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Isotopes of Rhodium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Rhodium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Rhodium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element rhodium are summarized under rhodium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 45 protons and, in the uncharged state, 45 electrons. The difference between each rhodium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Rhodium Isotopes

Only one isotope of rhodium occurs in nature: 103Rh, standard atomic mass 102.90550(2) u; it is one of the mononuclide elements.

 

All other known and characterized rhodium nuclides are unstable and have no meaning for technical applications.

 

Isotope Table: Rhodium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
89Rh458944Rhodium-8988.95077(39) u
[88.9260852 u]
{-45.85745 MeV}
7/2+
90Rh459045Rhodium-9089.94450(32) u
[89.9198152 u]
{-51.69792 MeV}
91Rh459146Rhodium-9190.93712(32) u
[90.9124352 u]
{-58.57234 MeV}
(9/2+)
91mRh459146Rhodium-91m90.93712(32) u
[90.9124352 u]
{-58.57234 MeV}
(1/2-)
92Rh459247Rhodium-9291.932368(5) u
[91.9076832 u]
{-62.9988 MeV}
(6+)92Ru
92mRh459247Rhodium-92m91.932368(5) u
[91.9076832 u]
{-62.9988 MeV}
(2+)
93Rh459348Rhodium-9392.9259128(28) u
[92.901228 u]
{-69.01178 MeV}
(9/2+)93Pd
94Rh459449Rhodium-9493.921730(4) u
[93.8970452 u]
{-72.90804 MeV}
(4+)94Pd
95Ag
94mRh459449Rhodium-94m93.921730(4) u
[93.8970452 u]
{-72.90804 MeV}
(8+)
95Rh459550Rhodium-9594.915898(4) u
[94.8912132 u]
{-78.34051 MeV}
9/2+95Pd
95mRh459550Rhodium-95m94.915898(4) u
[94.8912132 u]
{-78.34051 MeV}
(1/2)-
96Rh459651Rhodium-9695.914452(11) u
[95.8897672 u]
{-79.68745 MeV}
6+96Pd
96mRh459651Rhodium-96m95.914452(11) u
[95.8897672 u]
{-79.68745 MeV}
3+
97Rh459752Rhodium-9796.91133(4) u
[96.8866452 u]
{-82.59557 MeV}
9/2+97Pd
98Ag
97mRh459752Rhodium-97m96.91133(4) u
[96.8866452 u]
{-82.59557 MeV}
1/2-
98Rh459853Rhodium-9897.910708(13) u
[97.8860232 u]
{-83.17496 MeV}
(2)+98Pd
98mRh459853Rhodium-98m97.910708(13) u
[97.8860232 u]
{-83.17496 MeV}
(5+)
99Rh459954Rhodium-9998.908125(7) u
[98.8834402 u]
{-85.58101 MeV}
1/2-99Pd
99mRh459954Rhodium-99m98.908125(7) u
[98.8834402 u]
{-85.58101 MeV}
9/2+5.62(6)
100Rh4510055Rhodium-10099.908114(19) u
[99.8834292 u]
{-85.59126 MeV}
1-100Pd
100m1Rh4510055Rhodium-100m199.908114(19) u
[99.8834292 u]
{-85.59126 MeV}
(2)++4.324(8)
100m2Rh4510055Rhodium-100m299.908114(19) u
[99.8834292 u]
{-85.59126 MeV}
(5+)
100m3Rh4510055Rhodium-100m399.908114(19) u
[99.8834292 u]
{-85.59126 MeV}
(7+)+4.69(14)
101Rh4510156Rhodium-101100.906159(6) u
[100.8814742 u]
{-87.41233 MeV}
1/2-101Pd
101mRh4510156Rhodium-101m100.906159(6) u
[100.8814742 u]
{-87.41233 MeV}
9/2++ 5.43(6)
102Rh4510257Rhodium-102101.906834(7) u
[101.8821492 u]
{-86.78357 MeV}
(2-)0.5(4)
102mRh4510257Rhodium-102m101.906834(7) u
[101.8821492 u]
{-86.78357 MeV}
6(+)4.01(4)
103Rh4510358Rhodium-103102.90550(2) u
[102.8808152 u]
{-88.02618 MeV}
1/2-- 0.08829(3)103Pd
103Ru
103mRh4510358Rhodium-103m102.90550(2) u
[102.8808152 u]
{-88.02618 MeV}
7/2++ 4.50(5)
104Rh4510459Rhodium-104103.9066453(25) u
[103.8819605 u]
{-86.95934 MeV}
1+
104mRh4510459Rhodium-104m103.9066453(25) u
[103.8819605 u]
{-86.95934 MeV}
5+
105Rh4510560Rhodium-105104.9056878(27) u
[104.881003 u]
{-87.85125 MeV}
7/2+4.41(5)105Ru
105mRh4510560Rhodium-105m104.9056878(27) u
[104.881003 u]
{-87.85125 MeV}
1/2-
106Rh4510661Rhodium-106105.907286(6) u
[105.8826012 u]
{-86.36253 MeV}
1+2.55(3)106Ru
106mRh4510661Rhodium-106m105.907286(6) u
[105.8826012 u]
{-86.36253 MeV}
(6)+
107Rh4510762Rhodium-107106.906748(13) u
[106.8820632 u]
{-86.86368 MeV}
7/2+107Ru
107mRh4510762Rhodium-107m106.906748(13) u
[106.8820632 u]
{-86.86368 MeV}
1/2-
108Rh4510863Rhodium-108107.908715(15) u
[107.8840302 u]
{-85.03143 MeV}
1+108Ru
108mRh4510863Rhodium-108m107.908715(15) u
[107.8840302 u]
{-85.03143 MeV}
(5+)
109Rh4510964Rhodium-109108.908749(4) u
[108.8840642 u]
{-84.99976 MeV}
7/2+109Ru
109mRh4510964Rhodium-109m108.908749(4) u
[108.8840642 u]
{-84.99976 MeV}
3/2+
110Rh4511065Rhodium-110109.911080(19) u
[109.8863952 u]
{-82.82845 MeV}
(1+)
110mRh4511065Rhodium-110m109.911080(19) u
[109.8863952 u]
{-82.82845 MeV}
(6+)
111Rh4511166Rhodium-111110.911643(7) u
[110.8869582 u]
{-82.30402 MeV}
(7/2+)111Ru
112Rh4511267Rhodium-112111.91440(5) u
[111.8897152 u]
{-79.73589 MeV}
(1+)112Ru
112mRh4511267Rhodium-112m111.91440(5) u
[111.8897152 u]
{-79.73589 MeV}
(6+)
113Rh4511368Rhodium-113112.915440(8) u
[112.8907552 u]
{-78.76713 MeV}
(7/2+)113Ru
114Rh4511469Rhodium-114113.91872(8) u
[113.8940352 u]
{-75.71183 MeV}
1+114Ru
114mRh4511469Rhodium-114m113.91872(8) u
[113.8940352 u]
{-75.71183 MeV}
(7-)
115Rh4511570Rhodium-115114.920311(8) u
[114.8956262 u]
{-74.22983 MeV}
(7/2+)115Ru
116Rh4511671Rhodium-116115.92406(8) u
[115.8993752 u]
{-70.73765 MeV}
1+
116mRh4511671Rhodium-116m115.92406(8) u
[115.8993752 u]
{-70.73765 MeV}
(6-)
117Rh4511772Rhodium-117116.926036(10) u
[116.9013512 u]
{-68.89702 MeV}
(7/2+)
118Rh4511873Rhodium-118117.930340(26) u
[117.9056552 u]
{-64.88787 MeV}
119Rh4511974Rhodium-119118.932557(10) u
[118.9078722 u]
{-62.82275 MeV}
(7/2+)
120Rh4512075Rhodium-120119.93686(21) u
[119.9121752 u]
{-58.81453 MeV}
120mRh4512075Rhodium-120m119.93686(21) u
[119.9121752 u]
{-58.81453 MeV}
121Rh4512176Rhodium-121120.93961(66) u
[120.9149252 u]
{-56.25292 MeV}
122Rh4512277Rhodium-122121.94409(32) u
[121.9194052 u]
{-52.07983 MeV}
122mRh4512277Rhodium-122m121.94409(32) u
[121.9194052 u]
{-52.07983 MeV}
123Rh4512378Rhodium-123122.94701(43) u
[122.9223252 u]
{-49.35987 MeV}
124Rh4512479Rhodium-124123.95181(43) u
[123.9271252 u]
{-44.8887 MeV}
125Rh4512580Rhodium-125124.95491(54) u
[124.9302252 u]
{-42.00106 MeV}
126Rh4512681Rhodium-126125.95996(54) u
[125.9352752 u]
{-37.29702 MeV}
127Rh4512782Rhodium-127126.96347(64) u
[126.9387852 u]
{-34.02748 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Rh-89120 nsEC/β+89Ru
EC, p → 88Tc
p → 88Ru
?
?
?
12.40(47) MeV

AL
Rh-90150 nsAL
Rh-911.47(22) sEC/β+91Ru
β+, p → 90Tc
98.7 %
1.3(5) %
9.67(30) MeV
AL
Rh-91m1.46(11) sEC/β+91Ru
Iso → 91Rh
?
?

172.9(4) keV
Rh-924.66(25) sEC/β+92Ru
β+, p → 91Tc
98.1 %
1.9(1) %
11.302(5) MeV
AL
Rh-92m0.53(37) sEC/β+92Ru100 %+ X
Rh-9312.2(7) sEC/β+93Ru100 %8.205(3) MeVAL
Rh-9470.6(6) sEC/β+94Ru
ε, p → 93Tc
98.2(5) %
1.8(5) %
9.676(5) MeV
AL
Rh-94m25.8(2) sEC/β+94Ru100 %+x keV
Rh-955.02(10) minEC/β+95Ru100 %5.117(10) MeVAL
Rh-95m1.96(4) minEC/β+95Ru
Iso → 95Rh
12(5) %
88(5) %

543.3(3) keV
Rh-969.90(10) minEC/β+96Ru100 %6.393(10) MeVAL
Rh-96m1.51(2) minEC/β+96Ru
Iso → 96Rh
40(5) %
60(5) %

51.98(9) keV
Rh-9730.7(6) minEC/β+97Ru100 %3.52(4) MeVAL
Rh-97m46.2(16) minEC/β+97Ru
Iso → 97Rh
94.4(6) %
5.6(6) %

258.76(18) keV
Rh-988.72(12) minEC/β+98Ru100 %5.050(14) MeVAL
Rh-98m3.6(2) minEC/β+98Ru
Iso → 98Rh
11(5) %
89(5) %

+x keV
Rh-9916.1(2) dEC/β+99Ru100 %2.044(7) MeVAL
Rh-99m4.7(1) hEC/β+99Ru
Iso → 99Rh
> 99.84 %
< 0.16 %

64.4(5) keV
Rh-10020.8(1) hEC/β+100Ru100 %3.636(18) MeVAL
Rh-100m1214.0(20) ns74.782(14) keV
Rh-100m24.6(2) minEC/β+100Ru
Iso → 100Rh
ca. 1.7 %
ca. 98.3 %

107.60(20) MeV
Rh-100m3130(10) ns219.61(22) keV
Rh-1013.3(3) aEC → 101Ru100 %0.546(6) MeVAL
Rh-101m4.34(1) dEC → 101Ru
Iso → 101Rh
92.80(25) %
7.20(25) %

157.32(3) keV
Rh-102207.3(17) dEC/β+102Ru
β-102Pd
78(5) %
22(5) %
2.323(6) MeV
1.120(6) MeV
AL
Rh-102m3.742(10) aEC/β+103Ru
Iso → 102Rh
99.767(24) %
0.233(24) %

140.73(9) keV
Rh-103stableAL
Rh-103m56.114(9) minIso → 103Rh100 %39.753(6) keV
Rh-10442.3(4) sEC/β+104Ru
β-104Pd
0.45(10) %
99.55(10) %
1.136(3) MeV
2.4358(27) MeV
AL
Rh-104m4.34(3) minIso → 104Rh
β-104Pd
99.87(1) %
0.13(1) %

128.9679(5) keV
Rh-10535.36(6) hβ-105Pd100 %0.566(23) MeVAL
Rh-105m42.9(3) sIso → 105Rh100 %129.782(4) keV
Rh-10630.07(35) sβ-106Pd100 %3.545(5) MeVAL
Rh-106m131(2) minβ-106Pd100 %137(13) keV
Rh-10721.7(4) minβ-107Pd100 %1.5109(12) MeVAL
Rh-107m10 μs268.36(4) keV
Rh-10816.8(5) sβ-108Pd100 %4.492(14) MeVAL
Rh-108m6.0(3) minβ-108Pd
Iso → 108Rh
< 100 %
?

+x keV
Rh-10980.8(7) sβ-109Pd100 %2.607(4) MeVAL
Rh-109m1.66(4) μs225.873(19) keV
Rh-1103.35(12) sβ-110Pd100 %5.502(18) MeVAL
Rh-110m28.0(13) sβ-110Pd100 %+y keV
Rh-11111(1) sβ-111Pd100 %3.681(7) MeVAL
Rh-1123.6(3) sβ-112Pd100 %6.59(4) MeV+ XAL
Rh-112m6.76(12) sβ-112Pd100 %+y keV
Rh-1132.80(12) sβ-113Pd100 %4.824(10) MeVAL
Rh-1141.85(5) sβ-114Pd100 %7.78(7) MeVAL
Rh-114m1.85(5) sβ-114Pd100 %+x keV
Rh-1150.99(5) sβ-115Pd100 %6.197(15) MeVAL
Rh-1160.68(6) sβ-116Pd100 %9.10(7) MeVAL
Rh-116m0.57(5) sβ-116Pd100 %150 keV
Rh-1170.44(4) sβ-117Pd100 %7.527(11) MeVAL
Rh-118266 msβ-118Pd
β-, n → 117Pd
96.9(14) %
3.1(14) %
10.501(24) MeV
3.466(25) MeV
AL
Rh-119171(18) msβ-119Pd
β-, n → 118Pd
93.6(16) %
6.4(16) %
8.585(12) MeV
4.495(10) MeV
AL
Rh-120132 msβ-120Pd
β-, n → 119Pd
> 94.6 %
< 5.4 %
11.47(20) MeV
4.52(20) MeV
AL
Rh-120m0.294 μsIso → 120Rh100 %157.2(7) keV
Rh-121151 msβ-121Pd
β-, n → 120Pd
< 100 %
?
9.93(62) MeV
5.96(62) MeV
AL
Rh-122300 nsβ-122Pd
β-, n → 121Pd
β-, 2n → 120Pd
?
?
?
12.54(30) MeV
6.03(30) MeV
AL
Rh-122m0.82 μsIso → 122Rh100 %271.0(7) keV
Rh-12342(4) msβ-123Pd
β-, n → 122Pd
β-, 2n → 121Pd
100 %
?
?
11.07(88) MeV
7.18(40) MeV
AL
Rh-12430(2) msβ-124Pd
β-, n → 123Pd
β-, 2n → 122Pd
100 %
?
?
13.50(50) MeV
7.47(88) MeV
AL
Rh-12526.5(20) msβ-125Pd
β-, n → 124Pd
β-, 2n → 123Pd
100 %
?
?
12.12(64) MeV
8.32(58) MeV
AL
Rh-12619(3) msβ-126Pd
β-, n → 125Pd
β-, 2n → 124Pd
100 %
?
?
14.56(64) MeV
8.75(64) MeV
AL
Rh-12720 msβ-127Pd
β-, n → 126Pd
β-, 2n → 125Pd
100 %
?
?
13.15(78) MeV
9.76(72) MeV

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Rhodium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Rhodium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Rhodium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Rhodium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
103Rh
100 %
1/2-
- 0,08829(3)- 0,84681,34770,00003
0,0317

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Rhodium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Rh-99106 Bq10 Bq/g16.1 d
Rh-99m106 Bq10 Bq/g4.7 h
Rh-100106 Bq10 Bq/g20.8 h
Rh-101107 Bq1 Bq/g0,3 TBq3.2 a
Rh-101m107 Bq100 Bq/g4.3 d
Rh-102106 Bq0,1 Bq/g0,03 TBq2.9 a
Rh-102m106 Bq1 Bq/g0,1 TBq219.0 d
Rh-103m108 Bq10000 Bq/g900 TBq100 Bq cm-256.1 min
Rh-105107 Bq100 Bq/g0,9 TBq10 Bq cm-235.4 h
Rh-106m105 Bq10 Bq/g2.2 h
Rh-107106 Bq100 Bq/g21.7 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Rhodium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Rhodium: NMR properties - 103Rh-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - John W. Arblaster:
The Discoverers of the Rhodium Isotopes.
In: Platinum Metals Review, (2011), DOI 10.1595/147106711X555656.

[10] - A. M. Parker, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.06.001.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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