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Isotopes of Rubidium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Rubidium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Rubidium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element rubidium are summarized under rubidium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 37 protons and, in the uncharged state, 37 electrons. The difference between each rubidium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Rubidium Isotopes

Natural terrestrial deposits of rubidium consist of the two isotopes rubidium-85 (stable) and rubidium-87 (slightly radioactive) in the ratio 2.6:1 and the atomic mass 85.4678(3) u.

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Rubidium
Isotopic mixture
85,4678 u100 %
Isotope 85Rb84,91178974(3) u72,17(2) %stable5/2-
Isotope 87Rb86,909180531(6) u27,83(2) %4.97(3) × 1010 a3/2-

 

The unstable natural rubidium-87 decays and emits β-rays into the stable nuclide strontium-87. The Rb-87/Sr-87 isotope ratio can be used for radiometric age determination, for example in geology (rocks, magma).

In addition to the naturally occurring isotopes, 30 other unstable rubidium nuclides have been described.

 

Isotope Table: Rubidium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
71Rb377134Rubidium-7170.96532(54) u
[70.9450233 u]
{-32.30421 MeV}
5/2-~
72Rb377235Rubidium-7271.95908(54) u
[71.9387833 u]
{-38.11673 MeV}
3+~
73Rb377336Rubidium-7372.95053(21) u
[72.9302333 u]
{-46.08101 MeV}
(3/2-)
74Rb377437Rubidium-7473.944266(3) u
[73.9239693 u]
{-51.91589 MeV}
0+
75Rb377538Rubidium-7574.9385732(13) u
[74.9182765 u]
{-57.2187 MeV}
3/2(-)+0.579(1)
76Rb377639Rubidium-7675.935073(1) u
[75.9147763 u]
{-60.47911 MeV}
1(-)-0.372552(11)76Sr
76mRb377639Rubidium-76m75.935073(1) u
[75.9147763 u]
{-60.47911 MeV}
(4+)
77Rb377740Rubidium-7776.9304016(14) u
[76.9101049 u]
{-64.83049 MeV}
3/2-+0.65434(2)77Sr
78Rb377841Rubidium-7877.928142(3) u
[77.9078453 u]
{-66.9353 MeV}
0(+)
78m1Rb377841Rubidium-78m177.928142(3) u
[77.9078453 u]
{-66.9353 MeV}
(1-)
78m2Rb377841Rubidium-78m277.928142(3) u
[77.9078453 u]
{-66.9353 MeV}
4(-)+ 2.548(1)
79Rb377942Rubidium-7978.9239899(23) u
[78.9036932 u]
{-70.80295 MeV}
5/2++ 3.3573(12)79Sr
80Rb378043Rubidium-8079.9225164(20) u
[79.9022197 u]
{-72.17551 MeV}
1+- 0.0836(6)80Sr
80mRb378043Rubidium-80m79.9225164(20) u
[79.9022197 u]
{-72.17551 MeV}
(6+)+3.378(24)
81Rb378144Rubidium-8180.918994(5) u
[80.8986973 u]
{-75.4566 MeV}
3/2-+ 2.0591(14)81Sr
81mRb378144Rubidium-81m80.918994(5) u
[80.8986973 u]
{-75.4566 MeV}
9/2++5.5969(17)
82Rb378245Rubidium-8281.918209(3) u
[81.8979123 u]
{-76.18783 MeV}
1++0.554403(16)82Sr
82mRb378245Rubidium-82m81.918209(3) u
[81.8979123 u]
{-76.18783 MeV}
5-+1.5096(11)
83Rb378346Rubidium-8382.9151142(25) u
[82.8948175 u]
{-79.07061 MeV}
5/2-+ 1.4246(8)83Sr
83mRb378346Rubidium-83m82.9151142(25) u
[82.8948175 u]
{-79.07061 MeV}
9/2+
84Rb378447Rubidium-8483.9143752(24) u
[83.8940785 u]
{-79.75899 MeV}
2-- 1.325(2)
84mRb378447Rubidium-84m83.9143752(24) u
[83.8940785 u]
{-79.75899 MeV}
6-+0.212893(6)
85Rb378548Rubidium-8584.91178974(3) u
[84.8914931 u]
{-82.16733 MeV}
5/2-+1.35306(4)85Kr
85Sr
85mRb378548Rubidium-85m84.91178974(3) u
[84.8914931 u]
{-82.16733 MeV}
9/2++6.043(5)
86Rb378649Rubidium-8685.91116744(21) u
[85.8908708 u]
{-82.747 MeV}
2-- 1.6974(16)
86mRb378649Rubidium-86m85.91116744(21) u
[85.8908708 u]
{-82.747 MeV}
6-+ 1.8147(10)
87Rb378750Rubidium-8786.909180531(6) u
[86.8888839 u]
{-84.59779 MeV}
3/2-+ 2.75129(8)87Kr
87Sr
88Rb378851Rubidium-8887.91131559(17) u
[87.8910189 u]
{-82.609 MeV}
2-0.50751(2)88Kr
89Rb378952Rubidium-8988.912278(6) u
[88.8919813 u]
{-81.71252 MeV}
3/2-+ 2.3831(7)89Kr
90Rb379053Rubidium-9089.914799(7) u
[89.8945023 u]
{-79.36422 MeV}
0-90Kr
90mRb379053Rubidium-90m89.914799(7) u
[89.8945023 u]
{-79.36422 MeV}
3-+1.157(6)
91Rb379154Rubidium-9190.916537(8) u
[90.8962403 u]
{-77.74528 MeV}
3/2(-)+ 2.1811(15)91Kr
92Rb379255Rubidium-9291.919728(7) u
[91.8994313 u]
{-74.77289 MeV}
0-92Kr
93Kr
93Rb379356Rubidium-9392.922039(8) u
[92.9017423 u]
{-72.6202 MeV}
5/2-+ 1.4092(16)93Kr
94Kr
94Rb379457Rubidium-9493.9263948(22) u
[93.9060981 u]
{-68.5628 MeV}
3(-)+ 1.4981(18)94Kr
95Rb379558Rubidium-9594.929263(22) u
[94.9089663 u]
{-65.89109 MeV}
5/2-+ 1.333(3)95Kr
96Rb379659Rubidium-9695.934133(4) u
[95.9138363 u]
{-61.35472 MeV}
2(-)+ 1.4655(17)
97Rb379760Rubidium-9796.9371771(21) u
[96.9168804 u]
{-58.51915 MeV}
3/2++ 1.840(2)
98Rb379861Rubidium-9897.941632(17) u
[97.9213353 u]
{-54.36944 MeV}
(0,1)99Kr
98mRb379862Rubidium-98m97.941632(17) u
[97.9213353 u]
{-54.36944 MeV}
(3,4)+1.784(1)
99Rb379962Rubidium-9998.945119(4) u
[98.9248223 u]
{-51.12132 MeV}
(3/2+)
100Rb3710063Rubidium-10099.950352(21) u
[99.9300553 u]
{-46.24681 MeV}
(3+,4+)
101Rb3710164Rubidium-101100.95400(21) u
[100.9337033 u]
{-42.84872 MeV}
(3/2+)
102Rb3710265Rubidium-102101.95952(32) u
[101.9392233 u]
{-37.70688 MeV}
103Rb3710366Rubidium-103102.96392(43) u
[102.9436233 u]
{-33.6083 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Rb-71p → 70 KrAL
Rb-72< 1.5 μsp → 71KrAL
Rb-7381 nsEC/β+73Kr
p → 72Kr
?
?
10.47(20) MeV
AL
Rb-7464.776(30) msEC/β+74Kr100 %10.416(4) MeVAL
Rb-7519.0(12) sEC/β+75Kr100 %7.105(8) MeVAL
Rb-7636.5(6) sEC/β+76Kr
EC, α → 72Se
> 99 %
Spuren
8.535(4) MeV
AL
Rb-76m3.2(1) μs316.93(8) keV
Rb-773.78(4) minEC/β+77Kr100 %5.3390(24) MeVAL
Rb-7817.66(3) minEC/β+78Kr100 %7.243(3) MeVAL
Rb-78m10.91(4) μs46.84(14) keV
Rb-78m25.74(3) minEC/β+78Kr
Iso → 78Rb
91(2) %
9(2) %

111.19(22) keVAL
Rb-7922.9(5) minEC/β+79Kr100 %3.639(4) MeVAL
Rb-8033.4(7) sEC/β+80Kr100 %5.7179(20) MeVAL
Rb-80m1.63(4) μs493.9(5) keV
Rb-814.572(4) hEC/β+81Kr100 %2.23826 MeVAL
Rb-81m30.5(3) minEC/β+81Kr
Iso → 81Rb
2.4(6) %
97.6(6) %

86.31(7) keVAL
Rb-821.2575(2) minEC/β+82Kr100 %4.404(3) MeVAL
Rb-82m6.472(6) hEC/β+82Kr
Iso → 82Rb
> 99.67 %
< 0.33 %

69.0(15) keVAL
Rb-8386.2(1) dEC → 83Kr100 %0.9200(23) MeVAL
Rb-83m0.3 ms42.078(2) keV
Rb-8432.82(7) dEC/β+84Kr
β-84Sr
96.1(20) %
3.9(20) %
2.6804(22) MeV
0.8906(23) MeV
AL
Rb-84m20.26(4) minIso → 84Rb100 %463.59(8) keVAL
Rb-85stableAL
Rb-85m1.015 μsIso → 85Rb100 %514.0065(22) keV
Rb-8618.642(18) dEC/β+86Kr
β-85Sr
0.0052(5) %
99.9948(5) %
0.51867(20) MeV
1.7761(2) MeV
AL
Rb-86m1.017(3) minIso → 86Rb
β-85Sr
> 99.7 %
< 0.3 %

556.05(18) keVAL
Rb-874.97(3) × 1010 aβ-87Sr100 %0.282275(6) MeVAL
Rb-8817.773(11) minβ-88Sr100 %5.31262(16) MeVAL
Rb-8915.32(10) minβ-89Sr100 %4.497(5) MeVAL
Rb-90158(5) sβ-90Sr100 %6.584(7) MeVAL
Rb-90m258(4) sβ-90Sr
Iso → 90Rb
97.4(4) %
2.6(4) %

106.90(3) keVAL
Rb-9158.2(3) sβ-91Sr100 %5.907(9) MeVAL
Rb-924.48(3) sβ-92Sr
β-, n → 91Sr
99.98 %
0.0107(5) %
8.095(6) MeV
0.808(8) MeV
AL
Rb-935.84(2) sβ-93Sr
β-, n → 92Sr
98.61(7) %
1.39(7) %
7.466(9) MeV
2.1776(9) MeV
AL
Rb-942.702(5) sβ-94Sr
β-, n → 93Sr
89.5(4) %
10.5(4) %
10.2829(26) MeV
3.452(8) MeV
AL
Rb-95377.7(8) msβ-95Sr
β-, n → 94Sr
91.3(3) %
8.7(3) %
9.228(29) MeV
4.883(20) MeV
AL
Rb-96203(3) msβ-96Sr
β-, n → 95Sr
86.7(7) %
13.3(7) %
11.570(9) MeV
5.694(7) MeV
AL
Rb-97169.1(6) msβ-97Sr
β-, n → 96Sr
β-, 2n → 95Sr
74.5(9) %
25.5(9) %
?
10.062(4) MeV
6.334(9) MeV
AL
Rb-98114(5) msβ-98Sr
β-, n → 97Sr
β-, 2n → 96Sr
86.15 %
13.8(6) %
0.051(7) %
12.054(16) MeV
6.141(16) MeV
AL
Rb-98m96(3) msβ-98Sr100 %270 keVAL
Rb-9954(4) msβ-99Sr
β-, n → 98Sr
β-, 2n → 97Sr
81.2 %
19.8(20) %
?
11.400(6) MeV
7.131(5) MeV
AL
Rb-10051(8) msβ-100Sr
β-, n → 99Sr
β-, 2n → 98Sr
93.84 %
6(3) %
0.16(8) %
13.574(21) MeV
8.203(20) MeV
AL
Rb-10132(5) msβ-101Sr
β-, n → 100Sr
72(4) %
28(4) %
12.48(20) MeV
8.90(20) MeV
AL
Rb-10237(5) msβ-102Sr
β-, n → 101Sr
82(8) %
18(8) %
14.45(31) MeV
9.55(30) MeV
AL
Rb-10323 msβ-103Sr
β-, n → 102Sr
β-, 2n → 101Sr
13.81(45) MeV
10.48(41) MeV


 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Rubidium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Rubidium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Rubidium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Rubidium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
85Rb
72,17(2) %
5/2-
+1,35306(4)2,5923+ 27,6(1)4,12530,01061
1,1304
87Rb
27,83(2) %
3/2-
+ 2,75129(8)8,7851+ 13,35(5)13,98140,17704
1,6419

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Rubidium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Rb-79105 Bq10 Bq/g22.9 min
Rb-81+106 Bq10 Bq/g0,1 TBq4.6 h
Rb-81m+107 Bq1000 Bq/g30.3 min
Rb-82m106 Bq10 Bq/g6.5 h
Rb-83+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,1 TBq10 Bq -2Kr-83m86.2 d
Rb-84106 Bq1 Bq/g0,07 TBq33.5 d
Rb-86105 Bq100 Bq/g0,7 TBq10 Bq cm-218.6 d
Rb-87107 Bq10 Bq/gUnbegrenzt (UL)4.8 × 1010 a
Rb-88105 Bq10 Bq/g17.8 min
Rb-89105 Bq10 Bq/g15.4 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Rubidium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Rubidium: NMR properties - 85Rb-NMR, 87Rb-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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