Biogas Chemistry

The chemistry and biochemistry of biogas.

Biogas is produced by anaerobic fermentation of organic materials (biomass) such as compost, organic waste, sewage sludge, manure, plant residues etc. Biogas is particularly suitable for energy production in so-called biogas plants.

Chemically, biogas is a flammable gas. It is composed very differently depending on the substrate employed and technical workup.

As main constituents generally occur methane and carbon dioxide. Other components are nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor. The interfering gases in the crude biogas (H2S, NH3 and CO2) are deposited prior to combustion.

The production of biogas is a microbial process that occurs in several stages. Starting materials are the carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the biomass. These are converted by the microorganisms through various metabolic pathways in biogas - in absence of oxygen (anoxic conditions; for example, anaerobic digestion).

The following list includes online available information on the chemistry and biochemistry of biogas.


General Information
Lecture Notes, Tutorials
Partial Information
Data and Databases

General Information

Biogas and Biofuels
Basic information - Format: PDF

Biogas Composition
Different sources of production lead to different specific compositions

Lecture Notes, Tutorials

Anaerobic Waste Treatment Fundamentals
Chemistry and microbiology - Format: PDF

Biochemical Conversion of Biomass
Biomethanation, fermentation etc. - Format: PDF

Bio-Chemical Process
From waste to energy - Format: PDF

Biogas - Green Energy
Process, design, energy supply, environment - Format: PDF

Biogas and Anaerobic Digestion
Fundamentals and applications. University of Florida - Format: PDF

Biogas Production Process
Basics - Format: PDF

Biogas Purification by Adsorption
... and novel washing systems - Format: PDF

Domestic Biogas Compact Course
Technology and mass-dissemination experiences from asia - Format: PDF

Microbiological Handbook
... for biogas plants - Format: PDF

Microbiological Process Optimization
... of biogas synthesis

Production of Biogas
... by anaerobic digestion - Format: PDF

Partial Information

Purification of Biogas
This review attempts to set out the procedures for removing hydrogen sulphide from biogas

Data and Databases

Biogas Production
Statistics. Eubia


American Biogas Council
ABC is the first anaerobic digestion (AD) industry association in the United States that represents a full range of anaerobic digestion technologies and projects, including farm-based digesters, centralized facilities processing a variety of municipal and industrial organic waste streams, and existing digesters at municipal wastewater treatment plants

European Biogas Association
EBA was founded 2009 as a Belgian non-profit organisation aiming to promote sustainable biogas production and use in Europe

European Biomass Industry Association

Related Books and Scientific Literature: Biogas Chemistry

Book recommendation

Dieter Deublein, Angelika Steinhauser

Biogas from Waste and Renewable Resources

The leading book on the market just got better: With ist unique approach covering all aspects of setting up and running a biogas plant, this new edition has been expanded to include recent advances in biomass processing.

The author is a key player in the field, who has designed numerous small- and industrial-scale biogas plants, and who is also a long-time lecturer on biogas production, thus combining didactical skill with real-life expertise. As such, he covers both the biological and technical aspects of biogas generation. The full range of biogas substrates and processing modes is explained, from agricultural and industrial waste to marine algae and sediment. On-site use of biogas for conversion into electricity, fuel and heat is also discussed, as are safety and regulatory issues. Many real-life examples of European biogas plants already in operation illustrate the contents, as do numerous schemes, diagrams and summary tables.

For this new edition, biogas analytics and quality control required for feeding biogas into natural gas networks are included, as is a completely new chapter on the microbiology of biogas-producing bacterial communities.

Wiley-VCH; 2010

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Entries: 18

Last update 16.11.2016

Keywords: Biogas chemistry, biochemistry, basics

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