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Amino acids

Information resources on the chemistry and biochemistry of the amino acids.

 

Amino acids are organic chemical compounds that contains both amine and carboxyl functional groups.

The following list provides information about the chemistry and biochemistry of amino acids and their derivatives in general - as well as data, properties and structures of individual compounds.

See also: Manufacturers of amino acids.



Content, Topics





Current Articles


New Antioxidant System Protects Single Cysteine
Scientists have discovered a periplasmic reducing system that protects single cysteine residues from oxidation.

Selenocysteine Formation
Secrets of a life-giving amino acid revealed by Yale researchers.



General Information


Amino Acid Collection
Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery. Florida State University

Amino Acids - Structures
Library of 3-D Molecular Structures

Side-by-Side Images of Amino Acids
Amino Acid Selector using the Chemscape Chime Plug-in

Urey-Miller Experiment
An overview - Format: PDF



Lecture Notes, Tutorials


Amino Acid Catabolism: Nitrogen
Lecture notes on molecular biochemistry. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Amino Acid Derivatives
Lecture notes on medical biochemistry

Amino Acid Information
A brief overview

Amino Acid Information
Lecture notes

Amino Acid Metabolism
Lecture notes on medical biochemistry

Amino Acids and Peptides
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Chemical Nature of the Amino Acids
Lecture notes on medical biochemistry

The Chemistry of Amino Acids
Learn the structure and chemistry of the amino acids that are found within proteins



Compounds


Amino Acid Properties
This list is provided as a study guide to help remind you of the properties of the side chains/R-groups of the twenty amino acids which are present in newly synthesized proteins

Amino Acid Repository
Individual properties of the 20 standard amino acids; Properties of amino acids in proteins. Jena Library of Biological Macromolecules

Amino acids
Database search form for amino acids and derivates: properties, safety data, available products etc.

Amino Acids
Data table: properties and structures. FU Berlin



Nomenclature


Nomenclature and Symbolism for Amino Acids and Peptides
Recommendations: IUPAC-IUB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN)



Synthesis, production


Strecker Synthesis
... is a preparation of α-aminonitriles, which are versatile intermediates for the synthesis of amino acids via hydrolysis of the nitrile

Synthesis of branched amino acids
Isonorstatine, Phenylisothreonine, Lactacystin Analogues, and Amino Polyols. Dissertation, 2007. University of Stuttgart

α-Amino Acids
α-Amino Acid synthesis by C-C coupling; Mechanisms, Literature



Biosyntheses


Amino Acid Biosynthesis
... of nonessential amino acids. LibreTexts Chemistry

Biosyntheses of Amino Acids
An introduction. LibreTexts Biology

Biosynthesis of Amino Acids
Reference pathway. Kegg

Lysine biosynthesis
Reference pathway. Kegg

Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
Reference pathway. Kegg

Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
Reference pathway. Kegg



Metabolism, metabolic pathways


Selenocompoun metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Arginine and proline metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

beta-Alanine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Cyanoamino acid metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Cysteine and methionine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

D-Amino acid metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Glutathione metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Histidine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Lysine degradation
Reference pathway. Kegg

Phenylalanine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Tryptophan metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Tyrosine metabolism
Reference pathway. Kegg

Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation
Reference pathway. Kegg



Analysis and Determination


Amino Acid Analysis
An Overview



Data and Databases


General Amino Acid information in table format
Standard pKa values; Hydrophobicity chart; Molecular weights and chemical composition; Chou - Fasman helix/sheet propensities; Amino acid codons; Amino Acid Names, three-letter and one-letter codes. Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank

PDB files
... of the amino acids



Journals


Amino Acids
... publishes contributions from all fields of amino acid and protein research: analysis, separation, synthesis, biosynthesis, cross linking amino acids, racemization/enantiomers, modification of amino acids as phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, glycosylation and nonenzymatic glycosylation, new roles for amino acids in physiology and pathophysiology, biology, amino acid analogues and derivatives, polyamines, radiated amino acids, peptides, stable isotopes and isotopes of amino acids. Applications in medicine, food chemistry, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, neurochemistry, pharmacology, excitatory amino acids are just some of the topics covered. Springer

Journal of Amino Acids
... was a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of amino acids. Publication discontinued. Hindawi, India



Dissertations


Green Synthesis
Sustainable bio- and organocatalytic syntheses of enantiomerically pure beta-amino acids and derivatives. University of Erlangen

Preparation of [beta]-amino acids and synthesis of [beta]-peptides with novel secondary structures
Dissertation 1999. ETH Zürich



Articles and Reports


Lost Miller-Urey experiment created more of life's building blocks
A classic experiment proving amino acids are created when inorganic molecules are exposed to electricity isn't the whole story, it turns out. The 1953 Miller-Urey Synthesis had two sibling studies, neither of which was published. Vials containing the products from those experiments were recently recovered and reanalyzed using modern technology

 


Last update: 09.11.2022



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