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Isotopes of Thulium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Thulium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Thulium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element thulium are summarized under thulium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 69 protons and, in the uncharged state, 69 electrons. The difference between the individual thulium isotopes is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

Only one isotope of thulium occurs in nature: 169Tm, standard atomic mass 168 ,93422(2) u.

All other known and characterized thulium nuclides are unstable and have no meaning for technical applications.

 

Isotope Table: Thulium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
144Tm6914475Thulium-144143.97610(43) u
[143.9382514 u]
{-22.26271 MeV}
(10+)
145Tm6914576Thulium-145144.97039(21) u
[144.9325414 u]
{-27.58154 MeV}
(11/2-)
146Tm6914677Thulium-146145.96666(21) u
[145.9288114 u]
{-31.05601 MeV}
(5-)
147Tm6914778Thulium-147146.961380(7) u
[146.9235314 u]
{-35.9743 MeV}
11/2-
147mTm6914778Thulium-147m146.961380(7) u
[146.9235314 u]
{-35.9743 MeV}
3/2+
148Tm6914879Thulium-148147.958384(11) u
[147.9205354 u]
{-38.76505 MeV}
(10+)
149Tm6914980Thulium-149148.95289(21) u
[148.9150414 u]
{-43.88268 MeV}
(11/2-)
150Tm6915081Thulium-150149.95009(21) u
[149.9122414 u]
{-46.49087 MeV}
(6-)
150mTm6915081Thulium-150m149.95009(21) u
[149.9122414 u]
{-46.49087 MeV}
(10+)
151Tm6915182Thulium-151150.945493(21) u
[150.9076444 u]
{-50.77294 MeV}
(11/2-)151Yb
152Lu
155Lu
151m1Tm6915182Thulium-151m1150.945493(21) u
[150.9076444 u]
{-50.77294 MeV}
(1/2+)
151m2Tm6915182Thulium-151m2150.945493(21) u
[150.9076444 u]
{-50.77294 MeV}
(27/2-)
152Tm6915283Thulium-152151.94448(6) u
[151.9066314 u]
{-51.71655 MeV}
(2)-152Yb
156Lu
152m1Tm6915283Thulium-152m1151.94448(6) u
[151.9066314 u]
{-51.71655 MeV}
(9)+
153Tm6915384Thulium-153152.942057(13) u
[152.9042084 u]
{-53.97356 MeV}
(11/2-)6.93(11)153Yb
154Lu
157Lu
153mTm6915384Thulium-153m152.942057(13) u
[152.9042084 u]
{-53.97356 MeV}
(1/2+)
154Tm6915485Thulium-154153.941570(15) u
[153.9037214 u]
{-54.42719 MeV}
(2-)- 1.14(2)154Yb
158Lu
154mTm6915485Thulium-154m153.941570(15) u
[153.9037214 u]
{-54.42719 MeV}
9++5.91(5)
155Tm6915586Thulium-155154.939210(11) u
[154.9013614 u]
{-56.62552 MeV}
11/2-155Yb
159Lu
155mTm6915586Thulium-155m154.939210(11) u
[154.9013614 u]
{-56.62552 MeV}
1/2+
156Tm6915687Thulium-156155.938986(15) u
[155.9011374 u]
{-56.83417 MeV}
2-156Yb
157Tm6915788Thulium-157156.93697(3) u
[156.8991214 u]
{-58.71207 MeV}
1/2++ 0.476(15)157Yb
158Tm6915889Thulium-158157.936980(27) u
[157.8991314 u]
{-58.70275 MeV}
2-+ 0.042(17)158Yb
159Tm6915990Thulium-159158.93497(3) u
[158.8971214 u]
{-60.57505 MeV}
5/2++ 3.42(3)159Yb
160Tm6916091Thulium-160159.93526(4) u
[159.8974114 u]
{-60.30492 MeV}
1-+ 0.156(18)160Yb
160mTm6916091Thulium-160m159.93526(4) u
[159.8974114 u]
{-60.30492 MeV}
5
161Tm6916192Thulium-161160.93355(3) u
[160.8957014 u]
{-61.89778 MeV}
7/2++ 2.40(2)161Yb
161mTm6916192Thulium-161m160.93355(3) u
[160.8957014 u]
{-61.89778 MeV}
7/2-
162Tm6916293Thulium-162161.934001(28) u
[161.8961524 u]
{-61.47767 MeV}
1-+ 0.068(8)162Yb
162mTm6916293Thulium-162m161.934001(28) u
[161.8961524 u]
{-61.47767 MeV}
5+
163Tm6916394Thulium-163162.932658(6) u
[162.8948094 u]
{-62.72867 MeV}
1/2+- 0.082(1)163Yb
164Tm6916495Thulium-164163.933543(26) u
[163.8956944 u]
{-61.9043 MeV}
1++ 2.38(3)164Yb
164mTm6916495Thulium-164m163.933543(26) u
[163.8956944 u]
{-61.9043 MeV}
6-
165Tm6916596Thulium-165164.9324423(18) u
[164.8945937 u]
{-62.92959 MeV}
1/2+- 0.139(2)165Yb
166Tm6916697Thulium-166165.933560(12) u
[165.8957114 u]
{-61.88846 MeV}
2++ 0.0926(7)166Yb
166mTm6916697Thulium-166m165.933560(12) u
[165.8957114 u]
{-61.88846 MeV}
(6-)
167Tm6916798Thulium-167166.9328566(14) u
[166.895008 u]
{-62.54367 MeV}
1/2+- 0.197(2)167Yb
168Tm6916899Thulium-168167.9341779(18) u
[167.8963293 u]
{-61.31289 MeV}
3++ 0.227(11)
169Tm69169100Thulium-169168.93422(2) u
[168.8963714 u]
{-61.27368 MeV}
1/2+- 0.2316(15)169Yb
169Er
170Tm69170101Thulium-170169.9358065(9) u
[169.8979579 u]
{-59.79586 MeV}
1-+ 0.2468(12)
171Tm69171102Thulium-171170.9364351(10) u
[170.8985865 u]
{-59.21032 MeV}
1/2+- 0.2303(36)171Er
172Tm69172103Thulium-172171.938406(6) u
[171.9005574 u]
{-57.37444 MeV}
2-172Er
172mTm69172103Thulium-172m171.938406(6) u
[171.9005574 u]
{-57.37444 MeV}
(6+)
173Tm69173104Thulium-173172.939607(5) u
[172.9017584 u]
{-56.25572 MeV}
(1/2+)173Er
174Tm69174105Thulium-174173.94217(5) u
[173.9043214 u]
{-53.8683 MeV}
(4)-174Er
175Tm69175106Thulium-175174.94384(5) u
[174.9059914 u]
{-52.3127 MeV}
(1/2+)175Er
176Tm69176107Thulium-176175.94700(11) u
[175.9091514 u]
{-49.36918 MeV}
(4+)
177Tm69177108Thulium-177176.94904(32) u
[176.9111914 u]
{-47.46893 MeV}
(1/2+)
178Tm69178109Thulium-178177.95264(43) u
[177.9147914 u]
{-44.11556 MeV}
179Tm69179110Thulium-179178.95534(54) u
[178.9174914 u]
{-41.60052 MeV}

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Tm-1441.9 μsp → 143Er> 0 %AL
Tm-1453.17(20) μsp → 144Er100 %AL
Tm-14668(3) msp → 145Er
EC/β+146Er
?
?
13.27(20) MeV
AL
Tm-1470.58(3) sp → 146Er
EC/β+147Er
15(5) %
85(5) %

10.63(4) MeV
AL
Tm-147m0.36(4) msp → 146Er100 %68(6) keV
Tm-1480.7(2) sEC/β+148Er100 %12.714(14) MeV+x keVAL
Tm-1490.9(2) sEC/β+149Er
EC, p → 148Ho
ca. 99.8 %
ca. 0.2 %
9.86(20) MeV
AL
Tm-1502.20(6) sEC/β+150Er
EC, p → 149Ho
98.8 %
1.2 %
11.34(20) MeV
AL
Tm-150m5.2(3) msIso → 150Tm100 %671.3(10) keV
Tm-1514.17(11) sEC/β+151Er100 %7.494(25) MeVAL
Tm-151m16.6(20) sEC/β+151Er100 %+x keV
Tm-151m20.451(34) μsIso → 151Tm100 %2655.67(22) keV
Tm-1528.0(10) sEC/β+152Er100 %8.78(5) MeVAL
Tm-152m15.2(6) sEC/β+152Er100 %+x keV
Tm-1531.48(1) sEC/β+153Er
α → 149Ho
9(3) %
91(3) %
6.495(15) MeV
5.2483(14) MeV
AL
Tm-153m2.5(2) sEC/β+153Er
α → 149Ho
8(3) %
92(3) %

43.2(2) keV
Tm-1548.1(3) sEC/β+154Er
α → 150Ho
46(5) %
54(5) %
8.178(15) MeV
5.0938(26) MeV
AL
Tm-154m3.30(7) sα → 150Ho
EC/β+154Er
Iso → 154Tm
58(5) %
42(5) %
?


70(50) keV
Tm-15521.6(2) sEC/β+155Er
α → 151Ho
99.11(24) %
0.89(24) %
5.583(12) MeV
4.572(5) MeV
AL
Tm-155m45(3) sEC/β+155Er
α → 151Ho
> 98 %
< 2 %

41(6) keV
Tm-15683.8(18) sEC/β+156Er
α → 152Ho
99.936(10) %
0.064(10) %
7.377(28) MeV
4.345(7) MeV
AL
Tm-1573.63(9) minEC/β+157Er100 %4.7943 MeVAL
Tm-1583.98(6) minEC/β+158Er100 %6.6998 MeVAL
Tm-1599.13(16) minEC/β+159Er100 %3.991(28) MeVAL
Tm-1609.4(3) minEC/β+160Er100 %5.76(4) MeVAL
Tm-160m74.5(15) sEC/β+160Er
Iso → 160Tm
15(5) %
85(5) %

70(20) keV
Tm-16130.2(8) minEC/β+161Er100 %3.303(29) MeVAL
Tm-161m110(3) nsEC/β+161Er
Iso → 161Tm
?
?

78.20(3) keV
Tm-16221.70(19) minEC/β+162Er100 %4.857(26) MeVAL
Tm-162m24.3(17) sEC/β+162Er
Iso → 162Tm
19(4) %
81(4) %

+x keV
Tm-1631.810(5) hEC/β+163Er100 %2.439(7) MeVAL
Tm-1641.95(10) minEC/β+164Er100 %4.039(24) MeVAL
Tm-164m5.1(1) minEC/β+164Er
Iso → 164Tm
ca. 20 %
ca. 80 %

+x keV
Tm-16530.06(3) hEC/β+165Er100 %1.5920(19) MeVAL
Tm-1667.70(3) hEC/β+166Er100 %3.038(12) MeVAL
Tm-166m340(25) msIso → 166Tm100 %109+x keV
Tm-1679.25(2) dEC → 167Er100 %0.7475(17) MeVAL
Tm-16893.1(2) dEC/β+168Er
β-168Yb
99.990(7) %
0.010(7) %
1.6782(21) MeV
0.2690(19) MeV
AL
Tm-169stableAL
Tm-170128.6(3) dEC → 170Er
β-170Yb
0.131(10) %
99.869(10) %
0.3128(17) MeV
0.9681(8) MeV
AL
Tm-1711.92(1) aβ-171Yb100 %0.0965(10) MeVAL
Tm-17263.6(2) hβ-172Yb100 %1.881(6) MeVAL
Tm-172m132(7) μsIso → 172Tm100 %476.2(2) keV
Tm-1738.24(8) hβ-173Yb100 %1.295(4) MeVAL
Tm-1745.4(1) minβ-174Yb100 %3.08(4) MeVAL
Tm-17515.2(5) minβ-175Yb100 %2.38(5) MeVAL
Tm-1761.9(1) minβ-176Yb100 %4.12(10) MeVAL
Tm-17795(7) sβ-177Yb≤ 100 %3.52(30) MeVAL
Tm-178300 nsβ-178Yb?5.58(40) MeVAL
Tm-179160 nsβ-179Yb?4.94(54) MeVAL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Thulium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Thulium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Thulium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Thulium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
169Tm
100 %
1/2+
- 0,2316(15)- 2,1376- 1203,5310,00057
0,0829

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Thulium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Tm-162106 Bq10 Bq/g21.7 min
Tm-166106 Bq10 Bq/g7.7 h
Tm-167+106 Bq100 Bq/g0,6 TBq9.2 d
Tm-170106 Bq100 Bq/g20 TBq100 Bq cm-2128.6 d
Tm-171108 Bq1000 Bq/g300 TBq100 Bq cm-21.9 a
Tm-172106 Bq100 Bq/g63.6 h
Tm-173106 Bq100 Bq/g8.2 h
Tm-175+106 Bq10 Bq/g15.2 min

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Thulium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Thulium: NMR properties - 169Tm-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - C. Fry, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium and ytterbium isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2012.05.004.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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