Chemistry and biochemistry of monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Monosaccharides (sugars) are organic chemical compounds and the most basic unit of carbohydrates. A disaccharide is a sugar composed of two monosaccharides.

With Sugar, we first of all connect the sweet-tasting table sugar - a double sugar called sucrose. Chemically the monosaccharides (simple sugars) form the basic building blocks of the carbohydrates. Same or different monosaccharides can combine to disaccharides (double sugars of two simple sugars), oligosaccharides (complex sugars) or polysaccharides (multiple sugars). They are the basis of the great diversity in carbohydrate chemistry.

Below you will find online available information and information sources to monosaccharides and disaccharides.


Current Articles
Lecture Notes, Tutorials
Special Information
Historical Facts and Documents
Chemical Reactions
Data and Databases
Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Current Articles

Sugars Found in the Gas Phase
The quest for sugars involved in origin of life; team from University of the Basque Country manage to isolate a sugar in gas phase for first time in history.

Lecture Notes, Tutorials

Lecture notes

Carbohydrates and Biochemistry
Lecture notes - Format: PDF

Chemistry of Sugars
Lecture notes. Rice University, USA - Format: PDF

Converting Fischer Projections of Sugars to Haworth Projections
Methods - Format: PDF

Drawing Sugar Structures
Fischer Projections, Haworth Structures and Chair Conformers - Format: PDF

Fischer Projection
A representation of a 3D molecule as a flat structure where a tetrahedral carbon is represented as two crossed lines - Format: PDF

Fischer Projections
Carbohydrate representations - Format: PDF

Furanose Forms
Cyclic forms of carbohydrates - Format: PDF

Online book: Essentials of Glycobiology, 2nd edition, 2009

Chemical Properties - Format: PDF

Glycobiology resources: basics; aldoses; ketoses; deoxy sugars; amino derivatives; acid/alchohol derivatives; uronic acids; glycosans/anhydro sugs; muramic acids; sialic acids; higher monosaccharides

Lecture notes

Structure of saccharides I
Lecture notes. University of Kiel, Germany - Format: PDF

Structure of saccharides II
Lecture notes. University of Kiel, Germany - Format: PDF

Structure of saccharides III
Lecture notes. University of Kiel, Germany - Format: PDF

Carbohydrates, Monosaccharides. Botany online

Sugars and Polysaccharides
Lecture notes in molecular biochemistry

Special Information

E. coli K-12 Pathways Class
Sugars and Polysaccharides

Shock Chemistry of Sugars
... and Implications for Delivery by Meteorites - Format: PDF

Historical Facts and Documents

History of Glycolysis
An Example of a Linear Metabolic Pathway. Rice University, USA - Format: PDF

Syntheses in the purine and sugar group
Nobel Lecture 1902, Emil Fischer. Nobel Foundation, Sweden - Format: PDF


Analysis of Reducing Sugars
... with Fehling’s Solution - Format: PDF


Chemical and physical properties


Nomenclature of Carbohydrates
IUBMB and IUPAC recommendations. Department of Chemistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK

Saccharide structure and nomenclature

Chemical Reactions

Oxidation reactions of sugars - Format: PDF

Reactions of Sugars
Ring Closure, Polymerization - Format: PDF

Reactions of saccharides and carbohydrates

Data and Databases

Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure DataBase

The CAZy database describes the families of structurally-related catalytic and carbohydrate-binding modules (or functional domains) of enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds. AFMB - CNRS - Universités Aix-Marseille I & II, France

Monosaccharide Database
MonoSaccharideDB aims to be a comprehensive reference resource for monosaccharide notation. DKFZ, Germany

Raman Spectra of Carbohydrates
SPECARB is an experimental database containing Raman spectra of carbohydrates

... is a carbohydrate-NMR database that combines CarbBank Complex Carbohydrate Structure Data (CCSD) with proton and carbon chemical shift values

USDA Database for the Added Sugars Content of Selected Foods
The Nutrient Data Laboratory has developed a Special Interest Table to provide data for the Added Sugars content of common foods, in support of nutrition research and monitoring objectives

Food Chemistry and Nutrition

Sugar chemistry
Food info and more


Carbohydrate Polymers
... covers the study and exploitation of carbohydrate polymers which have current or potential industrial application in areas such as food, textiles, paper, wood, adhesives, biodegradables, biorefining, pharmaceuticals, and oil recovery. Elsevier

Carbohydrate Research
... has gained a reputation for its high standard and wide scope which includes all aspects of carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry. Articles published in the journal cover sugars and their derivatives (also cyclitols, and model compounds for carbohydrate reactions), oligo- and polysaccharides, nucleosides, nucleotides, and glycoconjugates. Elsevier

Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry
... serves as an international forum for research advances involving the chemistry and biology of carbohydrates. Taylor and Francis Group, UK

Related Books and Scientific Literature: Monosaccharides

Book recommendation

Thisbe K. Lindhorst

Essentials of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

Concise yet complete, this is a succinct introduction to the topic, covering both basic chemistry as well as such advanced topics as high-throughput analytics and glycomics - in one handy volume. This improved and expanded 3rd edition features all-new material on combinatorial synthesis of carbohydrates and carbohydrate biodiversity, and each chapter now contains study questions for self-learning and classroom teaching. Didactically written by an experienced lecturer and graduate student advisor, the text is backed by practical examples and more than 150 study questions tailored to students' needs.

Wiley-VCH; 2007

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Entries: 39

Last update 30.04.2016

Keywords: Sugar, sugars, chemistry, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, structures

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