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Journal of Biological Chemistry

Current research reports and chronological list of recent articles..

The international scientific Journal of Biological Chemistry (JBC) publishes papers based on original research that are judged to make a novel and important contribution to understanding the molecular and cellular basis of biological processes.

The publisher is the ASBM. The copyright and publishing rights of specialized products listed below are in this publishing house. This is also responsible for the content shown.

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Additional research articles see Current Chemistry Research Articles. Magazines with similar content (biological chemistry):

 - Biological Chemistry,

Journal of Biological Chemistry - Abstracts

A new journal from ASBMB [Editorial]

If you have been reading my editorials, you'll know that I took on the position of Editor-in-Chief of JBC in July 2016 during a time of “massive change” and “shifting landscapes” in scientific publishing (1–3). My goals were to preserve the strengths of this venerable journal while anticipating the coming needs of the scientific community and how a scientific publication like JBC must evolve to serve them. We at JBC have approached these goals with an open mind about what's best for the future of JBC and, more broadly, science publishing. Today, I'm thrilled to announce an important milestone in this process: We have decided to launch a new journal!There are those of you who will say that the publishing landscape is sufficiently crowded … but wait: We are really excited about the opportunities presented by this new journal. Please read on about the features we have planned.All of the papers in this new journal will be immediately available free of charge upon acceptance.There will be no limits on words, figures, tables, or references in the research articles appearing in this new journal.The review process will be built on teams of editors who pledge their service to the journal, take ownership of journal policies, and are committed to rigorous scientific standards and rapid turnaround.This new journal will vow to help authors and readers advance their science by removing barriers to manuscript submission and ensuring wide dissemination of content.This new journal will not be tied to the status quo, but will...<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/703-SUX3nG4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Design and evaluation of bi- and trispecific antibodies targeting multiple filovirus glycoproteins [Microbiology]

Filoviruses (family Filoviridae) include five ebolaviruses and Marburg virus. These pathogens cause a rapidly progressing and severe viral disease with high mortality rates (generally 30–90%). Outbreaks of filovirus disease are sporadic and, until recently, were limited to less than 500 cases. However, the 2013–2016 epidemic in western Africa, caused by Ebola virus (EBOV), illustrated the potential of filovirus outbreaks to escalate to a much larger scale (over 28,000 suspected cases). mAbs against the envelope glycoprotein represent a promising therapeutic platform for managing filovirus infections. However, mAbs that exhibit neutralization or protective properties against multiple filoviruses are rare. Here we examined a panel of engineered bi- and trispecific antibodies, in which variable domains of mAbs that target epitopes from multiple filoviruses were combined, for their capacity to neutralize viral infection across filovirus species. We found that bispecific combinations targeting EBOV and Sudan virus (another ebolavirus), provide potent cross-neutralization and protection in mice. Furthermore, trispecific combinations, targeting EBOV, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus, exhibited strong neutralization potential against all three viruses. These results provide important insights into multispecific antibody engineering against filoviruses and will inform future immunotherapeutic discoveries.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/zToVcH9QOWU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Structure-function analyses unravel distinct effects of allosteric inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase on viral maturation and integration [Microbiology]

Recently, a new class of HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors with a dual mode of action, called IN-LEDGF/p75 allosteric inhibitors (INLAIs), was described. Designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction during viral integration, unexpectedly, their major impact was on virus maturation. This activity has been linked to induction of aberrant IN multimerization, whereas inhibition of the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction accounts for weaker antiretroviral effect at integration. Because these dual activities result from INLAI binding to IN at a single binding site, we expected that these activities co-evolved together, driven by the affinity for IN. Using an original INLAI, MUT-A, and its activity on an Ala-125 (A125) IN variant, we found that these two activities on A125-IN can be fully dissociated: MUT-A–induced IN multimerization and the formation of eccentric condensates in viral particles, which are responsible for inhibition of virus maturation, were lost, whereas inhibition of the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction and consequently integration was fully retained. Hence, the mere binding of INLAI to A125 IN is insufficient to promote the conformational changes of IN required for aberrant multimerization. By analyzing the X-ray structures of MUT-A bound to the IN catalytic core domain (CCD) with or without the Ala-125 polymorphism, we discovered that the loss of IN multimerization is due to stabilization of the A125-IN variant CCD dimer, highlighting the importance of the CCD dimerization energy for IN multimerization. Our study reveals that affinity for the LEDGF/p75-binding pocket is not sufficient to induce INLAI-dependent IN multimerization and the associated inhibition of viral maturation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/92VKHIJZdLM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Ligand-mediated protein degradation reveals functional conservation among sequence variants of the CUL4-type E3 ligase substrate receptor cereblon [Enzymology]

Upon binding to thalidomide and other immunomodulatory drugs, the E3 ligase substrate receptor cereblon (CRBN) promotes proteosomal destruction by engaging the DDB1–CUL4A–Roc1–RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase in human cells but not in mouse cells, suggesting that sequence variations in CRBN may cause its inactivation. Therapeutically, CRBN engagers have the potential for broad applications in cancer and immune therapy by specifically reducing protein expression through targeted ubiquitin-mediated degradation. To examine the effects of defined sequence changes on CRBN's activity, we performed a comprehensive study using complementary theoretical, biophysical, and biological assays aimed at understanding CRBN's nonprimate sequence variations. With a series of recombinant thalidomide-binding domain (TBD) proteins, we show that CRBN sequence variants retain their drug-binding properties to both classical immunomodulatory drugs and dBET1, a chemical compound and targeting ligand designed to degrade bromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) via a CRBN-dependent mechanism. We further show that dBET1 stimulates CRBN's E3 ubiquitin–conjugating function and degrades BRD4 in both mouse and human cells. This insight paves the way for studies of CRBN-dependent proteasome-targeting molecules in nonprimate models and provides a new understanding of CRBN's substrate-recruiting function.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/wT7vKkEpFO0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

The dopamine D2 receptor can directly recruit and activate GRK2 without G protein activation [Neurobiology]

The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) is a G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) that is critical for many central nervous system functions. The D2R carries out these functions by signaling through two transducers: G proteins and β-arrestins (βarrs). Selectively engaging either the G protein or βarr pathway may be a way to improve drugs targeting GPCRs. The current model of GPCR signal transduction posits a chain of events where G protein activation ultimately leads to βarr recruitment. GPCR kinases (GRKs), which are regulated by G proteins and whose kinase action facilitates βarr recruitment, bridge these pathways. Therefore, βarr recruitment appears to be intimately tied to G protein activation via GRKs. Here we sought to understand how GRK2 action at the D2R would be disrupted when G protein activation is eliminated and the effect of this on βarr recruitment. We used two recently developed biased D2R mutants that can preferentially interact either with G proteins or βarrs as well as a βarr-biased D2R ligand, UNC9994. With these functionally selective tools, we investigated the mechanism whereby the βarr-preferring D2R achieves βarr pathway activation in the complete absence of G protein activation. We describe how direct, G protein–independent recruitment of GRK2 drives interactions at the βarr-preferring D2R and also contributes to βarr recruitment at the WT D2R. Additionally, we found an additive interaction between the βarr-preferring D2R mutant and UNC9994. These results reveal that the D2R can directly recruit GRK2 without G protein activation and that this mechanism may have relevance to achieving βarr-biased signaling.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/xqmCN1odVMQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

The N-terminal domain of a tick evasin is critical for chemokine binding and neutralization and confers specific binding activity to other evasins [Cell Biology]

Tick chemokine-binding proteins (evasins) are an emerging class of biologicals that target multiple chemokines and show anti-inflammatory activities in preclinical disease models. Using yeast surface display, we identified a CCL8-binding evasin, P672, from the tick Rhipicephalus pulchellus. We found that P672 binds CCL8 and eight other CC-class chemokines with a Kd < 10 nm and four other CC chemokines with a Kd between 10 and 100 nm and neutralizes CCL3, CCL3L1, and CCL8 with an IC50 < 10 nm. The CC chemokine–binding profile was distinct from that of evasin 1 (EVA1), which does not bind CCL8. We also show that P672's binding activity can be markedly modulated by the location of a StrepII-His purification tag. Combining native MS and bottom-up proteomics, we further demonstrated that P672 is glycosylated and forms a 1:1 complex with CCL8, disrupting CCL8 homodimerization. Homology modeling of P672 using the crystal structure of the EVA1 and CCL3 complex as template suggested that 44 N-terminal residues of P672 form most of the contacts with CCL8. Replacing the 29 N-terminal residues of EVA1 with the 44 N-terminal residues of P672 enabled this hybrid evasin to bind and neutralize CCL8, indicating that the CCL8-binding properties of P672 reside, in part, in its N-terminal residues. This study shows that the function of certain tick evasins can be manipulated simply by adding a tag. We conclude that homology modeling helps identify regions with transportable chemokine-binding functions within evasins, which can be used to construct hybrid evasins with altered properties.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/KVia8Lhh494" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Distinct functions for the membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 in cell-free and cell-cell viral transmission and cell-cell fusion [Microbiology]

HIV-1 is spread by cell-free virions and by cell–cell viral transfer. We asked whether the structure and function of a broad neutralizing antibody (bNAb) epitope, the membrane-proximal ectodomain region (MPER) of the viral gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein, differ in cell-free and cell–cell-transmitted viruses and whether this difference could be related to Ab neutralization sensitivity. Whereas cell-free viruses bearing W666A and I675A substitutions in the MPER lacked infectivity, cell-associated mutant viruses were able to initiate robust spreading infection. Infectivity was restored to cell-free viruses by additional substitutions in the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of gp41 known to disrupt interactions with the viral matrix protein. We observed contrasting effects on cell-free virus infectivity when W666A was introduced to two transmitted/founder isolates, but both mutants could still mediate cell–cell spread. Domain swapping indicated that the disparate W666A phenotypes of the cell-free transmitted/founder viruses are controlled by sequences in variable regions 1, 2, and 4 of gp120. The sequential passaging of an MPER mutant (W672A) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells enabled selection of viral revertants with loss-of-glycan suppressor mutations in variable region 1, suggesting a functional interaction between variable region 1 and the MPER. An MPER-directed bNAb neutralized cell-free virus but not cell–cell viral spread. Our results suggest that the MPER of cell–cell-transmitted virions has a malleable structure that tolerates mutagenic disruption but is not accessible to bNAbs. In cell-free virions, interactions mediated by the CT impose an alternative MPER structure that is less tolerant of mutagenic alteration and is efficiently targeted by bNAbs.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/EOFnSCsDiJE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Two zinc-binding domains in the transporter AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes facilitate high-affinity binding and fast transport of zinc [Protein Structure and Folding]

Zinc is an essential metal in bacteria. One important bacterial zinc transporter is AdcA, and most bacteria possess AdcA homologs that are single-domain small proteins due to better efficiency of protein biogenesis. However, a double-domain AdcA with two zinc-binding sites is significantly overrepresented in Streptococcus species, many of which are major human pathogens. Using molecular simulation and experimental validations of AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes, we found here that the two AdcA domains sequentially stabilize the structure upon zinc binding, indicating an organization required for both increased zinc affinity and transfer speed. This structural organization appears to endow Streptococcus species with distinct advantages in zinc-depleted environments, which would not be achieved by each single AdcA domain alone. This enhanced zinc transport mechanism sheds light on the significance of the evolution of the AdcA domain fusion, provides new insights into double-domain transporter proteins with two binding sites for the same ion, and indicates a potential target of antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic Streptococcus species.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/YItEml3G3FY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Mass spectrometric evidence for neuropeptide-amidating enzymes in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genomics and Proteomics]

Neuropeptides constitute a vast and functionally diverse family of neurochemical signaling molecules and are widely involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is well-suited for the study of neuropeptide biochemistry and function, as neuropeptide biosynthesis enzymes are not essential for C. elegans viability. This permits the study of neuropeptide biosynthesis in mutants lacking certain neuropeptide-processing enzymes. Mass spectrometry has been used to study the effects of proprotein convertase and carboxypeptidase mutations on proteolytic processing of neuropeptide precursors and on the peptidome in C. elegans. However, the enzymes required for the last step in the production of many bioactive peptides, the carboxyl-terminal amidation reaction, have not been characterized in this manner. Here, we describe three genes that encode homologs of neuropeptide amidation enzymes in C. elegans and used tandem LC-MS to compare neuropeptides in WT animals with those in newly generated mutants for these putative amidation enzymes. We report that mutants lacking both a functional peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase and a peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase had a severely altered neuropeptide profile and also a decreased number of offspring. Interestingly, single mutants of the amidation enzymes still expressed some fully processed amidated neuropeptides, indicating the existence of a redundant amidation mechanism in C. elegans. All MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with the identifier PXD008942. In summary, the key steps in neuropeptide processing in C. elegans seem to be executed by redundant enzymes, and loss of these enzymes severely affects brood size, supporting the need of amidated peptides for C. elegans reproduction.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/ajwTzMQ_rck" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

LysMD3 is a type II membrane protein without an in vivo role in the response to a range of pathogens [Immunology]

Germline-encoded receptors recognizing common pathogen-associated molecular patterns are a central element of the innate immune system and play an important role in shaping the host response to infection. Many of the innate immune molecules central to these signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved. LysMD3 is a novel molecule containing a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain that has orthologs in humans, mice, zebrafish, flies, and worms. We found that the lysin motif (LysM) of LysMD3 is likely related to a previously described peptidoglycan-binding LysM found in bacteria. Mouse LysMD3 is a type II integral membrane protein that co-localizes with GM130+ structures, consistent with localization to the Golgi apparatus. We describe here two lines of mLysMD3-deficient mice for in vivo characterization of mLysMD3 function. We found that mLysMD3-deficient mice were born at Mendelian ratios and had no obvious pathological abnormalities. They also exhibited no obvious immune response deficiencies in a number of models of infection and inflammation. mLysMD3-deficient mice exhibited no signs of intestinal dysbiosis by 16S analysis or alterations in intestinal gene expression by RNA sequencing. We conclude that mLysMD3 contains a LysM with cytoplasmic orientation, but we were unable to define a physiological role for the molecule in vivo.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/3brrMU_yPMM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Hypoxanthine is a checkpoint stress metabolite in colonic epithelial energy modulation and barrier function [Metabolism]

Intestinal epithelial cells form a selectively permeable barrier to protect colon tissues from luminal microbiota and antigens and to mediate nutrient, fluid, and waste flux in the intestinal tract. Dysregulation of the epithelial cell barrier coincides with profound shifts in metabolic energy, especially in the colon, which exists in an energetically depleting state of physiological hypoxia. However, studies that systematically examine energy flux and adenylate metabolism during intestinal epithelial barrier development and restoration after disruption are lacking. Here, to delineate barrier-related energy flux, we developed an HPLC-based profiling method to track changes in energy flux and adenylate metabolites during barrier development and restoration. Cultured epithelia exhibited pooling of phosphocreatine and maintained ATP during barrier development. EDTA-induced epithelial barrier disruption revealed that hypoxanthine levels correlated with barrier resistance. Further studies uncovered that hypoxanthine supplementation improves barrier function and wound healing and that hypoxanthine appears to do so by increasing intracellular ATP, which improved cytoskeletal G- to F-actin polymerization. Hypoxanthine supplementation increased the adenylate energy charge in the murine colon, indicating potential to regulate adenylate energy charge–mediated metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells. Moreover, experiments in a murine colitis model disclosed that hypoxanthine loss during active inflammation correlates with markers of disease severity. In summary, our results indicate that hypoxanthine modulates energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells and is critical for intestinal barrier function.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/yujVLj8Frx8" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Alternative splicing variant of the scaffold protein APPL1 suppresses hepatic adiponectin signaling and function [Signal Transduction]

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic activities that include increasing the sensitivity of cells to insulin. Adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and leucine zipper motif (APPL1) stimulates adiponectin signaling and promotes adiponectin's insulin-sensitizing effects by binding to two adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, and the insulin receptor. In this study, we report an alternative splicing variant of APPL1 (APPL1sv) that is highly expressed in mouse liver, pancreas, and spleen tissues. The expression levels of APPL1sv in liver tissues were enhanced in a mouse model of obesity and diabetic dyslipidemia (i.e. db/db mice) and reduced in calorie-restricted mice compared with ad libitum–fed mice. APPL1sv overexpression or suppression inhibited or enhanced, respectively, adiponectin-stimulated phosphorylation of AMP protein kinase (AMPK) in mouse hepatocytes. We also found that APPL1sv binds to AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 under basal conditions and that adiponectin treatment reduces this binding. Overexpression of APPL1sv blocked adiponectin-induced interactions of APPL1 with the adiponectin receptors. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated and short hairpin RNA–based suppression of APPL1sv greatly reduced high fat diet–induced insulin resistance and hepatic glucose production in mice. Our study identifies a key suppressor of hepatic adiponectin signaling and insulin sensitivity, a finding that may shed light on identifying effective therapeutic targets for treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/ld3K9VN4nkg" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) liquid-liquid phase separation is mediated by &#x0237;ust a few aromatic residues [Molecular Biophysics]

Eukaryotic cells contain distinct organelles, but not all of these compartments are enclosed by membranes. Some intrinsically disordered proteins mediate membraneless organelle formation through liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS). LLPS facilitates many biological functions such as regulating RNA stability and ribonucleoprotein assembly, and disruption of LLPS pathways has been implicated in several diseases. Proteins exhibiting LLPS typically have low sequence complexity and specific repeat motifs. These motifs promote multivalent connections with other molecules and the formation of higher-order oligomers, and their removal usually prevents LLPS. The intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), a protein involved in motor neuron disease and dementia lacks a dominant LLPS motif, however, and how this domain forms condensates is unclear. Using extensive mutagenesis of TDP-43, we demonstrate here that three tryptophan residues and, to a lesser extent, four other aromatic residues are most important for TDP-43 to undergo LLPS. Our results also suggested that only a few residues may be required for TDP-43 LLPS because the α-helical segment (spanning ∼20 residues) in the middle part of the C-terminal domain tends to self-assemble, reducing the number of motifs required for forming a multivalent connection. Our results indicating that a self-associating α-helical element with a few key residues regulates condensate formation highlight a different type of LLPS involving intrinsically disordered regions. The C-terminal domain of TDP-43 contains ∼50 disease-related mutations, with no clear physicochemical link between them. We propose that they may disrupt LLPS indirectly by interfering with the key residues identified here.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/w4B7wKqgbNE" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Functional roles of the DNA-binding HMGB domain in the histone chaperone FACT in nucleosome reorganization [Gene Regulation]

The essential histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) promotes both nucleosome assembly and disassembly. FACT is a heterodimer of Spt16 with either SSRP1 or Pob3, differing primarily by the presence of a high-mobility group B (HMGB) DNA-binding domain furnished only by SSRP1. Yeast FACT lacks the intrinsic HMGB domain found in SSRP1-based homologs such as human FACT, but yeast FACT activity is supported by Nhp6, which is a freestanding, single HMGB-domain protein. The importance of histone binding by FACT domains has been established, but the roles of DNA-binding activity remain poorly understood. Here, we examined these roles by fusing single or multiple HMGB modules to Pob3 to mimic SSRP1 or to test the effects of extended DNA-binding capacity. Human FACT and a yeast mimic both required Nhp6 to support nucleosome reorganization in vitro, indicating that a single intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB module is insufficient for full FACT activity. Three fused HMGB modules supported activity without Nhp6 assistance, but this FACT variant did not efficiently release from nucleosomes and was toxic in vivo. Notably, intrinsic DNA-binding HMGB modules reduced the DNA accessibility and histone H2A–H2B dimer loss normally associated with nucleosome reorganization. We propose that DNA bending by HMGB domains promotes nucleosome destabilization and reorganization by exposing FACT's histone-binding sites, but DNA bending also produces DNA curvature needed to accommodate nucleosome assembly. Intrinsic DNA-bending activity therefore favors nucleosome assembly by FACT over nucleosome reorganization, but excessive activity impairs FACT release, suggesting a quality control checkpoint during nucleosome assembly.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/TTpY7HXGUpM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

SbnI is a free serine kinase that generates O-phospho-l-serine for staphyloferrin B biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus [Enzymology]

Staphyloferrin B (SB) is an iron-chelating siderophore produced by Staphylococcus aureus in invasive infections. Proteins for SB biosynthesis and export are encoded by the sbnABCDEFGHI gene cluster, in which SbnI, a member of the ParB/Srx superfamily, acts as a heme-dependent transcriptional regulator of the sbn locus. However, no structural or functional information about SbnI is available. Here, a crystal structure of SbnI revealed striking structural similarity to an ADP-dependent free serine kinase, SerK, from the archaea Thermococcus kodakarensis. We found that features of the active sites are conserved, and biochemical assays and 31P NMR and HPLC analyses indicated that SbnI is also a free serine kinase but uses ATP rather than ADP as phosphate donor to generate the SB precursor O-phospho-l-serine (OPS). SbnI consists of two domains, and elevated B-factors in domain II were consistent with the open–close reaction mechanism previously reported for SerK. Mutagenesis of Glu20 and Asp58 in SbnI disclosed that they are required for kinase activity. The only known OPS source in bacteria is through the phosphoserine aminotransferase activity of SerC within the serine biosynthesis pathway, and we demonstrate that an S. aureus serC mutant is a serine auxotroph, consistent with a function in l-serine biosynthesis. However, the serC mutant strain could produce SB when provided l-serine, suggesting that SbnI produces OPS for SB biosynthesis in vivo. These findings indicate that besides transcriptionally regulating the sbn locus, SbnI also has an enzymatic role in the SB biosynthetic pathway.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/fdLaJbgosZs" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Interferon down-regulation of miR-1225-3p as an antiviral mechanism through modulating Grb2-associated binding protein 3 expression [RNA]

Induction of interferons (IFNs) is a central event of antiviral innate immunity. As crucial posttranscriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) are important for IFN-mediated host defense. Although screening has indicated a substantial number of miRNAs to be differentially expressed after IFN stimulation, the detailed mechanisms of these miRNAs in the antiviral response are underexplored and of great significance. Here, we show that hsa-miR-1225-3p is specifically down-regulated by type I IFN through the IFN/JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Silencing endogenous miR-1225-3p inhibited infection by multiple IFN-susceptible viruses, including hepatitis C virus, Sendai virus, and Newcastle disease virus. In contrast, overexpression of miR-1225-3p impaired the antiviral effect of IFNs and facilitated viral infection. Regarding the mechanism, we identified growth factor receptor–bound protein 2–associated binding protein 3 (GAB3) as a direct target of miR-1225-3p. GAB3 expression was up-regulated by IFN, and overexpression of GAB3 demonstrated potent antiviral effects through enhancing IFN response and virus-triggered innate immune activation. Taken together, our findings reveal the biological function of miR-1225-3p for the first time and propose a novel antiviral regulation pathway in which miRNA and GAB3 participate. This study contributes to the understanding of host miRNA participation in antiviral processes of IFN.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/PLLXof4WaMY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Post-translational modification of type IV collagen with 3-hydroxyproline affects its interactions with glycoprotein VI and nidogens 1 and 2 [Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices]

Type IV collagen is a major component of the basement membrane and interacts with numerous other basement membrane proteins. Many of these interactions are poorly characterized. Type IV collagen is abundantly post-translationally modified with 3-hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), but 3-Hyp's biochemical role in type IV collagen's interactions with other proteins is not well established. In this work, we present binding data consistent with a major role of 3-Hyp in interactions of collagen IV with glycoprotein VI and nidogens 1 and 2. The increased binding interaction between type IV collagen without 3-Hyp and glycoprotein VI has been the subject of some controversy, which we sought to explore, whereas the lack of binding of nidogens to type IV collagen without 3-Hyp is novel. Using tandem MS, we show that the putative glycoprotein VI-binding site is 3-Hyp–modified in WT PFHR-9 type IV collagen, but not in PFHR-9 cells in which prolyl-3-hydroxylase 2 (P3H2) has been knocked out (KO). Moreover, we observed altered 3-Hyp occupancy across many other sites. Using amino acid analysis of type IV collagen from the WT and P3H2 KO cell lines, we confirm that P3H2 is the major, but not the only 3-Hyp–modifying enzyme of type IV collagen. These findings underscore the importance of post-translational modifications of type IV collagen for interactions with other proteins.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/D3TI6SExTIc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

A nuclease specific to lepidopteran insects suppresses RNAi [Enzymology]

More than 70% of all agricultural pests are insects in the order Lepidoptera, which, unlike other related insect orders, are not very sensitive to RNAi, limiting genetic studies of this insect group. However, the reason for this distinct lepidopteran characteristic is unknown. Previously, using transcriptome analysis of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis, we identified a gene, termed up56, that is up-regulated in response to dsRNA. Here we report that this Lepidoptera-specific gene encodes a nuclease that contributes to RNAi insensitivity in this insect order. Its identity was experimentally validated, and sequence analysis indicated that up56 encodes a previously uncharacterized protein with homologous sequences in seven other lepidopteran species. Its computationally predicted three-dimensional structure revealed a high structural similarity to human exonuclease I. Exposure to dsRNA in O. furnacalis strongly up-regulated this gene's expression, and the protein could digest single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), dsRNA, and dsDNA both in vitro and in vivo. Of note, we found that this up-regulation of up56 expression is faster than that of the gene encoding the key RNAi-associated nuclease Dicer. up56 knockdown in O. furnacalis significantly enhanced RNAi efficiency. Moreover, up56 overexpression in Drosophila melanogaster suppressed RNAi efficiency. Finally, up56 knockdown significantly increased the amount and diversity of small RNAs. Therefore, we renamed this protein RNAi efficiency–related nuclease (REase). In conclusion, we propose that REase may explain why lepidopterans are refractory to RNAi and that it represents a target for further research of RNAi efficiency in this insect order.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/Tt9c5L2jYYI" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Proteomics reveals novel protein associations with early endosomes in an epidermal growth factor-dependent manner [Signal Transduction]

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of proliferative signaling. EGFRs on the cell surface become activated upon EGF binding and have an increased rate of endocytosis. Once in the cytoplasm, the EGF·EGFR complex is trafficked to the lysosome for degradation, and signaling is terminated. During trafficking, the EGFR kinase domain remains active, and the internalized EGFR can continue signaling to downstream effectors. Although effector activity varies based on the EGFR's endocytic location, it is not clear how this occurs. In an effort to identify proteins that uniquely associate with the internalized, liganded EGFR in the early endosome, we developed an early endosome isolation strategy to analyze their protein composition. Post-nuclear supernatant from HeLa cells stimulated with and without EGF were separated on an isotonic 17% Percoll gradient. The gradient was fractionated, and early endosomal fractions were pooled and immunoisolated with an EEA1 mAb. The isolated endosomes were validated by immunoblot using antibodies against organelle-specific marker proteins and transmission EM. These early endosomes were also subjected to LC–MS/MS for proteomic analysis. Five proteins were detected in endosomes in a ligand-dependent manner: EGFR, RUFY1, STOML2, PTPN23, and CCDC51. Knockdown of RUFY1 or PTPN23 by RNAi indicated that both proteins play a role in EGFR trafficking. These experiments indicate that endocytic trafficking of activated EGFR changes the protein composition, membrane trafficking, and signaling potential of the early endosome.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/fcP9Vbn1sm0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Biochemical characterization and essentiality of Plasmodium fumarate hydratase [Metabolism]

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of malaria, has an iron–sulfur cluster–containing class I fumarate hydratase (FH) that catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate to malate, a well-known reaction in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In humans, the same reaction is catalyzed by class II FH that has no sequence or structural homology with the class I enzyme from Plasmodium. Fumarate is generated in large quantities in the parasite as a by-product of AMP synthesis and is converted to malate by FH and then used in the generation of the key metabolites oxaloacetate, aspartate, and pyruvate. Previous studies have identified the FH reaction as being essential to P. falciparum, but biochemical characterization of PfFH that may provide leads for the development of specific inhibitors is lacking. Here, we report on the kinetic characterization of purified recombinant PfFH, functional complementation of fh deficiency in Escherichia coli, and mitochondrial localization in the parasite. We found that the substrate analog mercaptosuccinic acid is a potent PfFH inhibitor, with a Ki value in the nanomolar range. The fh gene could not be knocked out in Plasmodium berghei when transfectants were introduced into BALB/c mice; however, fh knockout was successful when C57BL/6 mice were used as host, suggesting that the essentiality of the fh gene to the parasite was mouse strain-dependent.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/CSPIUHOPUjU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

A biparatopic agonistic antibody that mimics fibroblast growth factor 21 ligand activity [Metabolism]

Bispecific antibodies have become important formats for therapeutic discovery. They allow for potential synergy by simultaneously engaging two separate targets and enable new functions that are not possible to achieve by using a combination of two monospecific antibodies. Antagonistic antibodies dominate drug discovery today, but only a limited number of agonistic antibodies (i.e. those that activate receptor signaling) have been described. For receptors formed by two components, engaging both of these components simultaneously may be required for agonistic signaling. As such, bispecific antibodies may be particularly useful in activating multicomponent receptor complexes. Here, we describe a biparatopic (i.e. targeting two different epitopes on the same target) format that can activate the endocrine fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 receptor (FGFR) complex containing β-Klotho and FGFR1c. This format was constructed by grafting two different antigen-specific VH domains onto the VH and VL positions of an IgG, yielding a tetravalent binder with two potential geometries, a close and a distant, between the two paratopes. Our results revealed that the biparatopic molecule provides activities that are not observed with each paratope alone. Our approach could help address the challenges with heterogeneity inherent in other bispecific formats and could provide the means to adjust intramolecular distances of the antibody domains to drive optimal activity in a bispecific format. In conclusion, this format is versatile, is easy to construct and produce, and opens a new avenue for agonistic antibody discovery and development.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/gYHkmjYR1uQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Islet proteomics reveals genetic variation in dopamine production resulting in altered insulin secretion [Metabolism]

The mouse is a critical model in diabetes research, but most research in mice has been limited to a small number of mouse strains and limited genetic variation. Using the eight founder strains and both sexes of the Collaborative Cross (C57BL/6J (B6), A/J, 129S1/SvImJ (129), NOD/ShiLtJ (NOD), NZO/HILtJ (NZO), PWK/PhJ (PWK), WSB/EiJ (WSB), and CAST/EiJ (CAST)), we investigated the genetic dependence of diabetes-related metabolic phenotypes and insulin secretion. We found that strain background is associated with an extraordinary range in body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and insulin secretion. Our whole-islet proteomic analysis of the eight mouse strains demonstrates that genetic background exerts a strong influence on the islet proteome that can be linked to the differences in diabetes-related metabolic phenotypes and insulin secretion. We computed protein modules consisting of highly correlated proteins that enrich for biological pathways and provide a searchable database of the islet protein expression profiles. To validate the data resource, we identified tyrosine hydroxylase (Th), a key enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as a protein that is highly expressed in β-cells of PWK and CAST islets. We show that CAST islets synthesize elevated levels of dopamine, which suppresses insulin secretion. Prior studies, using only the B6 strain, concluded that adult mouse islets do not synthesize l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA), the product of Th and precursor of dopamine. Thus, the choice of the CAST strain, guided by our islet proteomic survey, was crucial for these discoveries. In summary, we provide a valuable data resource to the research community, and show that proteomic analysis identified a strain-specific pathway by which dopamine synthesized in β-cells inhibits insulin secretion.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/La89kFbjDuY" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

The pseudophosphatase phogrin enables glucose-stimulated insulin signaling in pancreatic {beta} cells [Cell Biology]

Autocrine insulin signaling is critical for pancreatic β-cell growth and activity and is at least partially controlled by protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) that act on insulin receptors (IRs). The receptor-type PTP phogrin primarily localizes on insulin secretory granules in pancreatic β cells. We recently reported that phogrin knockdown decreases the protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), whereas high-glucose stimulation promotes formation of a phogrin–IR complex that stabilizes IRS2. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which phogrin affects IRS2 levels are unclear. Here, we found that relative to wildtype mice, IRS2 levels in phogrin-knockout mice islets decreased by 44%. When phogrin was silenced by shRNA in pancreatic β-cell lines, glucose-induced insulin signaling led to proteasomal degradation of IRS2 via a negative feedback mechanism. Phogrin overexpression in a murine hepatocyte cell line consistently prevented chronic insulin treatment–induced IRS2 degradation. In vitro, phogrin directly bound the IR without the assistance of other proteins and protected recombinant PTP1B from oxidation to potentiate its activity toward the IR. Furthermore, phogrin expression suppressed insulin-induced local generation of hydrogen peroxide and subsequent PTP1B oxidation, which allowed progression of IR dephosphorylation. Together, these results suggest that a transient interaction of phogrin with the IR enables glucose-stimulated autocrine insulin signaling through the regulation of PTP1B activity, which is essential for suppressing feedback-mediated IRS2 degradation in pancreatic β cells.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/ICPzTRuke7k" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

The transmembrane protein TMEPAI induces myeloma cell apoptosis by promoting degradation of the c-Maf transcription factor [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]

TMEPAI (transmembrane prostate androgen–induced protein, also called prostate transmembrane protein, androgen-induced 1 (PMEPA1)) is a type I transmembrane (TM) protein, but its cellular function is largely unknown. Here, studying factors influencing the stability of c-Maf, a critical transcription factor in multiple myeloma (MM), we found that TMEPAI induced c-Maf degradation. We observed that TMEPAI recruited NEDD4 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4), a WW domain–containing ubiquitin ligase, to c-Maf, leading to its degradation through the proteasomal pathway. Further investigation revealed that TMEPAI interacts with NEDD4 via its conserved PY motifs. Alanine substitution or deletion of these motifs abrogated the TMEPAI complex formation with NEDD4, resulting in failed c-Maf degradation. Functionally, TMEPAI suppressed the transcriptional activity of c-Maf. Of note, increased TMEPAI expression was positively associated with the overall survival of MM patients. Moreover, TMEPAI was down-regulated in MM cells, and re-expression of TMEPAI induced MM cell apoptosis. In conclusion, this study highlights that TMEPAI decreases c-Maf stability by recruiting the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 to c-Maf for proteasomal degradation. Our findings suggest that the restoration of functional TMEPA1 expression may represent a promising complementary therapeutic strategy for treating patients with MM.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/GZg-DiCLFdQ" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Signaling between pancreatic {beta} cells and macrophages via S100 calcium-binding protein A8 exacerbates {beta}-cell apoptosis and islet inflammation [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Chronic low-grade inflammation in the pancreatic islets is observed in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and macrophage levels are elevated in the islets of these individuals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between the pancreatic β cells and macrophages and their involvement in inflammation are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the role of S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), a member of the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), in β-cell inflammation. Co-cultivation of pancreatic islets with unstimulated peritoneal macrophages in the presence of palmitate (to induce lipotoxicity) and high glucose (to induce glucotoxicity) synergistically increased the expression and release of islet-produced S100A8 in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-independent manner. Consistently, a significant increase in the expression of the S100a8 gene was observed in the islets of diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, the islet-derived S100A8 induced TLR4-mediated inflammatory cytokine production by migrating macrophages. When human islet cells were co-cultured with U937 human monocyte cells, the palmitate treatment up-regulated S100A8 expression. This S100A8-mediated interaction between islets and macrophages evoked β-cell apoptosis, which was ameliorated by TLR4 inhibition in the macrophages or S100A8 neutralization in the pancreatic islets. Of note, both glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity triggered S100A8 secretion from the pancreatic islets, which in turn promoted macrophage infiltration of the islets. Taken together, a positive feedback loop between islet-derived S100A8 and macrophages drives β-cell apoptosis and pancreatic islet inflammation. We conclude that developing therapeutic approaches to inhibit S100A8 may serve to prevent β-cell loss in patients with diabetes.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/V-Zk6LSieGM" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

MinC and FtsZ mutant analysis provides insight into MinC/MinD-mediated Z ring disassembly [Cell Biology]

The Min system negatively regulates the position of the Z ring, which serves as a scaffold for the divisome that mediates bacterial cytokinesis. In Escherichia coli, this system consists of MinC, which antagonizes assembly of the tubulin homologue FtsZ. MinC is recruited to the membrane by MinD and induced by MinE to oscillate between the cell poles. MinC is a dimer with each monomer consisting of functionally distinct MinCN and MinCC domains, both of which contact FtsZ. According to one model, MinCC/MinD binding to the FtsZ tail positions MinCN at the junction of two GDP-containing subunits in the filament, leading to filament breakage. Others posit that MinC sequesters FtsZ–GDP monomers or that MinCN caps the minus end of FtsZ polymers and that MinCC interferes with lateral interactions between FtsZ filaments. Here, we isolated minC mutations that impair MinCN function and analyzed FtsZ mutants resistant to MinC/MinD. Surprisingly, we found mutations in both minC and ftsZ that differentiate inhibition by MinC from inhibition by MinC/MinD. Analysis of these mutations suggests that inhibition of the Z ring by MinC alone is due to sequestration, whereas inhibition by MinC/MinD is not. In conclusion, our genetic and biochemical data support the model that MinC/MinD fragments FtsZ filaments<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/GG1PRKBmqY4" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) protects cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through repression of GADD34 [Cell Biology]

Disruption in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, termed ER stress, occurs in many diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and cancer. Cells respond to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), which triggers a broad transcriptional program to restore and enhance ER function. Here, we found that ER stress up-regulates the mRNA encoding the developmentally regulated transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), in a variety cell types. Depletion of HES1 increased cell death in response to ER stress in mouse and human cells, in a manner that depended on the pro-apoptotic gene growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 (also known as Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 15A, or MyD116). Furthermore, HES1 bound to the GADD34 promoter, and its depletion led to an up-regulation of GADD34 expression during ER stress. Our results identify HES1 as a repressor of GADD34 expression, and reveal that HES1 contributes to cell fate determination in response to ER stress.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/uTxgG1BSgiU" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Deletion of the neural tube defect-associated gene Mthfd1l disrupts one-carbon and central energy metabolism in mouse embryos [Developmental Biology]

One-carbon (1C) metabolism is a universal folate-dependent pathway essential for de novo purine and thymidylate synthesis, amino acid interconversion, universal methyl-donor production, and regeneration of redox cofactors. Homozygous deletion of the 1C pathway gene Mthfd1l encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+-dependent) 1-like, which catalyzes mitochondrial formate production from 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, results in 100% penetrant embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), underscoring the central role of mitochondrially derived formate in embryonic development and providing a mechanistic link between folate and NTDs. However, the specific metabolic processes that are perturbed by Mthfd1l deletion are not known. Here, we performed untargeted metabolomics on whole Mthfd1l-null and wildtype mouse embryos in combination with isotope tracer analysis in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines to identify Mthfd1l deletion–induced disruptions in 1C metabolism, glycolysis, and the TCA cycle. We found that maternal formate supplementation largely corrects these disruptions in Mthfd1l-null embryos. Serine tracer experiments revealed that Mthfd1l-null MEFs have altered methionine synthesis, indicating that Mthfd1l deletion impairs the methyl cycle. Supplementation of Mthfd1l-null MEFs with formate, hypoxanthine, or combined hypoxanthine and thymidine restored their growth to wildtype levels. Thymidine addition alone was ineffective, suggesting a purine synthesis defect in Mthfd1l-null MEFs. Tracer experiments also revealed lower proportions of labeled hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate in Mthfd1l-null than in wildtype MEFs, suggesting that Mthfd1l deletion results in increased reliance on the purine salvage pathway. These results indicate that disruptions of mitochondrial 1C metabolism have wide-ranging consequences for many metabolic processes, including those that may not directly interact with 1C metabolism.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/gsD7nMuYT-c" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Mice lacking ARV1 have reduced signs of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [Metabolism]

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a term used to characterize individuals having at least three of the following diseases: obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is widespread, and the number of individuals with MetS is increasing. However, the events leading to the manifestation of MetS are not well-understood. Here, we show that loss of murine ARV1 (mARV1) results in resistance to acquiring diseases associated with MetS. Arv1−/− animals fed a high-fat diet were resistant to diet-induced obesity, had lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and retained glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Livers showed no gross morphological changes, contained lower levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and fatty acids, and showed fewer signs of NAFLD. Knockout animals had elevated levels of liver farnesol X receptor (FXR) protein and its target, small heterodimer protein (SHP). They also had decreased levels of CYP7α1, CYP8β1, and mature SREBP1 protein, evidence suggesting that liver FXR signaling was activated. Strengthening this hypothesis was the fact that peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor α (PPARα) protein was elevated, along with its target, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Arv1−/− animals excreted more fecal cholesterol, free fatty acids, and bile acids. Their small intestines had 1) changes in bile acid composition, 2) an increase in the level of the intestinal FXR antagonist, tauromuricholic acid, and 3) showed signs of attenuated FXR signaling. Overall, we believe that ARV1 function is deleterious when consuming a high-fat diet. We further hypothesize that ARV1 is critical for initiating events required for the progression of diseases associated with MetS and NAFLD.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/4rOvdEj5Ie0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Induction of autophagy by PI3K/MTOR and PI3K/MTOR/BRD4 inhibitors suppresses HIV-1 replication [Microbiology]

In this study, we investigated the effects of the dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mechanistic target of rapamycin (PI3K/MTOR) inhibitor dactolisib (NVP-BEZ235), the PI3K/MTOR/bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor SF2523, and the bromodomain and extra terminal domain inhibitor JQ1 on the productive infection of primary macrophages with human immunodeficiency type-1 (HIV). These inhibitors did not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, dactolisib, JQ1, and SF2523 all decreased HIV replication in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner via degradation of intracellular HIV through autophagy. Macrophages treated with dactolisib, JQ1, or SF2523 displayed an increase in LC3B lipidation combined with SQSTM1 degradation without inducing increased cell death. LC3B-II levels were further increased in the presence of pepstatin A suggesting that these inhibitors induce autophagic flux. RNA interference for ATG5 and ATG7 and pharmacological inhibitors of autophagosome–lysosome fusion and of lysosomal hydrolases all blocked the inhibition of HIV. Thus, we demonstrate that the mechanism of PI3K/MTOR and PI3K/MTOR/BRD4 inhibitor suppression of HIV requires the formation of autophagosomes, as well as their subsequent maturation into autolysosomes. These data provide further evidence in support of a role for autophagy in the control of HIV infection and open new avenues for the use of this class of drugs in HIV therapy.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/fy5dB-SDuVw" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Transcription factor scleraxis vitally contributes to progenitor lineage direction in wound healing of adult tendon in mice [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Tendon is a dense connective tissue that transmits high mechanical forces from skeletal muscle to bone. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is a highly specific marker of both precursor and mature tendon cells (tenocytes). Mice lacking scx exhibit a specific and virtually complete loss of tendons during development. However, the functional contribution of Scx to wound healing in adult tendon has not yet been fully characterized. Here, using ScxGFP-tracking and loss-of-function systems, we show in an adult mouse model of Achilles tendon injury that paratenon cells, representing a stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1)–positive and Scx-negative progenitor subpopulation, display Scx induction, migrate to the wound site, and produce extracellular matrix (ECM) to bridge the defect, whereas resident tenocytes exhibit a delayed response. Scx induction in the progenitors is initiated by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. scx-deficient mice had migration of Sca-1–positive progenitor cell to the lesion site but impaired ECM assembly to bridge the defect. Mechanistically, scx-null progenitors displayed higher chondrogenic potential with up-regulation of SRY-box 9 (Sox9) coactivator PPAR-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in vitro, and knock-in analysis revealed that forced expression of full-length scx significantly inhibited Sox9 expression. Accordingly, scx-null wounds formed cartilage-like tissues that developed ectopic ossification. Our findings indicate a critical role of Scx in a progenitor-cell lineage in wound healing of adult mouse tendon. These progenitor cells could represent targets in strategies to facilitate tendon repair. We propose that this lineage-regulatory mechanism in tissue progenitors could apply to a broader set of tissues or biological systems in the body.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/DneMfMEFtSA" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Stress control for a well-structured life [Microbiology]

Aerobic life brings with it a need to respond to external redox stress in ways that preserve key processes. Suppressor of copper sensitivity (Scs) proteins contribute to this response in some bacteria, but have poorly defined molecular functions. Furlong et al. now demonstrate that two Scs proteins from Proteus mirabilis provide a redox relay functionally equivalent to, but structurally distinct from, the Dsb proteins that orchestrate disulfide bonding in Escherichia coli, emphasizing the wide prevalence of this mechanism in bacteria.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/Uo3d6GJ7N_0" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Structural basis for the regulatory interaction of the methylglyoxal synthase MgsA with the carbon flux regulator Crh in Bacillus subtilis [Metabolism]

Utilization of energy-rich carbon sources such as glucose is fundamental to the evolutionary success of bacteria. Glucose can be catabolized via glycolysis for feeding the intermediary metabolism. The methylglyoxal synthase MgsA produces methylglyoxal from the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Methylglyoxal is toxic, requiring stringent regulation of MgsA activity. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, an interaction with the phosphoprotein Crh controls MgsA activity. In the absence of preferred carbon sources, Crh is present in the nonphosphorylated state and binds to and thereby inhibits MgsA. To better understand the mechanism of regulation of MgsA, here we performed biochemical and structural analyses of B. subtilis MgsA and of its interaction with Crh. Our results indicated that MgsA forms a hexamer (i.e. a trimer of dimers) in the crystal structure, whereas it seems to exist in an equilibrium between a dimer and hexamer in solution. In the hexamer, two alternative dimers could be distinguished, but only one appeared to prevail in solution. Further analysis strongly suggested that the hexamer is the biologically active form. In vitro cross-linking studies revealed that Crh interacts with the N-terminal helices of MgsA and that the Crh–MgsA binding inactivates MgsA by distorting and thereby blocking its active site. In summary, our results indicate that dimeric and hexameric MgsA species exist in an equilibrium in solution, that the hexameric species is the active form, and that binding to Crh deforms and blocks the active site in MgsA.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/XF4eFf0ScL8" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Disulfide isomerase activity of the dynamic, trimeric Proteus mirabilis ScsC protein is primed by the tandem immunoglobulin-fold domain of ScsB [Enzymology]

Correct disulfide bond formation is essential for proper folding of many proteins, including bacterial virulence factors. The suppressor of copper sensitivity (Scs) proteins have roles in dithiol/disulfide interchange and the bacterial response to copper stress. Encoded in a four-gene cassette (ScsABCD) present in many Gram-negative bacteria, the Scs proteins are enigmatic and poorly characterized. Here, we show that the periplasmic α-domain of the membrane protein ScsB in the Gram-negative bacterium Proteus mirabilis forms a redox relay with the soluble periplasmic protein PmScsC. We also found that the periplasmic α-domain is sufficient to activate the disulfide isomerase activity of PmScsC. The crystal structure of PmScsBα at a resolution of 1.54 Å revealed that it comprises two structurally similar immunoglobulin-like folds, one of which includes a putative redox-active site with the sequence CXXXC. We confirmed the importance of these cysteine residues for PmScsBα function, and in addition, we engineered cysteine variants that produced a stable complex between PmScsC and PmScsBα. Using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering analyses with contrast variation, we determined a low-resolution structure of the PmScsC–PmScsBα complex. The structural model of this complex suggested that PmScsBα uses both of its immunoglobulin-like folds to interact with PmScsC and revealed that the highly dynamic PmScsC becomes ordered upon PmScsBα binding. These findings add to our understanding of the poorly characterized Scs proteins.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/4u68ZydnOWk" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

Antagonism between the dynein and Ndc80 complexes at kinetochores controls the stability of kinetochore-microtubule attachments during mitosis [DNA and Chromosomes]

Chromosome alignment and segregation during mitosis require kinetochore–microtubule (kMT) attachments that are mediated by the molecular motor dynein and the kMT-binding complex Ndc80. The Rod–ZW10–Zwilch (RZZ) complex is central to this coordination as it has an important role in dynein recruitment and has recently been reported to have a key function in the regulation of stable kMT attachments in Caenorhabditis elegans besides its role in activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, the mechanism by which these protein complexes control kMT attachments to drive chromosome motility during early mitosis is still unclear. Here, using in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we observed that higher concentrations of Ndc80 inhibited dynein binding to MTs, providing evidence that Ndc80 and dynein antagonize each other's function. High-resolution microscopy and siRNA-mediated functional disruption revealed that severe defects in chromosome alignment induced by depletion of dynein or the dynein adapter Spindly are rescued by codepletion of the RZZ component Rod in human cells. Interestingly, rescue of the chromosome alignment defects was independent of Rod function in SAC activation and was accompanied by a remarkable restoration of stable kMT attachments. Furthermore, the chromosome alignment rescue depended on the plus-end–directed motility of centromere protein E (CENP-E) because cells codepleted of CENP-E, Rod, and dynein could not establish stable kMT attachments or align their chromosomes properly. Our findings support the idea that dynein may control the function of the Ndc80 complex in stabilizing kMT attachments directly by interfering with Ndc80–MT binding or indirectly by controlling the Rod-mediated inhibition of Ndc80.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/6deu6ph4gsc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018

A step-by-step in crystallo guide to bond cleavage and 1,6-anhydro-sugar product synthesis by a peptidoglycan-degrading lytic transglycosylase [Microbiology]

Lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are a class of enzymes important for the recycling and metabolism of peptidoglycan (PG). LTs cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and GlcNAc in the PG glycan strand, resulting in the concomitant formation of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid and GlcNAc. No LTs reported to date have utilized chitins as substrates, despite the fact that chitins are GlcNAc polymers linked via β-1,4-glycosidic bonds, which are the known site of chemical activity for LTs. Here, we demonstrate enzymatically that LtgA, a non-canonical, substrate-permissive LT from Neisseria meningitidis utilizes chitopentaose ((GlcNAc)5) as a substrate to produce three newly identified sugars: 1,6-anhydro-chitobiose, 1,6-anhydro-chitotriose, and 1,6-anhydro-chitotetraose. Although LTs have been widely studied, their complex reactions have not previously been visualized in the crystalline state because macromolecular PG is insoluble. Here, we visualized the cleavage of the glycosidic bond and the liberation of GlcNAc-derived residues by LtgA, followed by the synthesis of atypical 1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivatives. In addition to the newly identified anhydro-chitin products, we identified trapped intermediates, unpredicted substrate rearrangements, sugar distortions, and a conserved crystallographic water molecule bound to the catalytic glutamate of a high-resolution native LT. This study enabled us to propose a revised alternative mechanism for LtgA that could also be applicable to other LTs. Our work contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of LTs in bacterial cell wall biology.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/jbc/SUcv/~4/m75SSigldnc" height="1" width="1" alt=""/>
Datum: 20.04.2018


Category: Current Chemistry Research

Last update: 28.03.2018.

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