Aromatic Compounds

Benzene, aromaticity and aromatic compounds.

Originally fragrant substances were called aromatic compounds. Today, however, the term (Arene) is reserved for the chemical substances whose molecules are flat (planar) and ring-shaped (cyclic) and have conjugated double bonds. And: aromaticity - an attribute of aromatic compounds - is a chemical property associated with the extra stability of certain types of pi-systems.

Benzene is considered a model compound of aromatics, consisting of a ring of 6 carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms. Expand can be an aromatic ring with substitution reactions. Compounds having atoms other than carbon in a ring system, which satisfies the conditions of aromaticity are called heteroaromatics.

The following list shows online available information about the chemistry and physics of the aromatic compounds.


Lecture Notes, Tutorials
Historical Facts and Documents
Chemical Reactions
Environmental Chemistry
Toxicology and Medicinal Chemistry

Lecture Notes, Tutorials

Aromatic Compounds and Aromaticity
Lecture notes

Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Aromaticity and Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Lecture notes

Benzene and Aromatic Compounds
Organic chemistry hypertext

Benzene and Aromaticity
Lecture notes, MIT Open Courseware - Format: PDF

Benzene and Derivatives
Lecture notes on aromaticity

Benzene and Other Aromatic Compounds
Lecture notes: Aromaticity

Benzene Structure and the Aromatic Ring
Lecture notes

Bonding in Benzene
An orbital model for the benzene structure

Molecular Orbitals of Benzene
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Historical Facts and Documents

Kekulé structure for benzene

Sausage and Structural Formulae
August Kekulé, Bulletin de la Société Chimique de France, 3, 98 (1865)


Benzene and aromatic compounds
Searchable database

Benzene fact sheet
ToxFAQs™ for Benzene

Chemical Reactions

Aromatic Substitution Reactions I
Substitution Reactions of Benzene and Other Aromatic Compounds

Aromatic Substitution Reactions II
Electrophilic Substitution of Disubstituted Benzene Rings

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
PDF Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions I
Reactions of Benzene. Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions II
Substituent Effects: Relative Reactivities. Lecture notes - Format: PDF

… of aromatic and heteroaromatic rings. Best synthetic methods

… of benzene and aromatic compounds

… of aromatic compounds - Format: PDF

Reactions of Aromatic Compounds
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Reactions of Benzene
Organic chemistry eBook - Format: PDF

Reactions of Benzene
... and other aromatic compounds - Format: PDF

Substitution Mechanisms
Aromatic Substitution Reactions - Format: PDF

… and sulfation processes - Format: PDF

Environmental Chemistry

Environmental Information. Eco-USA

Chemical Profile: Benzene
. Scorecard

Consumer Factsheet on: Benzene
... in Ground Water & Drinking Water. EPA

Consumer Factsheet on: Chlorobenzene
... in ground water and drinking Water

Consumer Factsheet on: Ethylbenzene
... in ground water and drinking Water


Safety and Health Topics. OSHA

Medical Management Guidelines, MMGs. ATSDR

Toxicology and Medicinal Chemistry

… and other oromatics. Air toxics web site. EPA

Chronic toxicity summary


Analysis of an Elementary Reaction Mechanism for Benzene Oxidation in Supercritical Water
MIT Open Courseware - Format: PDF

Aromaticity in benzene-like rings
Examples of aromatic compounds

Catalytic C-H activation of benzene by plantinum(II)
A mechanistic study. Dissertation. ETH Zürch

Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Nitrogen-Benzene Plasma
Implications for the Destruction of Aromatic Compounds - Format: PDF

Related Books and Scientific Literature: Aromatic Compounds

Book recommendation

John E. McMurry, Eric E. Simanek

Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry

Written for the short course?where content must be thorough, but to-the-point, FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Sixth Edition, continues to provide an effective, clear, and readable introduction to the beauty and logic of organic chemistry. McMurry presents only those subjects needed for a brief course while maintaining the important pedagogical tools commonly found in larger books. With clear explanations, thought-provoking examples, and an innovative vertical format for explaining reaction mechanisms, FUNDAMENTALS takes a modern approach: primary organization is by functional group, beginning with the simple (alkanes) and progressing to the more complex. Within the primary organization, there is also an emphasis on explaining the fundamental mechanistic similarities of reactions. Through this approach, memorization is minimized and understanding is maximized. The sixth edition brings in new content that applies organic chemistry to students, for example all of the chapter openers have been changed and incorporate a model and photograph of an application of organic chemistry such as Taxol from the pacific yew tree. The book introduces a running application in the Interlude boxes and in the problems relating agricultural chemicals intended to unify the subject further for students. All of the problems have been reorganized by topic to make easier to assign and review. New problem categories have been added. The new problem categories are "In the Field with Agrochemicals" and "In the Medicine Cabinet" to reinforce the focus on applications.

Brooks Cole; 2006

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Last update 16.11.2016

Keywords: Aromaticity, aromatic, compounds, organic, chemistry, reactions

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