About   |   More   |   Search

Isotopes of Sulfur

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Sulfur as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Sulfur isotopes

A total of 25 different isotopes of the chemical element sulfur (sulphur) are known, of which 4 occur in nature as stable nuclides and traces of the unstable 35S:

 

Naturally Occurring Sulfur Isotopes

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Sulfur
Isotopic mixture
32,06 u100 %
Isotope 32S31,972071174(9) u94,9 %stable0+
Isotope 33S32,971458910(9) u0,7 %stable3/2+
Isotope 34S33,9678670(3) u4,3 %stable0+
Isotope 35S34,96903232(4) utraces87.37(4) d3/2+
Isotope 36S35,967081(2) u0,01 %stable0+

 

Due to the fluctuations in the isotopic composition of natural sulfur, the atomic mass varies between 32.059 and 32.076 u.

The high proportion of the sulfur isotope 32 is due to nucleogenesis during the alpha process in exploding type II supernovae, producing large amounts Sulfur-32 are formed from carbon-12 and 5 helium nuclei.

The radioisotopes of sulfur have half-lives of 87 days (35S) over 170 minutes (38S) down to the millisecond range. The longest-lived radioactive sulfur nuclide 35 is formed by the action of cosmic rays on argon-40 atoms in the atmosphere.

 

Isotope Table: Sulfur

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
26S162610Sulfur-2626.02907(64) u
[26.0202928 u]
{27.07853 MeV}
0+
27S162711Sulfur-2727.01828(43) u
[27.0095028 u]
{17.02771 MeV}
(5/2+)
28S162812Sulfur-2828.00437(17) u
[27.9955928 u]
{4.07063 MeV}
0+
29S162913Sulfur-2928.99661(5) u
[28.9878328 u]
{-3.15776 MeV}
(5/2+)
30S163014Sulfur-3029.98490677(22) u
[29.9761296 u]
{-14.05925 MeV}
0+31Ar
31S163115Sulfur-3130.97955701(25) u
[30.9707798 u]
{-19.04252 MeV}
1/2+0.48793(8)32Ar
31Cl
32S163216Sulfur-3231.972071174(9) u
[31.963294 u]
{-26.01553 MeV}
0+33Ar
32Cl
32P
36K
33S163317Sulfur-3332.971458910(9) u
[32.9626817 u]
{-26.58585 MeV}
3/2++0.64325(2)33Cl
33P
34S163418Sulfur-3433.9678670(3) u
[33.9590898 u]
{-29.9317 MeV}
0+34Cl
34P
35S163519Sulfur-3534.96903232(4) u
[34.9602552 u]
{-28.84621 MeV}
3/2+(+) 1.00(4)35P
36S163620Sulfur-3635.967081(2) u
[35.9583038 u]
{-30.66385 MeV}
0+36P
36Cl
37S163721Sulfur-3736.97112551(21) u
[36.9623483 u]
{-26.89641 MeV}
7/2-37P
38P
38S163822Sulfur-3837.971163(8) u
[37.9623858 u]
{-26.86149 MeV}
0+38P
39P
39S163923Sulfur-3938.97513(5) u
[38.9663528 u]
{-23.16626 MeV}
(7/2)-39P
40P
40S164024Sulfur-4039.975483(4) u
[39.9667058 u]
{-22.83744 MeV}
0+40P
41P
41S164125Sulfur-4140.979593(4) u
[40.9708158 u]
{-19.009 MeV}
(7/2-)41P
42P
42S164226Sulfur-4241.981065(3) u
[41.9722878 u]
{-17.63784 MeV}
0+42P
43P
43S164327Sulfur-4342.986908(5) u
[42.9781308 u]
{-12.19512 MeV}
(3/2-)
43mS164327Sulfur-43m42.986908(5) u
[42.9781308 u]
{-12.19512 MeV}
(7/2-)- 1.110(14)
44S164428Sulfur-4443.990119(6) u
[43.9813418 u]
{-9.20409 MeV}
0+
44mS164428Sulfur-44m43.990119(6) u
[43.9813418 u]
{-9.20409 MeV}
0+
45S164529Sulfur-4544.99572(111) u
[44.9869428 u]
{-3.98679 MeV}
3/2-
46S164630Sulfur-4646.00037(54) u
[45.9915928 u]
{0.34465 MeV}
0+
47S164731Sulfur-47
48S164832Sulfur-4848.01370(64) u
[48.0049228 u]
{12.76147 MeV}
0+
49S164933Sulfur-4949.02264(72) u
[49.0138628 u]
{21.08902 MeV}
3/2-

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
S-2679 nsp ? 27.079 MeVAL
S-2715.5(15) msEC/β+27P
β+, p → 26Si
β+, 2p → 25Al
96.6 %
2.3(9) %
1.1(5) %
18.260 MeV
11.881 MeV
17.399 MeV
AL
S-28125(10) msEC/β+28P
ε, p → 27Si
79.3(20) %
20.7(20) %
11.222 MeV
9.169 MeV
AL
S-29188(4) msEC/β+29P
ε, p → 28Si
53(5) %
47(5) %
13.79550 MeV
11.044 MeV
AL
S-301.178(5) sEC/β+30P100 %6.13824 MeVAL
S-312.5534(18) sEC/β+31P100 %5.39752 MeVAL
S-32stableAL
S-33stableAL
S-34stableAL
S-3587.37(4) dβ-35Cl100 %0.167333(26) MeVAL
S-36stableAL
S-375.05(2) minβ-37Cl100 %4.86512(20) MeVAL
S-38170.3(7) minβ-38Cl100 %2.93690 MeVAL
S-3911.5(5) sβ-39Cl100 %6.63788 MeVAL
S-408.8(22) sβ-40Cl100 %4.62747 MeVAL
S-411.99(5) sβ-41Cl
β-, n → 40Cl

8.21844 MeV
0.3978 MeV
AL
S-421.016(15) sβ-42Cl
β-, n → 41Cl
> 96 %
< 4 %
7.23549 MeV
AL
S-43265(15) msβ-43Cl
β-, n → 42Cl
60(10) %
40(10) %
11.96(6) MeV
4.56(6) MeV
AL
S-43m415(5) nsIso → 43S100 %320.7(5) keV
S-44100(1) msβ-44Cl
β-, n → 43Cl
82(3) %
18(3) %
11.5054 MeV
7.23707 MeV
AL
S-44m2.619(26) μs1365.0(8) keV
S-4568(2) msβ-45Cl
β-, n → 44Cl
46 %
54 %
14.37016 MeV
8.54427 MeV
AL
S-4650(8) msβ-46Cl100 %14.20(54) MeVAL
S-4720 msβ- 47Cl
β-, n,2n,3n ?


AL
S-48200 nsβ- ? 48ClAL
S-49β- 49ClAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Sulfur isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Sulfur isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Sulfur isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Sulfur nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
33S
0,7 %
3/2+
+0,64325(2)2,055- 6,94(4)3,27170,00227
0,3842
35S
Spuren
3/2+
(+) 1,00(4)+ 4,83(3)

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Sulfur radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
S-35108 Bq100 Bq/g60 TBq100 Bq/cm287.3 d

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Sulfur nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Sulfur: NMR properties - 33S-NMR, 35S-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



© 1996 - 2022 Internetchemistry




I agree!

This site uses cookies. By using this website, you agree to the use of cookies! Learn more ...