[127.9152392 u]
{-47.78564 MeV}
5,6,7
129Pm6112968Promethium-129128.94323(32) u
[128.9097692 u]
{-52.88091 MeV}
(5/2-)
130Pm6113069Promethium-130129.94053(21) u
[129.9070692 u]
{-55.39595 MeV}
(4,5,6)
131Pm6113170Promethium-131130.93595(21) u
[130.9024892 u]
{-59.66219 MeV}
(11/2-)
132Pm6113271Promethium-132131.93384(16) u
[131.9003792 u]
{-61.62764 MeV}
(3+)
133Pm6113372Promethium-133132.92978(5) u
[132.8963192 u]
{-65.40951 MeV}
(3/2+)
133mPm6113372Promethium-133m132.92978(5) u
[132.8963192 u]
{-65.40951 MeV}
(11/2-)
134Pm6113473Promethium-134133.92835(6) u
[133.8948892 u]
{-66.74155 MeV}
(2+)134Sm
134mPm6113473Promethium-134m133.92835(6) u
[133.8948892 u]
{-66.74155 MeV}
(5+)
135Pm6113574Promethium-135134.92480(8) u
[134.8913392 u]
{-70.04835 MeV}
(5/2+,3/2+)135Sm
136Eu
135mPm6113574Promethium-135m134.92480(8) u
[134.8913392 u]
{-70.04835 MeV}
(11/2-)
136Pm6113675Promethium-136135.92360(7) u
[135.8901392 u]
{-71.16614 MeV}
(5-)136Sm
136mPm6113675Promethium-136m135.92360(7) u
[135.8901392 u]
{-71.16614 MeV}
(2)
137Pm6113776Promethium-137136.920480(14) u
[136.8870192 u]
{-74.0724 MeV}
11/2-137Sm
138Pm6113877Promethium-138137.91955(3) u
[137.8860892 u]
{-74.93869 MeV}
(1+)138Sm
138mPm6113877Promethium-138m137.91955(3) u
[137.8860892 u]
{-74.93869 MeV}
(5-)
139Pm6113978Promethium-139138.91680(15) u
[138.8833392 u]
{-77.5003 MeV}
(5/2)+139Sm
139mPm6113978Promethium-139m138.91680(15) u
[138.8833392 u]
{-77.5003 MeV}
(11/2)-
140Pm6114079Promethium-140139.916034(26) u
[139.8825732 u]
{-78.21383 MeV}
1+140Sm
140mPm6114079Promethium-140m139.916034(26) u
[139.8825732 u]
{-78.21383 MeV}
8-
141Pm6114180Promethium-141140.913555(15) u
[140.8800942 u]
{-80.523 MeV}
5/2+141Sm
141m1Pm6114180Promethium-141m1140.913555(15) u
[140.8800942 u]
{-80.523 MeV}
11/2-
141m2Pm6114180Promethium-141m2140.913555(15) u
[140.8800942 u]
{-80.523 MeV}
142Pm6114281Promethium-142141.912890(25) u
[141.8794292 u]
{-81.14244 MeV}
1+142Sm
142mPm6114281Promethium-142m141.912890(25) u
[141.8794292 u]
{-81.14244 MeV}
(8)-
143Pm6114382Promethium-143142.910938(3) u
[142.8774772 u]
{-82.96072 MeV}
5/2++ 3.80143Sm
147Eu
144Pm6114483Promethium-144143.912596(3) u
[143.8791352 u]
{-81.4163 MeV}
5-1.7148Eu
145Pm6114584Promethium-145144.912756(3) u
[144.8792952 u]
{-81.26726 MeV}
5/2+3.8145Sm
146Pm6114685Promethium-146145.914702(5) u
[145.8812412 u]
{-79.45458 MeV}
3-
147Pm6114786Promethium-147146.9151446(15) u
[146.8816838 u]
{-79.0423 MeV}
7/2++ 2.58147Nd
148Pm6114887Promethium-148147.917481(6) u
[147.8840202 u]
{-76.86595 MeV}
1-1.84(19)
148m2Pm6114887Promethium-148m2147.917481(6) u
[147.8840202 u]
{-76.86595 MeV}
5-,6-1.82(18)
149Pm6114988Promethium-149148.9183417(24) u
[148.8848809 u]
{-76.06422 MeV}
7/2+3.3(5)149Nd
150Pm6115089Promethium-150149.920990(22) u
[149.8875292 u]
{-73.59734 MeV}
(1-)
151Pm6115190Promethium-151150.921217(5) u
[150.8877562 u]
{-73.38589 MeV}
5/2+1.8(2)151Nd
152Pm6115291Promethium-152151.923505(28) u
[151.8900442 u]
{-71.25463 MeV}
1+152Nd
152m1Pm6115291Promethium-152m1151.923505(28) u
[151.8900442 u]
{-71.25463 MeV}
4-
152m2Pm6115291Promethium-152m2151.923505(28) u
[151.8900442 u]
{-71.25463 MeV}
(8)
153Pm6115392Promethium-153152.924156(10) u
[152.8906952 u]
{-70.64823 MeV}
5/2-153Nd
154Pm6115493Promethium-154153.92645(5) u
[153.8929892 u]
{-68.51138 MeV}
(3,4)154Nd
154mPm6115493Promethium-154m153.92645(5) u
[153.8929892 u]
{-68.51138 MeV}
(0-,1-)
155Pm6115594Promethium-155154.928137(5) u
[154.8946762 u]
{-66.93995 MeV}
5/2-155Nd
156Pm6115695Promethium-156155.931117(4) u
[155.8976562 u]
{-64.1641 MeV}
4(+)156Nd
157Pm6115796Promethium-157156.933121(8) u
[156.8996602 u]
{-62.29739 MeV}
(5/2-)
158Pm6115897Promethium-158157.936565(14) u
[157.9031042 u]
{-59.08932 MeV}
159Pm6115998Promethium-159158.939286(11) u
[158.9058252 u]
{-56.55473 MeV}
(5/2-)
160Pm6116099Promethium-160159.94310(21) u
[159.9096392 u]
{-53.00201 MeV}
(6-)
161Pm61161100Promethium-161160.94607(32) u
[160.9126092 u]
{-50.23547 MeV}
(5/2-)
162Pm61162101Promethium-162161.95022(32) u
[161.9167592 u]
{-46.36977 MeV}
(2+)
163Pm61163102Promethium-163162.95357(43) u
[162.9201092 u]
{-43.24927 MeV}
(5/2-)

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Pm-126~ 0.5 sAL
Pm-127~ 1 sAL
Pm-1281.0(3) sEC/β+128Nd
α → 124Pm
EC, p → 127Pr
100 %
?
?
12.53(36) MeV
2.94(50) MeV
AL
Pm-1292.4(9) sEC/β+129Nd
EC, p 129Pr
p → 128Nd
ca. 100 %
?
?
9.43(36) MeV

AL
Pm-1302.6(2) sEC/β+ → → 130Nd
EC, p → 129Pr
100 %
?
11.20(20) MeV
AL
Pm-1316.3(8) sEC/β+131Nd100 %8.11(20) MeVAL
Pm-1326.2(6) sEC/β+132Nd
EC, p → 131Pr
100 %
0.00005 %
9.80(15) MeV
AL
Pm-13313.5(21) sEC/β+133Nd100 %6.92(7) MeVAL
Pm-133m8.8 sEC/β+133Nd
Iso → 133Pm
?
?

129.7(7) keVAL
Pm-1345 sEC/β+134Nd100 %8.91(6) MeVAL
Pm-134m22(1) sEC/β+134Nd100 %+ x keVAL
Pm-13549(3) sEC/β+135Nd100 %6.616(8) MeVAL
Pm-135m45(4) sEC/β+135Nd100 %68.7+y keVAL
Pm-136107(6) sEC/β+136Nd100 %4.520 MeVYAL
Pm-136m300(50) sEC/β+136Nd100 %XAL
Pm-1372.4(1) minEC/β+137Nd100 %5.512(18) MeVAL
Pm-13810(2) sEC/β+138Nd100 %7.08(3) MeVAL
Pm-138m3.24(5) minEC/β+138Nd100 %+x keVAL
Pm-1394.15(5) minEC/β+139Nd100%4.51(3) MeVAL
Pm-139m0.18(2) sEC/β+139Nd
Iso → 139Pm
< 0.05 %
& gt; 99.95 %

188.7(3) keVAL
Pm-1409.2(2) sEC/β+140Nd100 %6.045(24) MeVAL
Pm-140m5.95(5) minEC/β+140Nd100 %+x keVAL
Pm-14120.90(5) minEC/β+141Nd100 %3.670(14) MeVAL
Pm-141m10.63(2) μs628.62(7) keVAL
Pm-141m22 µs2530.75(17) keVAL
Pm-14240.5(5) sEC/β+142Nd100 %4.808(24) MeVAL
Pm-142m2.0(2) msIso → 142Pm100 %883.17 (16) keVAL
Pm-143265(7) dEC/β+143Nd100 %3.443(4) MeVAL
Pm-144363(14) dEC/β+144Nd100 %2.332(3) MeVAL
Pm-14517.7(4) aEC → 145Nd
α → 141Pr
> 99 %
<< 1 %
0.164(3) MeV
2.3232(29) MeV
AL
Pm-1465.53(5) aEC → 146Nd
β-146Sm
65.7(15) %
34.3(15) %
1.472(5) MeV
1.542(3) MeV
AL
Pm-1472.6234(2) aβ-147Sm100 %0.22409(28) MeVAL
Pm-1485.368(7) dβ-148Sm100 %2.471(6) MeVAL
Pm-148m241.29(11) dβ-148Sm
Iso → 148Pm
95.8(6) %
4.2(6) %
2.6 MeV
0.137 MeV
137.9(3) keVAL
Pm-14953.08(5) hβ-149Sm100 %1.0715(19) MeVAL
Pm-1502.698(15) hβ-150Sm100 %3.454(20) MeVAL
Pm-15128.40(4) hβ-151Sm100 %1.190(4) MeVAL
Pm-1524.12(8) minβ-152Sm100 %3.508(26) MeVAL
Pm-152m17.52(8) minβ-152Sm100 %150(9) keVAL
Pm-152m213.8(2) minβ-152Sm
Iso → 152Pm
> 99 %
<< 1 %

150+x keVAL
Pm-1535.25(2) minβ-153Sm100 %1.912(9) MeVAL
Pm-1542.68(7) minβ-154Sm100 %3.940(5) MeVAL
Pm-154m1.73(10) minβ-154Sm100 %+x keVAL
Pm-15541.5(2) sβ-155Sm100 %3.251(5) MeVAL
Pm-15626.70(10) sβ-156Sm100 %5.197(9) MeVAL
Pm-15710.56(10) sβ-157Sm100 %4.381(8) MeVAL
Pm-1584.8(5) sβ-158Sm100 %6.161(14) MeVAL
Pm-1591.5(2) sβ-159Sm100 %5.653(12) MeVAL
Pm-1600.73(6) sβ-160Sm
β-, n → 159Sm
100 %
?
7.23(20) MeV
1.13(20) MeV
AL
Pm-1611.05(15) sβ-161Sm
β-, n → 160Sm
100 %
?
6.44(30) MeV
1.93(30) MeV
AL
Pm-1620.63(18) sβ-162Sm
β-, n → 161Sm
100 %
?
8.16(36) MeV
2.23(30) MeV
AL
Pm-1630.43(35) sβ-163Sm
β-, n → 162Sm
100 %
?
7.47(50) MeV
3.21(44) MeV
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Promethium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Promethium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Promethium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Promethium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
143Pm

5/2+
+ 3,80- 3311,590,23510
3,1748
147Pm

7/2+
+ 2,583,613+ 74,0(200)5,620,04827
2,7714

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Promethium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Pm-141+105 Bq10 Bq/g20.9 min
Pm-143106 Bq1 Bq/g0,2 TBq266.0 d
Pm-144106 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,04 TBq1.0 a
Pm-145107 Bq10 Bq/g10 TBq17.7 a
Pm-146106 Bq0,1 Bq/g5.5 a
Pm-147107 Bq1000 Bq/g40 TBq100 Bq cm-22.6 a
Pm-148105 Bq10 Bq/g5.4 d
Pm-148m+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,03 TBqPm-14841.1 d
Pm-149106 Bq1000 Bq/g6 TBq100 Bq/cm253.1 h
Pm-150105 Bq10 Bq/g2.7 h
Pm-151106 Bq100 Bq/g0,2 TBq28.4 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Promethium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Promethium: NMR properties - 143Pm-NMR, 147Pm-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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