About   |   More   |   Search

Isotopes of Rutherfordium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Rutherfordium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Rutherfordium isotopes

All of the atomic nuclei of the chemical element rutherfordium are summarized under rutherfordium isotopes; these consist of an atomic nucleus with 104 protons and in the uncharged state of 104 electrons. The difference between the individual rutherfordium isotopes lies in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

Rutherfordium is a radioactive chemical element that can only be observed in radioactive decay processes or is artificially produced and is unknown in nature. The first rutherfordium isotope was produced in the 1960s at the research center in Dubna, Russia, by bombarding plutonium with neon nuclei.

To date, a total of 16 different rutherfordium isotopes have been produced or observed, all of which are extremely short-lived.

 

Isotope Table: Rutherfordium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
253Rf104253149Rutherfordium-253253.10044(44) u
[253.0433966 u]
{93.55926 MeV}
(7/2+)
253mRf104253149Rutherfordium-253m253.10044(44) u
[253.0433966 u]
{93.55926 MeV}
254Rf104254150Rutherfordium-254254.10005(30) u
[254.0430066 u]
{93.19597 MeV}
0+
255Rf104255151Rutherfordium-255255.10127(12) u
[255.0442266 u]
{94.3324 MeV}
(9/2-)259Sg
256Rf104256152Rutherfordium-256256.101152(19) u
[256.0441086 u]
{94.22248 MeV}
0+260Sg
256m1Rf104256152Rutherfordium-256m1256.101152(19) u
[256.0441086 u]
{94.22248 MeV}
(5-)
256m2Rf104256152Rutherfordium-256m2256.101152(19) u
[256.0441086 u]
{94.22248 MeV}
(8-)
256m3Rf104256152Rutherfordium-256m3256.101152(19) u
[256.0441086 u]
{94.22248 MeV}
257Rf104257153Rutherfordium-257257.102918(12) u
[257.0458746 u]
{95.8675 MeV}
(1/2+)261Sg
257mRf104257153Rutherfordium-257m257.102918(12) u
[257.0458746 u]
{95.8675 MeV}
(11/2-)
258Rf104258154Rutherfordium-258258.10343(3) u
[258.0463866 u]
{96.34442 MeV}
0+
259Rf104259155Rutherfordium-259259.10560(8) u
[259.0485566 u]
{98.36577 MeV}
263Sg
260Rf104260156Rutherfordium-260260.10644(22) u
[260.0493966 u]
{99.14822 MeV}
0+
261Rf104261157Rutherfordium-261261.10877(5) u
[261.0517266 u]
{101.3186 MeV}
265Sg
261mRf104261157Rutherfordium-261m261.10877(5) u
[261.0517266 u]
{101.3186 MeV}
262Rf104262158Rutherfordium-262262.10993(24) u
[262.0528866 u]
{102.39914 MeV}
0+266Sg
263Rf104263159Rutherfordium-263263.1125(2) u
[263.0554566 u]
{104.79308 MeV}
264Rf104264160Rutherfordium-264
265Rf104265161Rutherfordium-265265.11668(39) u
[265.0596366 u]
{108.68672 MeV}
266Rf104266162Rutherfordium-266266.11817(50) u
[266.0611266 u]
{110.07465 MeV}
0+
267Rf104267163Rutherfordium-267267.12179(62) u
[267.0647466 u]
{113.44665 MeV}
13/2-271Sg
268Rf104268164Rutherfordium-268268.12397(77) u
[268.0669266 u]
{115.47731 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Rf-25311 (+3-6) msα → 249No
SF div
?
> 0 %
9.35(30) MeV
AL
Rf-253m48 (+17-10) μsα
SF
?
< 100 %

+y keVAL
Rf-25423(3) μsSF div.
α → 250No
> 98.5 %
< 1.5 %

9.21(20) MeV
AL
Rf-2551.68(19) sα → 251No
SF → div.
EC/β+255Lr
42(9) %
58(9) %
< 1 %
9.055(4) MeV

4.38(12) MeV
AL
Rf-2566.67(10) msα → 252No
SF → div
0.32(17) %
99.68(17) %
8.926(15) MeV
AL
Rf-256m125(2) μsIso → 256Rf
SF → div
?
?

1120 keV
Rf-256m217(2) μsIso → 256Rf
SF → div
?
?

1400 keV
Rf-256m327(5) μsIso → Rf256
SF → div
?
?

2200 keV
Rf-2574.4(3) sEC → 257Lr
SF → div.
α → 253No
19.4(14) %
1.3(3) %
79.3(14) %
3.20(5) MeV

9.083(8) MeV
AL
Rf-257m4.1(4) sEC → 257Lr
SF → div.
α → 253No
11(2) %
≤ 1.4 %
88(2) %


75 keVAL
Rf-25812.0(12) msα → 254No
SF → div
4.9(16) %
95.1(16) %
9.19(3) MeV
AL
Rf-2592.4(4) sα → 255No
SF → div.
EC → 259Lr
92(2) %
8(2) %
15(4) %
9.13(7) MeV

2.51(10) MeV
AL
Rf-26021(1) msSF div.≤ 100 %AL
Rf-26168(3) sα → 257No100 %8.65(5) MeVAL
Rf-261m1.9(4) sSF div.
α → 257No
73(6) %
27(6) %

234+x keVAL
Rf-2622.3(4) sSF div.≤ 100 %AL
Rf-26310(2) minSF div.
α → 259No
?
30 %

8.25(15) MeV
AL
Rf-264- unbekannt -AL
Rf-2651.0 minSF div.~ 100 %AL
Rf-26623 sSF div.AL
Rf-2672.5 hSF div.~ 100 %AL
Rf-2681.4 sSF div.AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Rutherfordium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Rutherfordium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Rutherfordium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Rutherfordium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Rutherfordium: NMR properties

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - G. N. Flerov et al.:
Synthesis and physical identification of the isotope of element 104 with mass number 260.
In: Physics Letters, (1964), DOI 10.1016/0031-9163(64)90313-0.

[10] - A. Ghiorso, M. Nurmia, J. Harris, K. Eskola, P. Eskola:
Positive Identification of Two Alpha-Particle-Emitting Isotopes of Element 104.
In: Physical Review Letters, (1969), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevLett.22.1317.

[11] - A. Ghiorso, M. Nurmia, K. Eskola, P. Eskola:
261Rf; new isotope of element 104.
In: Physics Letters B, (1970), DOI 10.1016/0370-2693(70)90595-2.

[12] - L. P. Somerville, M. J. Nurmia, J. M. Nitschke, A. Ghiorso:
Spontaneous fission of rutherfordium isotopes.
In: Physical Review C, (1975), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.31.1801.

[13] - Yu. A. Lazarev et al.:
Decay properties of 257No, 261Rf, and 262Rf.
In: Physical Review C, (1996), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.62.064307.

[14] - M. R. Lane et al.:
Spontaneous fission properties of 104262Rf.
In: Physical Review C, (1996), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.53.2893.

[15] - F. P. Heßberger et al.:
Spontaneous fission and alpha-decay properties of neutron deficient isotopes 257-253104 and 258106.
In: Zeitschrift für Physik A, (1997), DOI 10.1007/s002180050422.

[16] - J. M. Gates et al.:
Synthesis of rutherfordium isotopes in the 238U(26Mg, xn)264-xRf reaction and study of their decay properties.
In: Physical Review C, (2008), DOI 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034603.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



© 1996 - 2022 Internetchemistry




I agree!

This site uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies! Learn more ...