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Isotopes of Protactinium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Protactinium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Protactinium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element protactinium are summarized under protactinium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 91 protons and, in the uncharged state, 91 electrons. The difference between each protactinium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Protactinium Isotopes

Natural terrestrial protactinium deposits consist practically 100% of the nuclide 231Pa; in addition, the isotope 234Pa and its nuclear isomeric nuclide 234mPa are found in small traces and as intermediate products of radioactive decay processes. All protactinium isotopes are unstable.

 

The relative atomic mass is given as 231.03588(2) u.

 

Isotope Table: Protactinium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
212Pa91212121Protactinium-212212.02318(8) u
[211.9732657 u]
{21.59203 MeV}
213Pa91213122Protactinium-213213.02111(8) u
[212.9711957 u]
{19.66384 MeV}
214Pa91214123Protactinium-214214.02092(8) u
[213.9710057 u]
{19.48685 MeV}
215Pa91215124Protactinium-215215.01918(8) u
[214.9692657 u]
{17.86605 MeV}
216Pa91216125Protactinium-216216.01911(6) u
[215.9691957 u]
{17.80085 MeV}
217Pa91217126Protactinium-217217.018324(17) u
[216.9684097 u]
{17.0687 MeV}
(9/2-)
217mPa91217126Protactinium-217m217.018324(17) u
[216.9684097 u]
{17.0687 MeV}
(23/2-)
218Pa91218127Protactinium-218218.020058(20) u
[217.9701437 u]
{18.68391 MeV}
219Pa91219128Protactinium-219219.01990(6) u
[218.9699857 u]
{18.53673 MeV}
9/2-
220Pa91220129Protactinium-220220.02170(5) u
[219.9717857 u]
{20.21342 MeV}
221Pa91221130Protactinium-221221.02187(6) u
[220.9719557 u]
{20.37177 MeV}
9/2-
222Pa91222131Protactinium-222222.02378(8) u
[221.9738657 u]
{22.15093 MeV}
226Np
223Pa91223132Protactinium-223223.02396(8) u
[222.9740457 u]
{22.3186 MeV}
227Np
224Pa91224133Protactinium-224224.025617(8) u
[223.9757027 u]
{23.86208 MeV}
(5-)228Np
225Pa91225134Protactinium-225225.02613(8) u
[224.9762157 u]
{24.33994 MeV}
229Np
226Pa91226135Protactinium-226226.027948(12) u
[225.9780337 u]
{26.03339 MeV}
230Np
227Pa91227136Protactinium-227227.028804(8) u
[226.9788897 u]
{26.83075 MeV}
(5/2-)231Np
228Pa91228137Protactinium-228228.031051(5) u
[227.9811367 u]
{28.92382 MeV}
3+3.5(5)232Np
229Pa91229138Protactinium-229229.032096(4) u
[228.9821817 u]
{29.89723 MeV}
(5/2+)233Np
229U
230Pa91230139Protactinium-230230.034540(3) u
[229.9846257 u]
{32.1738 MeV}
2-2.00(29)
231Pa91231140Protactinium-231231.0358826(19) u
[230.9859683 u]
{33.42443 MeV}
3/2-2.01(2)235Np
231U
231Th
232Pa91232141Protactinium-232232.038590(8) u
[231.9886757 u]
{35.94635 MeV}
(2-)236Np
233Pa91233142Protactinium-233233.0402466(14) u
[232.9903323 u]
{37.48947 MeV}
3/2-+ 3.4(8)237Np
233Th
234Pa91234143Protactinium-234234.043306(4) u
[233.9933917 u]
{40.33928 MeV}
4+234Th
234mPa91234143Protactinium-234m234.043306(4) u
[233.9933917 u]
{40.33928 MeV}
(0-)
235Pa91235144Protactinium-235235.045399(15) u
[234.9954847 u]
{42.2889 MeV}
(3/2-)235Th
236Pa91236145Protactinium-236236.048668(15) u
[235.9987537 u]
{45.33395 MeV}
1(-)236Th
237Pa91237146Protactinium-237237.051023(14) u
[237.0011087 u]
{47.52762 MeV}
(1/2+)
238Pa91238147Protactinium-238238.054637(17) u
[238.0047227 u]
{50.89404 MeV}
(3-)238Th
239Pa91239148Protactinium-239239.05726(21) u
[239.0073457 u]
{53.33735 MeV}
(3/2)
240Pa91240149Protactinium-240

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Pa-212ca. 5.1 msα → 208Ac100 %8.42(5) MeVAL
Pa-213ca. 5.3 msα → 209Ac100 %8.39(5) MeVAL
Pa-21417(3) msα → 210Ac≤ 100 %8.27(5) MeVAL
Pa-21514(2) msα → 211Ac100 %8.24(5) MeVAL
Pa-216ca. 0.15 sα → 212Ac
EC → 216Th
~ 98 %
~ 2 %
8.097(15) MeV
7.50(5) MeV
AL
Pa-2173.8(2) msα → 213Ac100 %8.489(4) MeVAL
Pa-217m1.08(3) msα → 213Ac
Iso → 217Pa
73(4) %
27(4) %

1854.7 KeVAL
Pa-218113(10) μsα → 214Ac100 %9.815(10) MeVAL
Pa-21953(10) nsα → 215Ac100 %10.08(5) MeVAL
Pa-2200.78(16) μsα → 216Ac
EC/β+220Th
> 99 %
<< 1 %
9.65(5) MeV
5.55(6) MeV
AL
Pa-2215.9(17) μsα → 217Ac100 %9.25(5) MeVAL
Pa-222ca. 2.9 msα → 218Ac100 %8.89(5) MeVAL
Pa-2235.1(6) msα → 219Ac100 %8.33(5) MeVAL
Pa-224846(20) msα → 220Ac100 %7.694(6) MeVAL
Pa-2251.7(2) sα → 221Ac100 %7.39(5) MeVAL
Pa-2261.8(2) minα → 222Ac
EC/β+226Th
74(5) %
26(5) %
6.987(10) MeV
2.836(12) MeV
AL
Pa-22738.3(3) minα → 223Ac
EC → 227Th
85(2) %
15(2) %
6.5804(21) MeV
1.026(8) MeV
AL
Pa-22822(1) hα → 224Ac
EC/β+228Th
1.85(17) %
98.15(17) %
6.2645(15) MeV
2.153(5) MeV
AL
Pa-2291.50(5) dα → 225Ac
EC → 229Th
0.48(5) %
99.52(5) %
5.835(4) MeV
0.311(4) MeV
AL
Pa-23017.4(5) dα → 226Ac
EC/β+230Th
β-230U
0.0032(1) %
92.2(7) %
7.8(7) %
5.4394(7) MeV
1.311(3) MeV
0.559(5) MeV
AL
Pa-2313.276(11) × 104 aα → 227Ac
SF div
ca. 100 %
<<< 1 %
5.1499(8) MeV
AL
Pa-2321.32(2) dβ-232U
EC → 232Th
ca. 100 %
?
1.337(7) MeV
0.500(8) MeV
AL
Pa-23326.975(13) dβ-233U100 %0.5703(20) MeVAL
Pa-2346.70(5) hβ-234U100 %2.194(4) MeVAL
Pa-234m1.159(11) minβ-234U
Iso → 234Pa
99.84(4) %
0.16(4) %

73.92+x keVAL
Pa-23524.4(2) minβ-235U100 %1.370(14) MeVAL
Pa-2369.1(1) minβ-236U
β-, SF div
100 %
selten
2.889(14) MeV
AL
Pa-2378.7(2) minβ-237U100 %2.137(13) MeVAL
Pa-2382.28(10) minβ-238U100 %3.586(16) MeVAL
Pa-2391.8(5) hβ-239U100 %2.76(20) MeVAL
Pa-240- ungelistet -AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Protactinium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Protactinium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Protactinium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Protactinium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
231Pa
100 %
3/2-
2,01(2)0,40-172,0(50)10,20,06903
1,1995

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Protactinium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Pa-227+106 Bq1000 Bq/g38.3 min
Pa-228+106 Bq10 Bq/g22.0 h
Pa-230+106 Bq10 Bq/g0,1 TBq1 Bq cm-217.4 d
Pa-231103 Bq0,01 Bq/g0,01 Bq cm-233000 a
Pa-232106 Bq10 Bq/g1.3 d
Pa-233107 Bq10 Bq/g0,4 TBq10 Bq cm-227.0 d
Pa-234106 Bq10 Bq/g6.8 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Protactinium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Protactinium: NMR properties - 231Pa-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - C. Fry, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2013), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.03.002.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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