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Isotopes of Zirconium

List, data and properties of all known isotopes of Zirconium as well as radioactive decay products and intermediate products.

 

Zirconium isotopes

All atomic nuclei of the chemical element zirconium are summarized under zirconium isotopes; these all consist of an atomic nucleus with 40 protons and, in the uncharged state, 40 electrons. The difference between each zirconium isotope is based on the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

 

Naturally Occurring Zirconium Isotopes

Zirconium, the second element of the titanium group, occurs naturally as a mixture of five isotopes, four of which are considered stable and one has a half-life of 20 x 100. 1018 years and is therefore radioactive.

The following table provides information about the natural isotope composition of zirconium:

Atomic Mass maQuantityHalf-lifeSpin
Zirconium
Isotopic mixture
91,224 u100 %
Isotope 90Zr89,90470(2) u51,45(4) %stable0+
Isotope 91Zr90,90564(2) u11,22(5) %stable5/2+
Isotope 92Zr91,90503(2) u17,15(3) %stable0+
Isotope 94Zr93,90631(2) u17,38(4) %stable0+
Isotope 96Zr95,90827(2) u2,80(2) %2.0(4) × 1019 a0+

 

Technically, zirconium isotopes are of little importance.

 

Isotope Table: Zirconium

 

Atomic Properties

Isotope
Nuclide
ZANNameAtomic Mass
[Nuclear Mass]
{Mass Excess}
Spin I
(h/2π)
μParent
123456789
78Zr407838Zirconium-7877.95615(43) u
[77.9342078 u]
{-40.84601 MeV}
0+
79Zr407939Zirconium-7978.94979(32) u
[78.9278478 u]
{-46.77031 MeV}
80Zr408040Zirconium-8079.94164(32) u
[79.9196978 u]
{-54.36199 MeV}
0+
81Zr408141Zirconium-8180.93831(10) u
[80.9163678 u]
{-57.46386 MeV}
(3/2-)
82Zr408242Zirconium-8281.931689(12) u
[81.9097468 u]
{-63.63129 MeV}
0+82Nb
83Zr408343Zirconium-8382.929241(7) u
[82.9072988 u]
{-65.91158 MeV}
(1/2-)83Nb
84Zr408444Zirconium-8483.923326(6) u
[83.9013838 u]
{-71.42137 MeV}
0+84Nb
85Zr408545Zirconium-8584.921443(7) u
[84.8995008 u]
{-73.17537 MeV}
7/2+85Nb
85mZr408545Zirconium-85m84.921443(7) u
[84.8995008 u]
{-73.17537 MeV}
(1/2-)
86Zr408646Zirconium-8685.916297(4) u
[85.8943548 u]
{-77.96884 MeV}
0+86Nb
87Mo
87Zr408747Zirconium-8786.914817(4) u
[86.8928748 u]
{-79.34745 MeV}
9/2+-0.894(5)87Nb
87mZr408747Zirconium-87m86.914817(4) u
[86.8928748 u]
{-79.34745 MeV}
1/2-+0.641(16)
88Zr408848Zirconium-8887.910221(6) u
[87.8882788 u]
{-83.6286 MeV}
0+88Nb
88mZr408848Zirconium-88m87.910221(6) u
[87.8882788 u]
{-83.6286 MeV}
8+-1.811(16)
89Zr408949Zirconium-8988.908882(3) u
[88.8869398 u]
{-84.87587 MeV}
9/2+- 1.045(6)89Nb
89mZr408949Zirconium-89m88.908882(3) u
[88.8869398 u]
{-84.87587 MeV}
1/2-+0.794(18)
90Zr409050Zirconium-9089.90470(2) u
[89.8827578 u]
{-88.77138 MeV}
0+90Nb
90Y
90m1Zr409050Zirconium-90m189.90470(2) u
[89.8827578 u]
{-88.77138 MeV}
5-6.25(13)
90m2Zr409050Zirconium-90m289.90470(2) u
[89.8827578 u]
{-88.77138 MeV}
8+-10.85(6)
91Zr409151Zirconium-9190.90564(2) u
[90.8836978 u]
{-87.89577 MeV}
5/2+- 1.3022(4)91Nb
91Y
91mZr409151Zirconium-91m90.90564(2) u
[90.8836978 u]
{-87.89577 MeV}
(21/2+)+9.82(8)
92Zr409252Zirconium-9291.90503(2) u
[91.8830878 u]
{-88.46399 MeV}
0+92Nb
92Y
93Zr409353Zirconium-9392.9064706(5) u
[92.8845284 u]
{-87.12207 MeV}
5/2+93Y
94Zr409454Zirconium-9493.90631(2) u
[93.8843678 u]
{-87.27167 MeV}
0+94Y
95Zr409555Zirconium-9594.9080403(9) u
[94.8860981 u]
{-85.65991 MeV}
5/2+1.13(2)95Y
96Zr409656Zirconium-9695.90827(2) u
[95.8863278 u]
{-85.44594 MeV}
0+96Y
97Zr409757Zirconium-9796.9109574(4) u
[96.8890152 u]
{-82.94265 MeV}
1/2+- 0.936(5)97Y
98Y
97mZr409757Zirconium-97m96.9109574(4) u
[96.8890152 u]
{-82.94265 MeV}
7/2+1.37(14)
98Zr409858Zirconium-9897.91273(9) u
[97.8907878 u]
{-81.29148 MeV}
0+98Y
99Y
252Cf
248Cm
99Zr409959Zirconium-9998.916671(11) u
[98.8947288 u]
{-77.62046 MeV}
(1/2+)- 0.929(4)99Y
100Y
100Zr4010060Zirconium-10099.918005(9) u
[99.8960628 u]
{-76.37785 MeV}
0+100Y
101Y
252Cf
248Cm
101Zr4010161Zirconium-101100.921453(9) u
[100.8995108 u]
{-73.16606 MeV}
(3/2+)-0.272(8)101Y
252Cf
248Cm
102Zr4010262Zirconium-102101.923147(9) u
[101.9012048 u]
{-71.58811 MeV}
0+102Y
242Pu
103Zr4010363Zirconium-103102.927197(10) u
[102.9052548 u]
{-67.81556 MeV}
(5/2-)103Y
252Cf
248Cm
104Zr4010464Zirconium-104103.929442(10) u
[103.9074998 u]
{-65.72435 MeV}
0+248Cm
252Cf
105Zr4010565Zirconium-105104.934015(13) u
[104.9120728 u]
{-61.46463 MeV}
(5/2+)
106Zr4010666Zirconium-106105.93714(46) u
[105.9151978 u]
{-58.55371 MeV}
0+
107Zr4010767Zirconium-107106.94162(120) u
[106.9196778 u]
{-54.38062 MeV}
108Zr4010868Zirconium-108107.94487(43) u
[107.9229278 u]
{-51.35326 MeV}
0+
109Zr4010969Zirconium-109108.95041(54) u
[108.9284678 u]
{-46.19279 MeV}
(5/2+)
110Zr4011070Zirconium-110109.95396(64) u
[109.9320178 u]
{-42.88598 MeV}
0+
111Zr4011171Zirconium-111110.95968(75) u
[110.9377378 u]
{-37.55784 MeV}
112Zr4011272Zirconium-112111.96370(75) u
[111.9417578 u]
{-33.81323 MeV}
0+

 

Radioactive Decay Properties

IsotopeRadioactive DecayAEExtern
Half-lifeDecay ModeProbabilityEnergy
1101112131415
Zr-78170 nsEC/β+78Y?11.32(50) MeVAL
Zr-7956(30) msEC/β+79Y
EC, p → 78Sr

?
11.05(31) MeV
AL
Zr-804.6(6) sEC/β+80Y
EC, p → 79Sr

?
6.79(30) MeV
AL
Zr-815.5(4) sEC/β+81Y
EC, p ? → 80Sr
98.8 %
0.12(2) %
8.25(9) MeV
AL
Zr-8232(5) sEC/β+82Y100 %4.433(12) MeVAL
Zr-8342(2) sEC/β+83Y
EC, p ? → 82Sr
> 99.9 %
?
6.294(20) MeV
AL
Zr-8425.8(5) minEC/β+84Y100 %2.473(7) MeVAL
Zr-857.86(4) minEC/β+85Y100 %4.667(20) MeVAL
Zr-85m10.9(3) sEC/β+85Y
Iso → 85Zr
> 0 %
< 100 %

292.2(3) keVAL
Zr-8616.5(1) hEC/β+86Y100 %1.314(15) MeVAL
Zr-871.68(1) hEC/β+87Y100 %3.671(4) MeVAL
Zr-87m14.0(2) sIso → 87Zr100 %335.84(19)AL
Zr-8883.4(3) dEC → 88Y100 %0.607(6) MeVAL
Zr-88m1.320 μsIso → 88Zr100 %2887.79(6) keV
Zr-8978.41(12) hEC/β+89Y100 %2.833(3) MeVAL
Zr-89m4.161(17) minEC/β+89Y
Iso → 89Zr
6.23(12) %
93.77(12) %

587.82(10) keVAL
Zr-90stableAL
Zr-90m1809.2(20) msIso → 89Zr100 %2319.00(1) keVAL
Zr-90m2131(4) ns3589.419(16) keV
Zr-91stableAL
Zr-91m4.35(14) μsIso → 91Zr100 %3167.3(4) keV
Zr-92stableAL
Zr-931.61(5) × 106 aβ-93Nb100 %0.098(15) MeVAL
Zr-94stableAL
Zr-9564.032(6) dβ-95Nb100 %1.1263(10) MeVAL
Zr-962.0(4) × 1019 aβ-, β- 96Mo0.16397(10) MeVAL
Zr-9716.749(8) hβ-97Nb100 %2.663(4) MeVAL
Zr-97m102.8(24) ns1264.35(16) keV
Zr-9830.7(4) sβ-98Nb100 %2.238(10) MeVAL
Zr-992.1(1) sβ-99Nb100 %4.715(16) MeVAL
Zr-1007.1(4) sβ-100Nb100 %3.420(11) MeVAL
Zr-1012.3(1) sβ-101Nb100 %5.726(9) MeVAL
Zr-1022.9(2) sβ-102Nb100 %4.717(9) MeVAL
Zr-1031.3(1) sβ-103Nb100 %7.213(10) MeVAL
Zr-1041.2(3) sβ-104Nb100 %6.095(10) MeVAL
Zr-105670(28) msβ-105Nb100 %8.451(13) MeVAL
Zr-106180(9) msβ-106Nb
β-, n → 104Nb
> 93 %
< 7 %
7.65(43) MeV
3.29(43) MeV
AL
Zr-107146(4) msβ-107Nb
β-, n → 106Nb
>77 %
≤ 23 %
9.34(112) MeV
3.75(112) MeV
AL
Zr-10877.4(22) msβ-108Nb
β-, n → 106Nb

?
8.19(40) MeV
4.30(40) MeV
AL
Zr-10956(3) msβ- ? 109Nb100 %10.50(57) MeVAL
Zr-11037.5(20) msβ-110Nb
β-, n → 109Nb
β-, 2n → 108Nb
100 %
?
?
9.42(103) MeV
5.73(65) MeV
AL
Zr-11124(5) msβ-111Nb
β-, n → 110Nb
β-, 2n → 109Nb

?
?
11.32(76) MeV
6.68(109) MeV
AL
Zr-1120.03 sβ-112Nb
β-, n → 111Nb
β-, 2n → 110Nb

?
?
10.46(76) MeV
6.99(76)
AL

 

Notes (related to the columns):

1 - nuclide, isotope symbol.
2 - Z = number of protons (atomic number).
3 - Mass number A.
4 - N = number of neutrons.
5 - Identification of the Zirconium isotope.
6 - Relative atomic mass of the Zirconium isotope (isotopic mass including electrons) and the mass of the atomic nucleus in square brackets (nuclear mass, nuclide mass without electrons), each related to 12C = 12.00000 [2]. In addition, the mass excess is given in MeV.
7 - Nuclear spin I, unit: h/2π.
8 - Nuclear magnetic moment μmag.
9 - Source nuclides: Possible, assumed or actual source nuclides (mother nuclides, parent nuclides). If applicable, the corresponding decay modes can be found in the data for the respective starting nuclide.
10 - Decay: Half-live of the Zirconium isotope (a = years; ; d = days; h = hours; min = minutes; s = seconds).
11 - Decay: type of decay into the respective daughter nuclides with n = neutron emission; p = proton emission; α = alpha decay; β- = beta minus decay with electron emission; EC = electron capture; β+ = positron emission; ε = β+ and/or EC; Iso = isomeric transition; CD = cluster decay; SF = spontaneous decay.
12 - Decay percentage in percent (%).
13 - Decay energy; Particle energy related to decay type.
14 - AE = Excitation energy for metastable nuclei.
15 - Other information and notes: AL = Adopted Levels (link to external data [1]).

Miscellaneous:

()- Numbers in brackets: uncertainty to represent the spread of the reported value.
~ - Theoretical values or systematic trends.
  - unlisted-: Nuclides that have already been mentioned in the literature but for some reason can no longer be found in the current nuclide tables because their discovery e.g. has not confirmed.

 

NMR active Zirconium nuclides

Nuclide
quantity 1)
spin
Nuclear magnetic
moment
μ/μN
Gyromagnetic
ratio
107 rad T-1 s-1
Quadrupole
moment
Q fm-2
Resonant
frequency
v0 bei 1 T
Relative
sensitivity
H0 = const.
v0 = const. 2)
91Zr
11,22(5) %
5/2+
- 1.3022(4)2,4975- 17,6(3)3,97480,00949
1,0892

1) Quantity Percentage of natural occurrence.

2) Related to 1H = 1,000.

 

Radiation Protection

According to the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2018, Germany), the following values (columns 1 to 7) apply to the handling of Zirconium radionuclides:

NuclideLimit ValueHASS limitSCDaughter NuclidesHalf-life
Zr-86+107 Bq100 Bq/g16.5 h
Zr-88106 Bq1 Bq/g0,02 TBq83.0 d
Zr-89+106 Bq10 Bq/g78.4 h
Zr-93(+)107 Bq10 Bq/g100 Bq cm-2Nb-93m1.5 × 106 a
Zr-95+106 Bq1 Bq/g0,04 TBq1 Bq cm-264.0 d
Zr-97+105 Bq10 Bq/g0,04 TBq1 Bq cm-2Nb-97, Nb-97m16.8 h

(HASS = High-Activity Sealed Radioactive Sources; SC = surface contamination)

 

Literature Sources and References

Properties of the Zirconium nucleides

[1] - NuDat: National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, based on ENSDF and the Nuclear Wallet Cards.

[2] - G. Audi et. al.: The NUBASE evaluation of nuclear and decay properties. Nuclear Physics, (2003), DOI 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2003.11.001.

[3] - Live Chart of Nuclides. Nuclear structure and decay data.

Zirconium: NMR properties - 91Zr-NMR

[4] - N. J. Stone: Table of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2005), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2005.04.001.

[5] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2008 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2008), DOI 10.1080/00268970802018367.

[6] - Pekka Pyykkö: Year-2017 nuclear quadrupole moments. Molecular Physics, (2018), DOI 10.1080/00268976.2018.1426131.

[7] - N. J. Stone: Table of recommended nuclear magnetic dipole moments. IAEA, (2019).

More sources:

[8] - Isotopic abundances, atomic weights and isotopic masses: see respective keyword.

[9] - A. Nystrom, M. Thoennessen:
Discovery of Yttrium, Zirconium, Niobium, Technetium, and Ruthenium Isotopes.
In: Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, (2012), DOI 10.1016/j.adt.2011.12.002.

 


Category: Isotopes

Last update: 05.07.2020



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